Browsing by Author "Enríquez de Salamanca, Álvaro"
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PublicationAtlas de la flora alóctona de Madrid, I. Monilophyta-Gymnospermae(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2020-09-23) Enríquez de Salamanca, Álvaro; Gabriel y Galán Moris, José MaríaEn este artículo se incluye la primera parte del atlas de flora alóctona de la Comunidad de Madrid, que incluye los taxones de helechos y gimnospermas. Únicamente se han considerado taxones que crecen fuera de zonas urbanas, parques y jardines, tanto introducidos como naturalizados. En total se han analizado 49 taxones, 2 de helechos y 47 de gimnospermas (33 Pinaceae y 14 Cupressaceae). De ellos, se han considerado 34 taxones (1 Salviniaceae, 22 Pinaceae, 11 Cupressaceae) incluyendo mapas de distribución, mientras que en otros 15 su presencia es dudosa en la actualidad o están únicamente localizadas en zonas urbanas. Dominan las especies de Pinaceae como resultado de las plantaciones forestales realizadas. Buena parte de las especies consideradas tienen capacidad para naturalizarse (se tiene constancia en 19 de ellas), pero por lo general su capacidad de expansión es limitada, no siendo invasoras; únicamente Azolla filiculoides Lam. tiene un comportamiento invasor, aunque su distribución en Madrid parece estable. PublicationAtlas de la flora alóctona de Madrid, II. Nymphaceae-Gramineae(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2021) Enríquez de Salamanca, Álvaro; Gabriel y Galán, José María; Cabezas Fuentes, Francisco José; Martínez Ronda, MiriamEn esta segunda parte del atlas de flora alóctona de Madrid, se incluyen los órdenes Nymphaeales, Magnoliales, Laurales y las Monocotiledóneas. Se han considerado los taxones introducidos fuera de terrenos urbanos, parques o jardines, naturalizados o no. Se analizan 101 taxones y se incluyen referencias a otros 39. De los taxones analizados 58 son alóctonos en Madrid (49 naturalizados, 8 sin constancia de que lo estén y uno sin localidades concretas conocidas) y 9 en localidades próximas (8 naturalizados y 1 sin constancia de estarlo). Otros 11 son alóctonos en Madrid y podrían naturalizarse, pero no hay constancia de ello; 5 aparecen en jardines y en 6 hay sospechas de su posible presencia por usarse en cultivos o siembras extensivas. En 18 taxones hay discrepancias entre autores sobre si son o no alóctonas; en este trabajo se ha considerado que no lo son. Finalmente se propone excluir 5 taxones de la flora alóctona de Madrid. Entre los taxones incluidos Arundo donax está considerada una de las más agresivas invasoras del mundo. Algunos taxones son antiguas introducciones con poblaciones estabilizadas o en regresión. Hay muy pocas referencias a cereales naturalizados, lo que puede deberse a su baja persistencia. Algunas especies son neocolonizadoras, como Limnobium laevigatum, la más recientemente detectada, o Cortaderia selloana, en expansión. PublicationCarbon versus Timber Economy in Mediterranean Forests(MDPI, 2021-06-09) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroForests produce goods and services, but the forest economy is based on goods, with market price, more than on services. Under Mediterranean climate conditions forests have low timber production, being frequently financially loss-making, despite the environmental services provided, such as carbon sequestration. Timber production and carbon sequestration are compatible, and a proper valuation of both can allow for a more balanced management. The aim of this paper is to assess financially a scenario based on maximizing carbon sequestration versus another based on maximizing timber harvesting in a Mediterranean forest. To do that, timber stock, growth and harvesting, and carbon sequestration have been calculated. Applying market prices for timber and CO2 both scenarios have been assessed, carrying out a sensitivity analysis. Maximising carbon sequestration was more profitable in the vast majority of combinations; timber harvesting was only more profitable if CO2 prices fell below 30% and timber price increases more than 20%; timber price rise is possible, but a collapse in CO2 price is not probable. The real barrier is that while timber is as a commodity with market price, carbon sequestration is not. The challenge for the future is to pay for carbon sequestration, mobilising resources from polluting sectors to forests. PublicationContribution To Climate Change Of Forest Fires In Spain: Emissions And Loss Of Sequestration(Taylor & Francis, 2019-10-06) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroForest fires contribute to climate change mainly due to emission of greenhouse gases by biomass burning and loss of sequestration by sink destruction. The average contribution in Spain between 1998 and 2015 was 9,494,910 Mg CO2 eq per year, 23.8% from biomass burning and 76.2% from loss of carbon sequestration, the latter three times higher than the former, although the emissions from combustion are usually the only accounted. Regarding to the vegetation burned, 43.6% of emissions come from forest (17.7% conifers, 4.8% hardwoods and 21.1% Eucalyptus), 53.7% from scrublands and 2.7% from grasslands. The loss of sequestration is 6.6% in the fire year and by 93.4% in previous years. Scrubland burning produces a greater amount of emissions than forests, but forest regeneration is slower, with greater influence on the loss of sequestration. It is essential a forest management focused on increase fire resilience and adaptation to climate change, increase the effectiveness of extinction works to reduce fire damages and implement actions to recover the burnt vegetation, because the loss of sinks is a critical aspect. PublicationDynamics of mediterranean pine forests reforested after fires(Springer, 2022-06-24) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroForest fires are frequent under a Mediterranean climate and have shaped the landscape of the region but are currently altered by human action and climate change. Fires have historically conditioned the presence of pine forests, depending on severity and forest regeneration. Regeneration of Mediterranean pine forests is not always successful, and a transition to shrublands or stands of resprouting species can occur, even after reforestation. This study analyses vegetation changes in two Mediterranean pine forests after severe fires and both reforested. The pines had difficulty to regenerate, even despite post-fire reforestation. The problem is the difficulty of young seedlings to survive, possibly due to increased summer drought. Problems are greater in pine species at the limit of their ecological tolerance: Pinus pinea had a much better recovery success while P. sylvestris and P. nigra virtually disappeared. Pinus pinaster had intermediate results but recovery was generally poor. A transition has taken place in many burnt areas to scrubland or to thickets of the resprouting Quercus rotundifolia, although it is not possible to know whether they will evolve into forests or remain in a sub climatic state. Resprouting species may increase fire severity but facilitates post-fire colonisation. Post-fire recovery difficulties are closely linked to issues of natural regeneration. Fire could initiate the disappearance of pine forests, but even in the absence of fire they may disappear in the long-term due to the lack of regeneration. Action is needed to increase the resilience of these forests, ensuring natural regeneration, and incorporating resprouting species in the understorey. PublicationEnvironmental assessment: a third division subject at the university(Taylor & Francis:, 2019-03-21) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroHigh-quality environmental assessments (EA) require expert practitioners. These need to be adequately educated, trained and have professional experience. The basic education place currently is the university. Several studies have focused on EA university programmes, but none of them has looked at the lecturers who teach this subject. We have analysed 200 EA lecturers from 104 courses in 46 universities in Spain, concluding that their specialization in EA is low, none has knowledge in more than two-thirds of EA-related topics and only 2.5% of them have published in 1 of the 3 main refereed EA journals in the last 10 years. We suggest that this is connected with the controversial selection criteria of lecturers, and to a fragmentation of EA teaching, divided among the most varied departments. EA must stop being a third division subject at the university and become an independent branch of knowledge, which will result in better education of students and an increase in specific scientific production. PublicationEnvironmental impacts of climate change adaptation of road pavements and mitigation options(Taylor & Francis, 2019) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroRoads contribute to climate change, mainly due to traffic emissions, but they are also affected by changes in the climate. Climate variations modify pavements’ exposure in a positive or negative way, reducing or increasing degradation. When climate impacts are negative, it is necessary to apply adaptation measures, such as changes in design or maintenance frequency, or traffic management. These adaptation measures may have new environmental impacts, especially an increased use of energy and emissions or acoustic impacts, which require mitigation measures. The environmental impacts of climate change adaptation are currently mostly ignored or undervalued. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to this topic, in order to achieve a proper consideration in adaptation decision-making. PublicationEspecies afectadas por el cambio climático: el melojo (Quercus pyrenaica)(Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros Técnicos Forestales, 2019) Sánchez de Dios, Rut; Enríquez de Salamanca, Álvaro PublicationEvolution of coastal erosion in Palmarin (Senegal)(Springer, 2020-04-04) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroCoastal erosion is a major concern in Senegal, which is increasing over time. In the Palmarin peninsula, in the Saloum estuary, previous studies showed shoreline retreat rates of 1.20 m/yr in 1982 and 2.20 m in 1954–2002; our results show an increase to 2.45 m/yr in 2005–2010, 2.60 m/yr in 2010–2014 and 3.05 m/yr in 2014–2018. The main cause seems to be sea level rise, as there are not significant human factors. Short-term estimates show probable damages in two villages (Ngallou and Djiffer), where buildings are already being destroyed, tourist camps near the beaches and on the road that crosses the peninsula. There is also a significant risk that coastal erosion would connect the sea and the intertidal mud flat areas of the Saloum estuary, fragmenting the peninsula in several islands, changing the evolution of erosive processes and producing a decline of the mangroves, and with them of fishing. It is urgent to develop an adaptation plan for this area, to address the possible consequences of coastal erosion on the assets and activities of the population. PublicationHuman influence on the flora of the Spanish Central Range(Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-04) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroMediterranean ecosystems have a high diversity of plants, especially in mountain areas; this diversity is especially high in the eastern sector of the Spanish Central Range, where Mediterranean and Eurosiberian species contact. Parts of these plants have been favoured by human activities throughout the last millennia, in an intentional or unintentional way. We have studied the composition of the flora of a valley in the Spanish Central Range to determine the human influence. Although it is a mountainous area, where the presence of synanthropic species should be lower than in territories with a strong human impact, we have identified a minimum of 20.7% of the plants favoured by human action, including alien (6.2%) and strict ruderals (14.5%), which may increase to 39.2% including plants growing both in ruderal and non-ruderal habitats. The entrance of ruderal and alien plants continues currently, especially through roadsides, and probably increases in the future, due to growing tourism and to climate change, which may influence the patterns of colonization and invasion of ruderal and alien plants, and the response of the native flora. PublicationLa expansión de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle en la Comunidad de Madrid(Flora Montibérica, 2020-03-13) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroEl ailanto (Ailanthus altissima) es una especie naturalizada en gran parte del mundo. En España está profusamente citada solo en Cataluña, pese a estar ampliamente distribuida por toda ella. Hasta 1980 las citas en la provincia de Madrid se limitaban a la capital; en 1999 aparecía en el 40 % de sus cuadrículas UTM de 10 km de lado madrileñas; y en 2019 en el 77 %. Actualmente aparece en todo el territorio madrileño salvo las zonas por encima de 1300 m, siendo rara en la Sierra Norte y el suroeste. Su expansión ha sido principalmente radial desde la capital, siguiendo sobre todo carreteras, con focos secundarios asociados a plantaciones. Se ha utilizado poco en jardinería, lo que pone de manifiesto su capacidad invasora. En la actualidad está en fase invasiva, con infestaciones locales. Invade sobre todo zonas ruderales, pero cada vez es más frecuente en riberas, e incluso melojares. Es preciso erradicar la especie en zonas donde su invasión es aún incipiente. PublicationPotential of land use activities to offset road traffic greenhouse gas emissions in Central Spain(Elsevier, 2017-03-02) Enríquez de Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz Sierra, RubénThe transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases, adding in Spain near a quarter of the total national emissions, the majority in road transport. Therefore, road contribution to climate change should be mitigated to achieve the proposed goals in the fight against climate change. Policies and strategies suggest several preventive mitigation options, but have paid little attention to compensatory mitigation. We have conducted a theoretical case study in a Spanish province, Segovia, estimating the carbon dioxide emissions in the road network between 2015 and 2050, and analysing different compensation possibilities through conservation agriculture, agroforestry, afforestation and hedgerow plantation. We have calculated carbon sequestration in the reference period and costs per tonne for each option, estimating the budget range of offsetting road carbon emission, and funding possibilities, especially through fuel taxes. The paper demonstrates that offsetting carbon emissions produced by roads in this area is technically possible and highly desirable, unifying carbon sequestration, biodiversity improvement and rural development. The main challenge is funding, which depends largely on the political will and the awareness of the citizens. PublicationProject justification and EIA: Anything goes?(Elsevier, 2020-12-16) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroEnvironmental Impact Assessment (EIA) incorporates environmental aspects into decision-making, but sometimes it is not effective in rejecting projects with dubious justification, significant impacts and little social utility, especially when they have political support. EIA is expected to achieve sustainable development, but without calling development into question; however, it should be able to ask the question of whether development is really necessary. Although EIA is political, as a part of the decision-making process, politicization must be limited to prevent it from becoming a mere instrument for giving an “environmental veneer” to development. Some measures thar can help avoid unjustified projects are: adopting administrative justice approach to EIA; minimising politicization of EIA agencies; improving transparency in decision-making and proportionality of EIA procedures; carrying out pre-feasibility studies; increasing the scope of SEA; allowing more than one SEA or EIA procedure for the same development throughout the planning process; strengthening the justification of the project in EIA documents; or making the scoping phase mandatory at least for major projects. PublicationSimplified environmental impact assessment processes: review and implementation proposals(Elsevier, 2021-07-14) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroThere is a widespread tendency to streamline EIA, a confusing concept, which in practice usually means shortening processes to speed up project licensing, facilitating investment. It is reasonable for developers seek processes quick, simple and inexpensive, but it is also the obligation of governments to ensure that approved projects are environmentally suitable. Not all projects subject to EIA have the same impacts, so the existence of two processes, simplified and ordinary, seems reasonable. The aim of this paper is to analyse the implementation of simplified EIA processes, discussing its benefits and drawbacks. To do this, we have analysed 55 EIA processes from 25 jurisdictions, discussing its benefits and drawbacks and selecting effective and well-established formulas for simplified EIA. In most of the analysed cases, simplified EIA is achieved by reducing public participation, one of the pillars of EIA. It seems to be a chain reaction: ordinary EIA processes have been “streamlined” by removing formal scoping, giving rise in practice to simplified processes. As a result, simplified processes have been ultra-simplified, eliminating public participation, turning them, at best, into screening stages. Simplification must ensure a proper EIA, and not merely a shortening of deadlines. PublicationThe impact of quad tourism: a preventive action for the Mediterranean(Springer, 2021-10-13) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroThe Mediterranean region attracts annually more than 400 million tourists. In recent decades, quad tourism has grown, favoured by poor regulations. Environmental impacts of ofroad vehicles have been widely studied in the USA, but not in the Mediterranean. This paper addresses that gap through a literature review on the impacts of motorized recreation, and an analysis of the current implementation of quad tourism in the region and of advertising topics. Main impacts were reported on soils, vegetation and wildlife. We have registered 337 quad agencies in 20 Mediterranean countries, with important concentrations in some regions. Half agencies promote their tours with images driving out of the trails, 22% crossing rivers, 9% driving on the beach, 7% on dunes and 23% sell the activity as an extreme adventure. It is necessary a stronger authorization framework, including the environmental impact assessment of these activities, more involvement of tour operators in environmental protection and greater education of the participants about the impacts of ofroad driving and the importance of their behaviour. Further research in the region is also convenient. PublicationTowards an Integrated Environmental Compensation Scheme in Spain: Linking Biodiversity and Carbon Offsets(World Scientific Publishing, 2017-04-17) Enríquez de Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz Sierra, RubénBiodiversity offsets and carbon markets are both environmental compensation schemes, which have much in common despite their different origins and development. They need active markets to succeed with actual offer and demand, which are currently practically non-existent in Spain. The inclusion of land use and forestry activities in greenhouse gas accounting could encourage carbon sinks, stimulating the development of carbon markets. Conservation banking was incorporated into Spanish legislation in the 2013 Environmental Assessment Act, as a tool for biodiversity offsets, but the current situation is hindering its development. Combining carbon and biodiversity offsets in a global compensation scheme would provide great opportunities: ecologically, creating and protecting habitats and species; socially, creating employment and deriving financial resources to rural areas; climatically, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration levels; and politically, contributing to the compliance of GHG emission targets. Conservation banking is an appropriate candidate for this integration in Spain, as long as it is regulated flexibly, and different bank models are allowed that are able to integrate forest and agriculture production, conservation and compensation. PublicationValuation of ecosystem services: source of financing Mediterranean loss‑making forests(Springer, 2022-06-28) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroForests provide market and non-market priced ecosystem services (ES). Mediterranean forests, with low timber productivity, have frequently negative economic balances, despite their signifcant ES production. Forest planning tools accurately account for the investments required to maintain forests, but not for benefts, because they only include market ES but not non-market ones. The aim of this study is to analyse the economic balance for fve Spanish forests, incorporating actual operating and maintenance costs, and benefts from both market ES (which are currently being accounted for) and non-market ES (currently not considered). Non-market priced ES included are carbon sequestration, erosion control, watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, landscape protection and recreation. At present, all forests studied are loss-making, with losses of 60–370 €/ha·yr. The valuation and inclusion into the economic balances of all ES would result in a positive balance of 130–938 €/ ha·year, which would imply an opportunity cost of using the land in forestry of 3%, higher in public forests than in private ones due to the recreational use of the former. Market-priced ES only represent around 1% of the total, due to the lack of timber production. Valuation of ES is a useful tool to highlight the benefts of forest ecosystems, and the need to maintain them. A major challenge is to convert this economic valuation into actual income. PublicationVegetation change in road slopes in the Mediterranean region over 25 years(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2022) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroRevegetation effectiveness requires long-term monitoring. We analysed 50 road slopes 5–8 years and 22–25 years after revegetation. Plant cover and diversity increased over time, with differences between slope types; herbaceous cover increased greatly between revegetation works and 2002 and was similar in 2002 and 2019, while woody cover decreased from revegetation to 2002 but increased greatly between 2002 and 2019. Plant colonisation was more intense on embankments, but could also be achieved on roadcuts (2.4 points on average over a maximum of 5). The presence of sown species decreased over time, but the presence of planted species remained stable. Hydroseeding had poor results in terms of the resulting plant cover, but nevertheless succeeded in slowing erosion at least sufficiently to allow early plant establishment and thus the start of colonisation. The similarity between surrounding vegetation and the slopes was greater in roadcuts. Roads are a gateway for invasive plants. Native species can improve the results, but many are missing from the market. Slopes’ plant cover changed over time; long-term studies are required. PublicationVictims crossing overflowing watercourses with vehicles in Spain(Wiley, 2020-07-06) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroHeavy rainfall causes many watercourses to overflow. In these circumstances, crossing by car even on a road, can be extremely dangerous; however, dozens of drivers are swept away every year in their vehicles. This paper analyses this type of accident in Spain between 2008 and 2018, recording the date, location, number of victims, age and gender, and rainfall during the event. The results show that 125 accidents occurred with 200 victims including 45 fatalities. Most accidents occurred in E, S and SE Spain, where the rainfall irregularity is greater, during December, October and March, although fatalities were concentrated in September and October. Among the victims male drivers dominated, with an average age of 52 years. The main cause of these accidents was the drivers' behaviour due to: underestimating risk, overconfidence, overvaluation of their driving skills, an excess of trust in the authorities, ignorance about vehicle drag and buoyancy risks, and, social pressure. To reduce these risks, it is necessary to increase adaptation and protection measures on roads, but above all, a change in drivers' behaviour to stop them trying to cross‐flooded rivers. PublicationVulnerability reduction and adaptation to climate change through watershed management in St. Vincent and the Grenadines(Springer Verlag, 2019-08) Enríquez de Salamanca, ÁlvaroSt. Vincent and the Grenadines is an archipelagic state of the Caribbean that regularly suffers natural disasters; climate change is increasing the frequency of intense hurricanes and storms. The southernmost watersheds of St. Vincent have a rugged topography that favours flash-flooding in rainy events, with great damage because the area concentrates most of the country’s population and infrastructure. To deal with this problem the Government has developed studies, engineering works and a watershed management plan. Land use management is an effective way of controlling hydrological impacts; the plan divides the watersheds in three uses, nature conservation (46%), agriculture and agroforestry (24%), and urban (30%), with categories, establishing permitted, prohibited and restricted activities. The area is close to the limit of urban development; if further expansion were essential it should be done by increasing density in lower and flatter areas. Many houses, usually lowincome settlements, are in flooding or landslide risk areas, which should be decolonized, changing land use. It is also necessary to avoid hillside arable crops. Adaptation to climate change through land use management is essential, although unfortunately less socially and politically appreciated than engineering works.