Person:
Rayón Valpuesta, Esperanza

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First Name
Esperanza
Last Name
Rayón Valpuesta
Affiliation
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología
Department
Enfermería
Area
Enfermería
Identifiers
UCM identifierORCIDScopus Author IDWeb of Science ResearcherIDDialnet ID

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Publication

Promoting Health in a Rural Community in the Basque Country by Leveraging Health Assets Identified through a Community Health Diagnosis

2022-01-06, Alberdi Erice, María José, Rayón Valpuesta, Esperanza, Martinez, Homero

Salutogenesis focuses on factors that generate health and is a useful construct for identifying factors that promote health and for guiding activities to this end. This article describes health assets identified in a community diagnosis and how to leverage them with actions for improvement to deepen the understanding of this concept and its impact on health promotion. An intervention strategy was designed following the principles of participatory action research (PAR). The study was carried out in Mañaria (Basque Country, Spain) using semi-structured and in-depth interviews, participant observation, desk review, and photographs, alongside different participatory strategies. Twenty-six women were interviewed, 21 of whom were community inhabitants, and five were key informants who worked in public or private institutions. Participant recruitment stopped when data saturation was reached. Data were analysed through discourse analysis, progressive coding, and categorisation. Six meta-categories emerged, and for each of these categories, health assets were identified together with actions to improve the community’s health. The latter were presented by the community to the authorities to trigger specific actions towards improving the health of the community. Identification of health assets led to different actions to improve the health of the community including improving the existing physical and social environments, personal and group skills, and the promotion of physical, social, emotional and cultural well-being.

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A Participatory Community Diagnosis of a Rural Community from the Perspective of Its Women, Leading to Proposals for Action

2021-09-14, Alberdi-Erice, Maria Jose, Martinez, Homero, Rayón Valpuesta, Esperanza

In primary health care, a community diagnosis is necessary to provide a detailed description of the community as well as an evaluation of the community’s health, including the main factors responsible for it and the needs felt by the population. This article presents a community health diagnosis following a participatory design, taking the perspective of women living in the community, to identify proposals for action. An ethnographic study was carried out in the community of Mañaria (Spain), using semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews, key informants, participant observation, desk review, and photography. A sample of 21 women were interviewed until reaching saturation of the information. This information was complemented by that provided by five key informants. Data analysis included text analysis, coding, and categorization. Preliminary results were presented to the informants for validation and further refinement, and proposals for action were identified and followed up. Six categories were identified, representing different areas of intervention: population, jobs and economy, public and private spaces, lifestyles, processes of socialization, and health care assets. For each of these areas, the main problems were identified, as were the health care assets and proposals for action. The community diagnosis has been shown to be useful not only to identify health needs but also as an efficacious instrument to trigger social and public health actions that may be undertaken at the institutional level.

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Recursos audiovisuales interactivos en la docencia de la Bioética. Parte IV

2020-07-01, Velasco Sanz, Tamara Raquel, Herreros Ruíz-Valdepeñas, Benjamín, Sánchez González, Miguel Ángel, Rayón Valpuesta, Esperanza, Pinto Pastor, María del Pilar, Morente Parra, María Isabel, Moreno Milán, Beatriz, De Vega González, Gerardo, Hernández Mansilla, José Miguel, Pascual Segovia, María Jesús, Pacios Blanco, Rubén Eduardo, Córcoles Hernández, Cristina

Los grandes avances producidos en el ámbito sanitario, especialmente los relacionados con el reconocimiento por parte de la sociedad del derecho de los pacientes a participar en la toma de decisiones, ha generado el cambio en la tradicional relación paternalista provocando situaciones que requiere por parte de los profesionales sanitarios disponer de las herramientas necesarias que les faciliten tomar decisiones teniendo en cuenta todos los valores de las personas implicadas. A partir del modelo de relación clínica que se emplee, el paciente podrá ejercer o no su derecho de autonomía, y participar en la toma de decisiones de forma adecuada. Por ello, es importe la identificación de los distintos modelos de relación clínica que se puedan implementar en la práctica asistencial (paternalista, informativa, interpretativa, deliberativa), y las consecuencias derivadas, especialmente ante situaciones que puedan generar un conflicto ético (manejo de la información, consentimiento informado, confidencialidad, conspiración del silencio, toma de decisiones compartidas...) Será fundamental por tanto, que los estudiantes sepan identificar los distintos modelos de relación clínica, así como las consecuencias derivadas en la práctica asistencial. Como ya se comprobó a través de los proyectos elaborados e implementados en la docencia de la Bioética en 2015, 2017 y 2018, el uso de medios audiovisuales, principalmente cortometrajes, han demostrado ser un material de enorme utilidad educativa en ciencias de la salud. En el ámbito específico de la Bioética, se ha comprobado especialmente su efectividad para poder fomentar debates y para poner al estudiante ante situaciones que después tendrá que enfrentarse durante la práctica clínica. Esto le permite interiorizar conceptos, ser crítico antes determinadas actitudes y hacer un entrenamiento de la toma de decisiones ante conflictos éticos. Por tanto, el objetivo de este proyecto como continuación de los anteriormente citados es desarrollar un material interactivo que ayude a los estudiantes, en este caso, a la identificación de los distintos modelos de relación clínica que pueden emplearse ante una decisión clínica determinada, permitiendo al estudiante explorar las vivencias que posteriormente se enfrentará durante la asistencia.