Person: Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
PublicationInvasive Species as Hosts of Zoonotic Infections: The Case of American Mink (Neovison vison) and Leishmania infantum(MPDI, 2021-07-18) Azami Conesa, Iris; Sansano Maestre, José; Martínez Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Gómez Muñoz, María TeresaLeishmania infantum produces an endemic disease in the Mediterranean Basin that affects humans and domestic and wild mammals, which can act as reservoir or minor host. In this study, we analyzed the presence of the parasite in wild American minks, an invasive species in Spain. We screened for L. infantum DNA by PCR using five primer pairs: Two targeting kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), and the rest targeting the ITS1 region, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU) and a repetitive sequence (Repeat region). The detection limit was determined for each method using a strain of L. infantum and a bone marrow sample from an infected dog. PCR approaches employing the Repeat region and kDNA (RV1/RV2 primers) showed higher sensitivity than the other PCR methods when control samples were employed. However, only PCR of the Repeat region and nested PCR of SSU (LnSSU) detected the parasite in the samples, while the other three were unable to do so. The majority of the analyzed animals (90.1%) tested positive. American mink may act as an incidental host of the disease for other mammals and should be further investigated, not only for their negative impact on the local fauna, but also as carriers of zoonotic diseases. PublicationCaptive Breeding and Trichomonas gallinae Alter the Oral Microbiome of Bonelli’s Eagle Chicks(Springer, 2022-04-07) Alba Rubio, Claudio; Sansano Maestre, José; Cid Vázquez, María Dolores; Martínez Herrero, María del Carmen; Garijo Toledo, María Magdalena; Azami Conesa, Iris; Moraleda Fernández, Virginia; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Rodríguez Gómez, Juan MiguelBonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata) is an endangered raptor species in Europe, and trichomonosis is one of the menaces affecting chicks at nest. In this paper, we attempt to describe the oral microbiome of Bonelli’s eagle nestlings and evaluate the influence of several factors, such as captivity breeding, Trichomonas gallinae infection, and the presence of lesions at the oropharynx. The core oral microbiome of Bonelli’s eagle is composed of Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria as the most abundant phyla, and Megamonas and Bacteroides as the most abundant genera. None of the factors analysed showed a significant influence on alfa diversity, but beta diversity was affected for some of them. Captivity breeding exerted a high influence on the composition of the oral microbiome, with significant differences in the four most abundant phyla, with a relative increase of Proteobacteria and a decrease of the other three phyla in comparison with chicks bred at nest. Some genera were more abundant in captivity bred chicks, such as Escherichia-Shigella, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Clostridium and Staphylococcus, while Bacteroides, Oceanivirga, Peptostreptococcus, Gemella, Veillonella, Mycoplasma, Suttonella, Alloscardovia, Varibaculum and Campylobacter were more abundant in nest raised chicks. T. gallinae infection slightly influenced the composition of the microbiome, but chicks displaying trichomonosis lesions had a higher relative abundance of Bacteroides and Gemella, being the last one an opportunistic pathogen of abscess complications in humans. Raptor’s microbiomes are scarcely studied. This is the first study on the factors that influence the oral microbiome of Bonelli’s eagle. PublicationAnti-Trichomonas gallinae activity of essential oils and main compounds from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae plants(Frontiers Media, 2022-09-09) Bailén, María; Díaz Castellanos, Irene; Azami Conesa, Iris; Alonso Fernández, Sara; Martínez Díaz, Rafael A.; Navarro Rocha, Juliana; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; González Coloma, AzucenaTrichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoan that parasitizes the upper digestive tract of various bird species and causes avian trichomonosis. The emergence of resistant strains to the standard treatment, based on nitroimidazoles, increases the need to find alternative therapies. In this study, 36 essential oils (EOs) from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae plant families were tested against T. gallinae trophozoites using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-)-2,5-dipheniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Among them, EOs from distinct species of Lamiaceae, including the genera Lavandula, Salvia, Thymus, Origanum, and Satureja were the ones reporting better anti-trichomonal activity, and were selected for further analysis, including chemical composition and in vitro assays. The chemical composition of the selected EOs was determined by gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry and 19 pure compounds were tested against the protozoa, according to their higher abundance in the active EOs. Pure compounds which displayed the highest activity against T. gallinae trophozoites, ordered by highest to lowest activity, were α and β-thujones, camphene, β-pinene, linalyl acetate, thymol, 4-terpineol, γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, D-fenchone and β-caryophyllene. A dose dependent effect was observed in most of the EOs and pure compounds tested. The toxicity test conducted in eukaryotic cell cultures with the anti-trichomonal active pure compounds showed that β-caryophyllene, camphene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were slightly toxic for Vero cells, and the selectivity index was calculated. Based on the anti-trichomonal activity and the absence of cytotoxicity results, natural products from Lamiaceae plants could be useful as alternative therapy against avian trichomonosis, mainly those containing linalyl acetate, thymol, 4-terpinenol, γ-terpinene, p-cymene and D-fenchone. Publication¿Qué parásito soy?: aprendizaje lúdico de la Parasitología mediante el empleo de pistas e imágenes(2020-06-30) Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Azami Conesa, Iris; Hernández Carrillo, Javier; Juan Ferré, Lucía de; Luzón Peña, Mónica; Martínez Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Olmeda García, Ángeles SoniaLa Parasitología emplea muchos conceptos, nombres, taxonomía e imágenes que complican el aprendizaje. Desarrollaremos una actividad basada en el juego para relacionar conceptos e imágenes, al tiempo que los alumnos evalúan su evolución de aprendizaje. La actividad se desarrollará en una página web. PublicationAvian Oropharyngeal Trichomonosis: Treatment, Failures and Alternatives, a Systematic Review(MPDI, 2022-11-19) Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Gómez Molinero, Miguel Ángel; González, Fernando; Azami Conesa, Iris; Bailén, María; García Piqueras, Marina; Sansano Maestre, JoséOropharyngeal avian trichomonosis is a potentially lethal parasitic disease that affects several avian orders. This review is focused on the disease treatments since prophylactic treatment is prohibited in most countries and resistant strains are circulating. A systematic review following the PRISMA procedure was conducted and included 60 articles. Successful and non-toxic treatments of avian oropharyngeal trichomonosis started with enheptin, a drug replaced by dimetridazole, metronidazole, ornidazole, carnidazole and ronidazole. Administration in drinking water was the most employed and recommended method, although hierarchy of the avian flocks and palatability of the medicated water can interfere with the treatments. Besides pigeons, treatments with nitroimidazoles were reported in budgerigars, canaries, finches, bald eagles, a cinereous vulture and several falcon species, but resistant strains were reported mainly in domestic pigeons and budgerigars. Novel treatments include new delivery systems proved with traditional drugs and some plant extracts and its main components. Ethanolic extracts from ginger, curry leaf tree and Dennettia tripetala, alkaloid extracts of Peganum harmala and essential oils of Pelargonium roseum and some Lamiaceae were highly active. Pure active compounds from the above extracts displayed good anti-trichomonal activity, although most studies lack a cytotoxicity or in vivo test. PublicationParásitos en movimiento: Videoteca docente(2023-07-12) Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Montoya Matute, Ana; Olmeda García, Angeles Sonia; Juan Ferré, Lucía de; Azami Conesa, Iris; Barrera Martín, Juan Pedro; Carbonell Bonelo, Juan David; Hurtado Corral, Izaskum; Valcárcel Sancho, Félix; Meana Mañes, María Aranzazu PublicationAdaptation of the classical end-point ITS-PCR for the diagnosis of avian trichomonosis to a real-time PCR reveals Bonelli’s eagle as a new host for Trichomonas gypaetinii(Springer, 2022-10-11) Alejandro Mateo, Sandra; Azami Conesa, Iris; Martín Maldonado, Bárbara; Pastor Tiburón, Natalia; Martín Hernández, Raquel; González González, Fernando; Gómez Muñoz, María TeresaAvian trichomonosis is a parasitic disease caused mainly by Trichomonas gallinae and other Trichomonas species. It can be asymptomatic, or it can produce a necrotic lesion in the upper digestive tract and spread to other organs, causing the death of the infected birds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate an adapted real-time PCR method for the diagnosis of different genotypes and species of avian oropharyngeal trichomonads. Fifty-six samples from the oropharynx of Bonelli’s eagles (Aquila fasciata) obtained between 2018 and 2019 were analyzed using the real-time PCR and the end-point PCR, both targeting trichomonads ITS, and the results were compared by a coefficient of agreement. All positive samples were sequenced. The analysis showed a higher percentage of detection of real-time PCR ITS compared with end-point PCR ITS (64.3 vs 55.4%), and good agreement value (Kappa = 0.816). Melting temperature value for resulting amplicons of real-time PCR for avian trichomonads was 83.45 ± 0.72 °C. Genotypes A, D, and III were found among the sequences. Moreover, Trichomonas gypaetinii, a common species in scavenger birds, is reported for the first time in Bonelli’s eagles. PublicationA Systematic Review (1990–2021) of Wild Animals Infected with Zoonotic Leishmania(MPDI, 2021-05-20) Azami Conesa, Iris; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Martínez Díaz, Rafael AlbertoLeishmaniasis are neglected diseases caused by several species of Leishmania that affect humans and many domestic and wild animals with a worldwide distribution. The objectives of this review are to identify wild animals naturally infected with zoonotic Leishmania species as well as the organs infected, methods employed for detection and percentage of infection. A literature search starting from 1990 was performed following the PRISMA methodology and 161 reports were included. One hundred and eighty‐nine species from ten orders (i.e., Carnivora, Chiroptera, Cingulata, Didelphimorphia, Diprotodontia, Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla, Pilosa, Primates and Rodentia) were reported to be infected, and a few animals were classified only at the genus level. An exhaustive list of species; diagnostic techniques, including PCR targets; infected organs; number of animals explored and percentage of positives are presented. L. infantum infection was described in 98 wild species and L. (Viania) spp. in 52 wild animals, while L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. major and L. tropica were described in fewer than 32 animals each. During the last decade, intense research revealed new hosts within Chiroptera and Lagomorpha. Carnivores and rodents were the most relevant hosts for L. infantum and L. (Viannia) spp., with some species showing lesions, although in most of the studies clinical signs were not reported.