Person: Pinelli, Alfredo
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
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PublicationReynolds number dependence of mean flow structure in square duct turbulence - CORRIGENDUM(Cambridge University Press, 2010) Pinelli, Alfredo; Uhlmann, Markus; Sekimoto, Atshushi; Kawahara, Genta PublicationMarginally turbulent flow in a square duct(Cambridge University Press, 2007) Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, Alfredo; Kawahara, Genta; Sekimoto, AtshushiA direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a straight square duct was performed in order to determine the minimal requirements for self-sustaining turbulence. It was found that turbulence can be maintained for values of the bulk Reynolds number above approximately 1100, corresponding to a friction-velocity-based Reynolds number of 80. The minimum value for the streamwise period of the computational domain is around 190 wall units, roughly independently of the Reynolds number. We present a characterization of the flow state at marginal Reynolds numbers which substantially differs from the fully turbulent one: the marginal state exhibits a four-vortex secondary flow structure alternating in time whereas the fully turbulent one presents the usual eight-vortex pattern. It is shown that in the regime of marginal Reynolds numbers buffer-layer coherent structures play a crucial role in the appearance of secondary flow of Prandtl's second kind. PublicationReynolds number dependence of mean flow structure in square duct turbulence(Cambridge University Press, 2010) Pinelli, Alfredo; Uhlmann, Markus; Sekimoto, Atshushi; Kawahara, GentaWe have performed direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows in a square duct considering a range of Reynolds numbers spanning from a marginal state up to fully developed turbulent states at low Reynolds numbers. The main motivation stems from the relatively poor knowledge about the basic physical mechanisms that are responsible for one of the most outstanding features of this class of turbulent flows: Prandtl's secondary motion of the second kind. In particular, the focus is upon the role of flow structures in its generation and characterization when increasing the Reynolds number. We present a two-fold scenario. On the one hand, buffer layer structures determine the distribution of mean streamwise vorticity. On the other hand, the shape and the quantitative character of the mean secondary flow, defined through the mean cross-stream function, are influenced by motions taking place at larger scales. It is shown that high velocity streaks are preferentially located in the corner region (e.g. less than 50 wall units apart from a sidewall), flanked by low velocity ones. These locations are determined by the positioning of quasi-streamwise vortices with a preferential sign of rotation in agreement with the above described velocity streaks' positions. This preferential arrangement of the classical buffer layer structures determines the pattern of the mean streamwise vorticity that approaches the corners with increasing Reynolds number. On the other hand, the centre of the mean secondary flow, defined as the position of the extrema of the mean cross-stream function (computed using the mean streamwise vorticity), remains at a constant location departing from the mean streamwise vorticity field for larger Reynolds numbers, i.e. it scales in outer units. This paper also presents a detailed validation of the numerical technique including a comparison of the numerical results with data obtained from a companion experiment. PublicationTurbulent shear flow over active and passive porous surfaces(Cambridge University Press, 2001) Jiménez, J.; Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, Alfredo; Kawahara, GentaThe behaviour of turbulent shear flow over a mass-neutral permeable wall is studied numerically. The transpiration is assumed to be proportional to the local pressure fluctuations. It is first shown that the friction coefficient increases by up to 40% over passively porous walls, even for relatively small porosities. This is associated with the presence of large spanwise rollers, originating from a linear instability which is related both to the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability of shear layers, and to the neutral inviscid shear waves of the mean turbulent profile. It is shown that the rollers can be forced by patterned active transpiration through the wall, also leading to a large increase in friction when the phase velocity of the forcing resonates with the linear eigenfunctions mentioned above. Phase-lock averaging of the forced solutions is used to further clarify the flow mechanism. This study is motivated by the control of separation in boundary layers. PublicationCoherent structures in marginally turbulent square duct flow(Springer, 2008) Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, Alfredo; Sekimoto, Atshushi; Kawahara, Genta; Kaneda, YukioDirect numerical simulation of fully developed turbulent flow in a straight square duct was performed in order to determine the minimal requirements for self-sustaining turbulence. It was found that turbulence can be maintained for values of the bulk Reynolds number above approximately 1100, corresponding to a friction-velocity-based Reynolds number of 80. The minimum value for the streamwise period of the computational domain measures around 190 wall units, roughly independently of the Reynolds number. Furthermore, we present a characterization of the marginal state, where coherent structures are found to have significant relevance to the appearance of secondary flow of Prandtl’s second kind. PublicationThe eﬀect of coherent structures on the secondary ﬂow in a square duct(Springer, 2009) Sekimoto, Atshushi; Pinelli, Alfredo; Uhlmann, Markus; Kawahara, Genta; Eckhardt, BrunoThe appearance of secondary flow of Prandtl’s second kind is a well-known phenomenon in fully developed turbulent rectangular duct flow. The intensity of the secondary flow is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the mean streamwise velocity; however, it plays an important role in the crossstreamwise momentum, heat and mass transfer. Our recent study  revealed that the mean secondary flow is a statistical footprint of the turbulent flow structures, i.e. streamwise vortices and streaks which are observed in the nearwall region, whose cross-sectional positions are constrained by the presence of the side walls at marginal Reynolds number (approximately 1100, based on the bulk velocity and the duct half width, corresponding to a friction Reynolds number of about 80). In this marginal case, one low-speed streak associated with a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices can exist over each wall and they are self-sustained . When considering the higher Reynolds numbers, the increment of duct width in wall unit allows the simultaneous presence of multiple low velocity streaks and pairs of streamwise vortices upon the wall. PublicationTurbulent puffs in a horizontal square duct under stable temperature stratification(Begell House, 2012) Otsuki, T.; Kawahara, Genta; Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, AlfredoDirect numerical simulations of streamwise-localized turbulent flow (turbulent puff) in a horizontal square duct heated from above are performed at Richardson numbers 0 ≤ Ri ≤ 0.58 to characterize differences between isothermal and non-isothermal puffs. It is found that the structure of the non-isothermal puff exhibits significantly different properties from that of the isothermal puff. In particular, differences are observed in wall shear stresses. In the upstream part of the non-isothermal puff, higher shear appears on the horizontal walls than the vertical ones. In the downstream part, meanwhile, higher shear appears on the vertical walls than the horizontal ones. The higher shear on the horizontal walls in the upstream part is interpreted in terms of coherent streamwise vortices induced by buoyancy in the corner regions. The higher shear on the vertical walls in the downstream part is considered to be a consequence of higher wall-normal (horizontal) turbulence intensity on the vertical walls under the weaker constraint of the stable stratification. PublicationTurbulence-and buoyancy-driven secondary flow in a horizontal square duct heated from below(American Institute of Physics, 2011) Sekimoto, Atshushi; Kawahara, Genta; Sekiyama, K.; Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, AlfredoDirect numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent flows in a horizontal square duct heated from below are performed at bulk Reynolds numbers Re(b) = 3000 and 4400 (based on duct width H) and bulk Richardson numbers 0 <= Ri <= 1.03. The primary objective of the numerical simulations concerns the characterization of the mean secondary flow that develops in this class of flows. On one hand, it is known that turbulent isothermal flow in a square duct presents secondary mean motions of Prandtl's second kind that finds its origin in the behavior of turbulence structures. On the other hand, thermal convection drives a mean secondary motion of Prandtl's first kind directly induced by buoyancy. As far as the mean structure of the cross-stream motion is concerned, it is found that different types of secondary flow regimes take place when increasing the value of the Richardson number. The mean secondary flow in the range 0.025 less than or similar to Ri less than or similar to 0.25 is characterized by a single large-scale thermal convection roll and four turbulence-driven corner vortices of the opposite sense of rotation to the roll, as contrasted with the classical scenario of the eight-vortex secondary flow pattern typical of isothermal turbulent square-duct flow. This remarkable structural difference in the corner regions can be interpreted in terms of combined effects, on instantaneous streamwise vortices, of the large-scale circulation and of the geometrical constraint by the duct corner. When further increasing the Richardson number, i.e., Ri greater than or similar to 0.25, the structure of the mean secondary flow is solely determined by the large-scale circulation induced by the buoyancy force. In this regime, the additional mean cross-stream motion is characterized by the presence of two distinct buoyancy-driven vortices of opposite sense of rotation to the circulation only in two of the four corner regions. With increasing Ri, the large-scale circulation is found to enhance the wall skin friction and heat transfer. In the significant-buoyancy regime Ri greater than or similar to 0.25, the mean cross-stream motion and its rms fluctuations are found to scale, respectively, with the buoyancy-induced velocity u(g)=root g beta Delta TH (g, beta, and Delta T being the gravity acceleration, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion, and the temperature difference across the duct, respectively) and with the mixed velocity scale root(nu/H)u(g) (nu being the kinematic viscosity). It is suggested that the probable scalings for the rms of streamwise velocity component and of temperature fluctuation are related with the friction velocity u(tau) and friction temperature T(tau) according to the magnitudes u(tau)(2)/ and T(tau)u(tau)/root(nu/H)u(g), respectively. PublicationTravelling-waves consistent with turbulence-driven secondary flow in a square duct(American Institute of Physics, 2010) Uhlmann, Markus; Kawahara, Genta; Pinelli, AlfredoWe present numerically determined travelling-wave solutions for pressure-driven flow through a straight duct with a square cross-section. This family of solutions represents typical coherent structures (a staggered array of counter-rotating streamwise vortices and an associated low-speed streak) on each wall. Their streamwise average flow in the cross-sectional plane corresponds to an eight vortex pattern much alike the secondary flow found in the turbulent regime. PublicationDirect numerical simulation of vertical particulate channel flow in the turbulent regime(Springer, 2010) Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, AlfredoWe have conducted a DNS study of dilute turbulent particulate flow in a vertical plane channel, considering up to 8192 finite-size rigid particles with numerically resolved phase interfaces. The particle diameter corresponds to approximately 9 wall units and their terminal Reynolds number is set to 136. The fluid flow with bulk Reynolds number 2700 is directed upward, which maintains the particles suspended upon average. Two different density ratios were simulated, varying by a factor of 4.5. The corresponding Stokes numbers of the two particles were O(10) in the near-wall region and O(1) in the outer flow. We have observed the formation of large-scale elongated streak-like structures with streamwise dimensions of the order of 8 channel half-widths and cross-stream dimensions of the order of one half-width. At the same time, we have found no evidence of significant formation of particle clusters, which suggests that the large structures are due to an mtxinsic instability of the flow, triggered by the presence of the particles. It was found that the mean flow velocity profile tends towards a concave shape, and the turbulence intensity as well as the normal stress anisotropy are strongly increased. The effect of varying the Stokes number while keeping the buoyancy, particle size and volume fraction constant was relatively weak. More details about part of this work can be found in (2008).