Montes Gutiérrez, David

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First Name
Last Name
Montes Gutiérrez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 13
  • Publication
    Calibrating the metallicity of M dwarfs in wide physical binaries with F-, G-, and K-primaries -I: High-resolution spectroscopy with HERMES: stellar parameters, abundances, and kinematics
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2018-09) Montes Gutiérrez, David; González Peinado, R.; Tabernero, H. M.; Caballero, J. A.; Gómez Marfil, Emilio; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; González Hernández, J. I.; Klutsch, A.; Moreno Jodar, C.
    We investigated almost 500 stars distributed among 193 binary or multiple systems made of late-E, G-, or earl y-K-primaries and late-K- or M-dwarf companion candidates, For all of them, we compiled or measured coordinates, J-band magnitudes, spectral types, distances, and proper motions. With these data, we established a sample of 192 physically bound systems. In parallel, we carried out observations with HERMES/Mercator and obtained high-resolution spectra for the 192 primaries and five secondaries. We used these spectra and the automatic STEPAR code for deriving precise stellar atmospheric parameters: T-eff, log g, xi, and chemical abundances for 13 atomic species, including [Fe/H]. After computing Galactocentric space velocities for all the primary stars, we performed a kinematic analysis and classified them in different Galactic populations and stellar kinematic groups of very different ages, which match our own metallicity determinations and isochronal age estimations. In particular, we identified three systems in the halo and 33 systems in the young Local Association, Ursa Major and Castor moving groups, and IC 2391 and Hyades superclusters. We finally studied the exoplanet-metallicity relation in our 193 primaries and made a list 13 M-dwarf companions with very high metallicity that can be the targets of new dedicated exoplanet surveys. All in all, our dataset will be of great help for future works on the accurate determination of metallicity of M dwarfS.
  • Publication
    Reaching the boundary between stellar kinematic groups and very wide binaries III. Sixteen new stars and eight new wide systems in the β Pictoris moving group
    (EDP Sciencies, 2015-11) Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Solano, E.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Aims. We look for common proper motion companions to stars of the nearby young β Pictoris moving group. Methods. First, we compiled a list of 185 β Pictoris members and candidate members from 35 representative works. Next, we used the Aladin and STILTS virtual observatory tools and the PPMXL proper motion and Washington Double Star catalogues to look for companion candidates. The resulting potential companions were subjects of a dedicated astro-photometric follow-up using public data from all-sky surveys. After discarding 67 sources by proper motion and 31 by colour-magnitude diagrams, we obtained a final list of 36 common proper motion systems. The binding energy of two of them is perhaps too small to be considered physically bound. Results. Of the 36 pairs and multiple systems, eight are new, 16 have only one stellar component previously classified as a β Pictoris member, and three have secondaries at or below the hydrogen-burning limit. Sixteen stars are reported here for the first time as moving group members. The unexpected large number of high-order multiple systems, 12 triples and two quadruples among 36 systems, may suggest a biased list of members towards close binaries or an increment of the high-order-multiple fraction for very wide systems.
  • Publication
    Ionized calcium in the atmospheres of two ultra-hot exoplanets WASP-33b and KELT-9b
    (EDP Sciencies, 2019-12-05) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Ultra-hot Jupiters are emerging as a new class of exoplanets. Studying their chemical compositions and temperature structures will improve our understanding of their mass loss rate as well as their formation and evolution. We present the detection of ionized calcium in the two hottest giant exoplanets - KELT-9b and WASP-33b. By using transit datasets from CARMENES and HARPS-N observations, we achieved high-confidence-level detections of Ca II using the cross-correlation method. We further obtain the transmission spectra around the individual lines of the Ca II H&K doublet and the near-infrared triplet, and measure their line profiles. The Ca II H&K lines have an average line depth of 2.02 +/- 0.17% (effective radius of 1.56 R_p) for WASP-33b and an average line depth of 0.78 +/- 0.04% (effective radius of 1.47 R_p) for KELT-9b, which indicates that the absorptions are from very high upper-atmosphere layers close to the planetary Roche lobes. The observed Ca II lines are significantly deeper than the predicted values from the hydrostatic models. Such a discrepancy is probably a result of hydrodynamic outflow that transports a significant amount of Ca II into the upper atmosphere. The prominent Ca II detection with the lack of significant Ca I detection implies that calcium is mostly ionized in the upper atmospheres of the two planets.
  • Publication
    Stellar activity analysis of Barnard’s Star: very slow rotation and evidence for long-term activity cycle
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2019-10) Montes Gutiérrez, David; Caballero, J. A.
    The search for Earth-like planets around late-type stars using ultrastable spectrographs requires a very precise characterization of the stellar activity and the magnetic cycle of the star, since these phenomena induce radial velocity (RV) signals that can be misinterpreted as planetary signals. Among the nearby stars, we have selected Barnard’s Star (Gl 699) to carry out a characterization of these phenomena using a set of spectroscopic data that covers about 14.5 yr and comes from seven different spectrographs: HARPS, HARPS-N, CARMENES, HIRES, UVES, APF, and PFS; and a set of photometric data that covers about 15.1 yr and comes from four different photometric sources: ASAS, FCAPT–RCT, AAVSO, and SNO. We have measured different chromospheric activity indicators (H α, Ca II HK, and Na I D), as well as the full width at half-maximum (FWHM), of the cross-correlation function computed for a sub-set of the spectroscopic data. The analysis of generalized Lomb–Scargle periodograms of the time series of different activity indicators reveals that the rotation period of the star is 145 ± 15 d, consistent with the expected rotation period according to the low activity level of the star and previous claims. The upper limit of the predicted activity-induced RV signal corresponding to this rotation period is about 1 m s^(−1). We also find evidence of a long-term cycle of 10 ± 2 yr that is consistent with previous estimates of magnetic cycles from photometric time series in other M stars of similar activity levels. The available photometric data of the star also support the detection of both the long-term and the rotation signals.
  • Publication
    CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS
    (EDP Sciencies, 2015-05) Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Morales, J. C.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Jeffers, S. V.
    Context. CARMENES is a stabilised, high-resolution, double-channel spectrograph at the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope. It is optimally designed for radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs with potentially habitable Earth-mass planets. Aims. We prepare a list of the brightest, single M dwarfs in each spectral subtype observable from the northern hemisphere, from which we will select the best planet-hunting targets for CARMENES. Methods. In this first paper on the preparation of our input catalogue, we compiled a large amount of public data and collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy with CAFOS at the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope for 753 stars. We derived accurate spectral types using a dense grid of standard stars, a double least-squares minimisation technique, and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. Additionally, we quantified surface gravity, metallicity, and chromospheric activity for all the stars in our sample. Results. We calculated spectral types for all 753 stars, of which 305 are new and 448 are revised. We measured pseudo-equivalent widths of H α for all the stars in our sample, concluded that chromospheric activity does not affect spectral typing from our indices, and tabulated 49 stars that had been reported to be young stars in open clusters, moving groups, and stellar associations. Of the 753 stars, two are new subdwarf candidates, three are T Tauri stars, 25 are giants, 44 are K dwarfs, and 679 are M dwarfs. Many of the 261 investigated dwarfs in the range M4.0-8.0V are among the brightest stars known in their spectral subtype. Conclusions. This collection of low-resolution spectroscopic data serves as a candidate target list for the CARMENES survey and can be highly valuable for other radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs and for studies of cool dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multiwavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines
    (EDP Sciencies, 2019-07-17) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Domínguez Fernández, A.J.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    We present precise photospheric parameters of 282 M dwarfs determined from fitting the most recent version of PHOENIX models to high-resolution CARMENES spectra in the visible (0.52–0.96 µm) and NIR wavelength range (0.96–1.71 µm). With its aim to search for habitable planets around M dwarfs, several planets of different masses have been detected. The characterization of the target sample is important for the ability to derive and constrain the physical properties of any planetary systems that are detected. As a continuation of previous work in this context, we derived the fundamental stellar parameters effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity of the CARMENES M-dwarf targets from PHOENIX model fits using a χ^(2) method. We calculated updated PHOENIX stellar atmosphere models that include a new equation of state to especially account for spectral features of low-temperature stellar atmospheres as well as new atomic and molecular line lists. We show the importance of selecting magnetically insensitive lines for fitting to avoid effects of stellar activity in the line profiles. For the first time, we directly compare stellar parameters derived from multiwavelength range spectra, simultaneously observed for the same star. In comparison with literature values we show that fundamental parameters derived from visible spectra and visible and NIR spectra combined are in better agreement than those derived from the same spectra in the NIR alone.
  • Publication
    Orbital and physical properties of the sigma Ori Aa, Ab, B triple system
    (IOP Publishing, 2015-02-01) Simón Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Lorenzo, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Negueruela, I.; Barbá, R. H.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Pellerin, A.; Sánchez Bermúdez, J.; Sódor, A.; Sota, A.
    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the sigma Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric sigma Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhes method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the sigma Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the sigma Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that sigma Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while sigma Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the sigma Orionis cluster, at 3 +/- 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the s Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for sigma Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.
  • Publication
    Stars and brown dwarfs in the sigma Orionis cluster IV. IDS/INT and OSIRIS/GTC spectroscopy and Gaia DR2 astrometry
    (EDP Sciencies, 2019-09) Caballero, J. A.; Burgos, A. de; Alonso Floriano, F.J.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; García Álvarez, D.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Context. Only a few open clusters are as important for the study of stellar and substellar objects, and their formation and evolution, as the young σ Orionis cluster. However, a complete spectroscopic characterisation of its whole stellar population is still missing. Aims. We filled most of that gap with a large spectroscopic and astrometric survey of targets towards σ Orionis. Eventually, it will be one of the open clusters with the lowest proportion of interlopers and the largest proportion of confirmed cluster members with known uncontrovertible youth features. Methods. We acquired 317 low-resolution optical spectra with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS) at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) and the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We measured equivalent widths of Li i, Hα, and other key lines from these spectra, and determined spectral types. We complemented this information with Gaia DR2 astrometric data and other features of youth (mid-infrared excess, X-ray emission) compiled with Virtual Observatory tools and from the literature. Results. Of the 168 observed targets, we determined for the first time spectral types of 39 stars and equivalent widths of Li i and Hα of 34 and 12 stars, respectively. We identified 11 close (ρ
  • Publication
    Planetary system around the nearby M dwarf GJ 357 including a transiting, hot, Earth-sized planet optimal for atmospheric characterization
    (EDP Sciences S A, 2019-08-06) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    We report the detection of a transiting Earth-size planet around GJ 357, a nearby M2.5 V star, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). GJ 357 b (TOI-562.01) is a transiting, hot, Earth-sized planet (T_(eq) = 525 ± 11 K) with a radius of R_(b) = 1.217 ± 0.084 Rꚛ and an orbital period of P_(b) = 3.93 d. Precise stellar radial velocities from CARMENES and PFS, as well as archival data from HIRES, UVES, and HARPS also display a 3.93-day periodicity, confirming the planetary nature and leading to a planetary mass of M_(b) = 1.84 ± 0.31 Mꚛ. In addition to the radial velocity signal for GJ 357 b, more periodicities are present in the data indicating the presence of two further planets in the system: GJ 357 c, with a minimum mass of M_(c) = 3.40 ± 0.46 Mꚛ in a 9.12 d orbit, and GJ 357 d, with a minimum mass of M_(d) = 6.1 ± 1.0 Mꚛ in a 55.7 d orbit inside the habitable zone. The host is relatively inactive and exhibits a photometric rotation period of P_(rot) = 78 ± 2 d. GJ 357 b is to date the second closest transiting planet to the Sun, making it a prime target for further investigations such as transmission spectroscopy. Therefore, GJ 357 b represents one of the best terrestrial planets suitable for atmospheric characterization with the upcoming JWST and ground-based ELTs.
  • Publication
    The magnetically-active, low-mass, triple system WDS 19312+3607 (Research Note)
    (EDP Sciencies, 2010-09) Caballero, J. A.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Klutsch, A.; Genebriera, J.; Miret, F. X.; Tobal, T.; Cairol, J.; Pedraz, S.
    Aims. We investigated in detail the system WDS 19312+3607, whose primary is an active M4.5Ve star previously inferred to be young (τ ~ 300–500 Ma) based on its high X-ray luminosity. Methods. We collected intermediate- and low-resolution optical spectra taken with 2 m-class telescopes, photometric data from the B to 8 μm bands, and data for eleven astrometric epochs with a time baseline of over 56 years for the two components in the system, G 125–15 and G 125–14. Results. We derived the M4.5V spectral types of both stars, confirmed their common proper motion, estimated their heliocentric distance and projected physical separation, determined their Galactocentric space velocities, and deduced a most-probable age of older than 600 Ma. We discovered that the primary, G 125–15, is an inflated, double-lined, spectroscopic binary with a short period of photometric variability of 1.6 d, which we associated with orbital synchronisation. The observed X-ray and Hα emissions, photometric variability, and abnormal radius and effective temperature of G 125–15 AB are indicative of strong magnetic activity, possibly because of the rapid rotation. In addition, the estimated projected physical separation between G 125–15 AB and G 125–14 of about 1200 AU ensures that WDS 19312+3607 is one of the widest systems with intermediate M-type primaries. Conclusions. G 125–15 AB is a nearby (d ≈ 26 pc), bright (J ≈ 9.6 mag), active spectroscopic binary with a single proper-motion companion of the same spectral type at a wide separation. They are thus ideal targets for specific follow-ups to investigate wide and close multiplicity or stellar expansion and surface cooling because of the lower convective efficiency.