Montes Gutiérrez, David

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First Name
Last Name
Montes Gutiérrez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 145
  • Publication
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: The first abundance determination of the pre-main-sequence cluster gamma velorum
    (EDP Sciencies, 2014-07) Montes Gutiérrez, David; Tabernero, H.; Koposov, S.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Masseron, T.
    Context. Knowledge of the abundance distribution of star forming regions and young clusters is critical to investigate a variety of issues, from triggered star formation and chemical enrichment by nearby supernova explosions to the ability to form planetary systems. In spite of this, detailed abundance studies are currently available for relatively few regions. Aims. In this context, we present the analysis of the metallicity of the Gamma Velorum cluster, based on the products distributed in the first internal release of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Methods. The Gamma Velorum candidate members have been observed with FLAMES, using both UVES and Giraffe, depending on the target brightness and spectral type. In order to derive a solid metallicity determination for the cluster, membership of the observed stars must be first assessed. To this aim, we use several membership criteria including radial velocities, surface gravity estimates, and the detection of the photospheric lithium line. Results. Out of the 80 targets observed with UVES, we identify 14 high-probability members. We find that the metallicity of the cluster is slightly subsolar, with a mean [Fe/H]=−0.057±0.018 dex. Although J08095427-4721419 is one of the high-probability members, its metallicity is significantly larger than the cluster average. We speculate about its origin as the result of recent accretion episodes of rocky bodies of ∼60 M_⊕ hydrogen-depleted material from the circumstellar disk.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Mapping stellar activity indicators across the M dwarf domain
    (EDP Sciencies, 2021-08-04) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Context. Stellar activity poses one of the main obstacles for the detection and characterisation of small exoplanets around cool stars, as it can induce radial velocity (RV) signals that can hide or mimic the presence of planetary companions. Several indicators of stellar activity are routinely used to identify activity-related signals in RVs, but not all indicators trace exactly the same activity effects, nor are any of them always effective in all stars. Aims. We evaluate the performance of a set of spectroscopic activity indicators for M dwarf stars with different masses and activity levels with the aim of finding a relation between the indicators and stellar properties. Methods. In a sample of 98 M dwarfs observed with CARMENES, we analyse the temporal behaviour of RVs and nine spectroscopic activity indicators: cross-correlation function (CCF) full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), CCF contrast, CCF bisector inverse slope (BIS), RV chromatic index (CRX), differential line width (dLW), and indices of the chromospheric lines Hα and calcium infrared triplet (IRT). Results. A total of 56 stars of the initial sample show periodic signals related to activity in at least one of these ten parameters. RV is the parameter for which most of the targets show an activity-related signal. CRX and BIS are effective activity tracers for the most active stars in the sample, especially stars with a relatively high mass, while for less active stars, chromospheric lines perform best. FWHM and dLW show a similar behaviour in all mass and activity regimes, with the highest number of activity detections in the low-mass, high-activity regime. Most of the targets for which we cannot identify any activity-related signals are stars at the low-mass end of the sample (i.e. with the latest spectral types). These low-mass stars also show the lowest RV scatter, which indicates that ultracool M dwarfs could be better candidates for planet searches than earlier types, which show larger RV jitter. Conclusions. Our results show that the spectroscopic activity indicators analysed behave differently, depending on the mass and activity level of the target star. This underlines the importance of considering different indicators of stellar activity when studying the variability of RV measurements. Therefore, when assessing the origin of an RV signal, it is critical to take into account a large set of indicators, or at least the most effective ones considering the characteristics of the star, as failing to do so may lead to false planet claims.
  • Publication
    Detection of He I λ10830 Å absorption on HD 189733 b with CARMENES high-resolution transmission spectroscopy
    (EDP Science, 2018-12-07) Caballero, J.A.; Sanz Forcada, J.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    We present three transit observations of HD 189733 b obtained with the high-resolution spectrograph CARMENES at Calar Alto. A strong absorption signal is detected in the near-infrared He I triplet at 10830 Å in all three transits. During mid-transit, the mean absorption level is 0.88 ± 0.04% measured in a ±10 km s^(−1) range at a net blueshift of −3.5 ± 0.4 km s s^(−1) (10829.84–10830.57 Å). The absorption signal exhibits radial velocities of +6.5 ± 3.1 km s s^(−1) and −12.6 ± 1.0 km s s^(−1) during ingress and egress, respectively; all radial velocities are measured in the planetary rest frame. We show that stellar activity related pseudo-signals interfere with the planetary atmospheric absorption signal. They could contribute as much as 80% of the observed signal and might also affect the observed radial velocity signature, but pseudo-signals are very unlikely to explain the entire signal. The observed line ratio between the two unresolved and the third line of the He I triplet is 2.8 ± 0.2, which strongly deviates from the value expected for an optically thin atmospheres. When interpreted in terms of absorption in the planetary atmosphere, this favors a compact helium atmosphere with an extent of only 0.2 planetary radii and a substantial column density on the order of 4 × 10^(12) cm s^(−2) . The observed radial velocities can be understood either in terms of atmospheric circulation with equatorial superrotation or as a sign of an asymmetric atmospheric component of evaporating material. We detect no clear signature of ongoing evaporation, like pre- or post-transit absorption, which could indicate material beyond the planetary Roche lobe, or radial velocities in excess of the escape velocity. These findings do not contradict planetary evaporation, but only show that the detected helium absorption in HD 189733 b does not trace the atmospheric layers that show pronounced escape signatures.
  • Publication
    Calibrating the metallicity of M dwarfs in wide physical binaries with F-, G-, and K-primaries -I: High-resolution spectroscopy with HERMES: stellar parameters, abundances, and kinematics
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2018-09) Montes Gutiérrez, David; González Peinado, R.; Tabernero, H. M.; Caballero, J. A.; Gómez Marfil, Emilio; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; González Hernández, J. I.; Klutsch, A.; Moreno Jodar, C.
    We investigated almost 500 stars distributed among 193 binary or multiple systems made of late-E, G-, or earl y-K-primaries and late-K- or M-dwarf companion candidates, For all of them, we compiled or measured coordinates, J-band magnitudes, spectral types, distances, and proper motions. With these data, we established a sample of 192 physically bound systems. In parallel, we carried out observations with HERMES/Mercator and obtained high-resolution spectra for the 192 primaries and five secondaries. We used these spectra and the automatic STEPAR code for deriving precise stellar atmospheric parameters: T-eff, log g, xi, and chemical abundances for 13 atomic species, including [Fe/H]. After computing Galactocentric space velocities for all the primary stars, we performed a kinematic analysis and classified them in different Galactic populations and stellar kinematic groups of very different ages, which match our own metallicity determinations and isochronal age estimations. In particular, we identified three systems in the halo and 33 systems in the young Local Association, Ursa Major and Castor moving groups, and IC 2391 and Hyades superclusters. We finally studied the exoplanet-metallicity relation in our 193 primaries and made a list 13 M-dwarf companions with very high metallicity that can be the targets of new dedicated exoplanet surveys. All in all, our dataset will be of great help for future works on the accurate determination of metallicity of M dwarfS.
  • Publication
    CARMENES detection of the Ca II infrared triplet and possible evidence of He I in the atmosphere of WASP-76b
    (EDP Sciencies, 2021-10-27) Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    Ultra-hot Jupiters are highly irradiated gas giants with equilibrium temperatures typically higher than 2000 K. Atmospheric studies of these planets have shown that their transmission spectra are rich in metal lines, with some of these metals being ionised due to the extreme temperatures. Here, we use two transit observations of WASP-76b obtained with the CARMENES spectrograph to study the atmosphere of this planet using high-resolution transmission spectroscopy. Taking advantage of the two channels and the coverage of the red and near-infrared wavelength ranges by CARMENES, we focus our analysis on the study of the Ca II infrared triplet (IRT) at 8500 A and the He I triplet at 10 830 A. We present the discovery of the Ca II IRT at 7 sigma in the atmosphere of WASP-76b using the cross-correlation technique, which is consistent with previous detections of the Ca II H&K lines in the same planet, and with the atmospheric studies of other ultra-hot Jupiters reported to date. The low mass density of the planet, and our calculations of the XUV (X-ray and EUV) irradiation received by the exoplanet, show that this planet is a potential candidate to have a He I evaporating envelope and, therefore, we performed further investigations focussed on this aspect. The transmission spectrum around the He I triplet shows a broad and red-shifted absorption signal in both transit observations. However, due to the strong telluric contamination around the He I lines and the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the observations, we are not able to unambiguously conclude if the absorption is due to the presence of helium in the atmosphere of WASP-76b, and we consider the result to be only an upper limit. Finally, we revisit the transmission spectrum around other lines such as Na I, Li I, H alpha, and K I. The upper limits reported here for these lines are consistent with previous studies.
  • Publication
    Effect of magnetic activity saturation in chromospheric flux-flux relationships
    (Wiley, 2011-07) Martínez Arnáiz, R.; López Santiago, J.; Crespo Chacón, I.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    We present a homogeneous study of chromospheric and coronal flux–flux relationships using a sample of 298 late-type dwarf active stars with spectral types F to M. The chromospheric lines were observed simultaneously in each star to avoid spread as a result of long-term variability. Unlike other works, we subtract the basal chromospheric contribution in all the spectral lines studied. For the first time, we quantify the departure of dMe stars from the general relations. We show that dK and dKe stars also deviate from the general trend. Studying the flux–colour diagrams, we demonstrate that the stars deviating from the general relations are those with saturated X-ray emission and we show that these stars also present saturation in the Hα line. Using several age spectral indicators, we show that these are younger stars than those following the general relationships. The non-universality of flux–flux relationships found in this work should be taken into account when converting between fluxes in different chromospheric activity indicators.
  • Publication
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: Chromospheric emission, accretion properties, and rotation in gamma Velorum and Chamaeleon*,**
    (EDP Sciencies, 2015-03) Montes Gutiérrez, David
    One of the goals of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES), which is conducted with FLAMES at the VLT, is the census and the characterization of the low-mass members of very young clusters and associations. We conduct a comparative study of the main properties of the sources belonging to gamma Velorum (gamma Vel) and Chamaeleon I (Cha I) young associations, focusing on their rotation, chromospheric radiative losses, and accretion. Methods. We used the fundamental parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, lithium abundance, and radial velocity) delivered by the GES consortium in the first internal data release to select the members of gamma Vel and Cha I among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. A total of 140 gamma Vel members and 74 Cha I members were studied. The procedure adopted by the GES to derive stellar fundamental parameters also provided measures of the projected rotational velocity (v sin i). We calculated stellar luminosities through spectral energy distributions, while stellar masses were derived by comparison with evolutionary tracks. The spectral subtraction of low-activity and slowly rotating templates, which are rotationally broadened to match the v sin i of the targets, enabled us to measure the equivalent widths (EWs) and the fluxes in the H alpha and H beta lines. The Ha line was also used for identifying accreting objects, on the basis of its EW and the width at the 10% of the line peak (10% W), and for evaluating the mass accretion rate ((M)over dot(acc)). Results. The distribution of v sin i for the members of. Vel displays a peak at about 10 km s(-1) with a tail toward faster rotators. There is also some indication of a different v sin i distribution for the members of its two kinematical populations. Most of these stars have Ha fluxes corresponding to a saturated activity regime. We find a similar distribution, but with a narrower peak, for Cha I. Only a handful of stars in gamma Vel display signatures of accretion, while many more accretors were detected in the younger Cha I, where the highest Ha fluxes are mostly due to accretion, rather than to chromospheric activity. Accreting and active stars occupy two different regions in a T-eff-flux diagram and we propose a criterion for distinguishing them. We derive (M)over dot(acc) in the ranges 10(-11)-10(-9) M-circle dot yr(-1) and 10(-10)-10(-7) M-circle dot yr(-1) for gamma Vel and Cha I accretors, respectively. We find less scatter in the (M)over dot(acc)-M-star relation derived through the H alpha EWs, when compared to the Ha 10% W diagnostics, in agreement with other authors.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs : the He I triplet at 10830 Å across the M dwarf sequence
    (EDP Sciences, 2019-11-25) Fuhrmeister, B.; Czesla, S.; Hildebrandt, L.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Diez-Alonso, E.; otros,...
    The He I infrared (IR) triplet at 10 830 Å is an important activity indicator for the Sun and in solar-type stars, however, it has rarely been studied in relation to M dwarfs to date. In this study, we use the time-averaged spectra of 319 single stars with spectral types ranging from M0.0 V to M9.0 V obtained with the CARMENES high resolution optical and near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto to study the properties of the He I IR triplet lines. In quiescence, we find the triplet in absorption with a decrease of the measured pseudo equivalent width (pEW) towards later sub-types. For stars later than M5.0 V, the He I triplet becomes undetectable in our study. This dependence on effective temperature may be related to a change in chromospheric conditions along the M dwarf sequence. When an emission in the triplet is observed, we attribute it to flaring. The absence of emission during quiescence is consistent with line formation by photo-ionisation and recombination, while flare emission may be caused by collisions within dense material. The He I triplet tends to increase in depth according to increasing activity levels, ultimately becoming filled in; however, we do not find a correlation between the pEW(He IR) and X-ray properties. This behaviour may be attributed to the absence of very inactive stars (L_X∕L_bol < −5.5) in our sample or to the complex behaviour with regard to increasing depth and filling in.
  • Publication
    FR Cnc revisited: photometry, polarimetry and spectroscopy
    (Wiley, 2012-03) Golovin, A.; Gálvez Ortiz, M. C.; Hernán Obispo, M.; Andreev, M.; Barnes, J. R.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Pavlenko, E.; Pandey, J. C.; Martínez Arnaiz, R.; Medhi, B. J.; Parihar, P. S.; Henden, A.; Sergeev, A.; Zaitsev, S. V.; Karpov, N.
    This paper is part of a multiwavelength study aimed at using complementary photometric, polarimetric and spectroscopic data to achieve an understanding of the activity process in late-type stars. Here, we present the study of FR Cnc, a young, active and spotted star. We performed analysis of All Sky Automated Survey 3 (ASAS-3) data for the years 2002–08 and amended the value of the rotational period to be 0.826518 d. The amplitude of photometric variations decreased abruptly in the year 2005, while the mean brightness remained the same, which was interpreted as a quick redistribution of spots. BVR_C and I_C broad-band photometric calibration was performed for 166 stars in FR Cnc vicinity. The photometry at Terskol Observatory shows two brightening episodes, one of which occurred at the same phase as the flare of 2006 November 23. Polarimetric BVR observations indicate the probable presence of a supplementary source of polarization. We monitored FR Cnc spectroscopically during the years 2004–08. We concluded that the radial velocity changes cannot be explained by the binary nature of FR Cnc. We determined the spectral type of FR Cnc as K7V. Calculated galactic space-velocity components (U, V, W) indicate that FR Cnc belongs to the young disc population and might also belong to the IC 2391 moving group. Based on Li Iλ6707.8 measurement, we estimated the age of FR Cnc to be between 10 and 120 Myr. Doppler tomography was applied to create a starspot image of FR Cnc. We optimized the goodness of fit to the deconvolved profiles for axial inclination, equivalent width and v sin i, finding v sin  i=46.2 km s^−1 and i= 55°. We also generated a syntheticV-band light curve based on Doppler imaging that makes simultaneous use of spectroscopic and photometric data. This synthetic light curve displays the same morphology and amplitude as the observed one. The starspot distribution of FR Cnc is also of interest since it is one of the latest spectral types to have been imaged. No polar spot was detected on FR Cnc.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: variability of the HeI line at 10 830 Å
    (EDP Sciencies, 2020-08-10) Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    The He I infrared (IR) triplet at 10 830 Å is known as an activity indicator in solar-type stars and has become a primary diagnostic in exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy. He I IR lines are a tracer of the stellar extreme-ultraviolet irradiation from the transition region and corona. We study the variability of the He I triplet lines in a spectral time series of 319 M dwarf stars that was obtained with the CARMENES high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto. We detect He I IR line variability in 18% of our sample stars, all of which show Hα in emission. Therefore, we find detectable He I variability in 78% of the sub-sample of stars with Hα emission. Detectable variability is strongly concentrated in the latest spectral sub-types, where the He I lines during quiescence are typically weak. The fraction of stars with detectable He I variation remains lower than 10% for stars earlier than M3.0 V, while it exceeds 30% for the later spectral sub-types. Flares are accompanied by particularly pronounced line variations, including strongly broadened lines with red and blue asymmetries. However, we also find evidence for enhanced He I absorption, which is potentially associated with increased high-energy irradiation levels at flare onset. Generally, He I and Hα line variations tend to be correlated, with Hα being the most sensitive indicator in terms of pseudo-equivalent width variation. This makes the He I triplet a favourable target for planetary transmission spectroscopy.