Montes Gutiérrez, David

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First Name
Last Name
Montes Gutiérrez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 47
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Mapping stellar activity indicators across the M dwarf domain
    (EDP Sciencies, 2021-08-04) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Context. Stellar activity poses one of the main obstacles for the detection and characterisation of small exoplanets around cool stars, as it can induce radial velocity (RV) signals that can hide or mimic the presence of planetary companions. Several indicators of stellar activity are routinely used to identify activity-related signals in RVs, but not all indicators trace exactly the same activity effects, nor are any of them always effective in all stars. Aims. We evaluate the performance of a set of spectroscopic activity indicators for M dwarf stars with different masses and activity levels with the aim of finding a relation between the indicators and stellar properties. Methods. In a sample of 98 M dwarfs observed with CARMENES, we analyse the temporal behaviour of RVs and nine spectroscopic activity indicators: cross-correlation function (CCF) full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM), CCF contrast, CCF bisector inverse slope (BIS), RV chromatic index (CRX), differential line width (dLW), and indices of the chromospheric lines Hα and calcium infrared triplet (IRT). Results. A total of 56 stars of the initial sample show periodic signals related to activity in at least one of these ten parameters. RV is the parameter for which most of the targets show an activity-related signal. CRX and BIS are effective activity tracers for the most active stars in the sample, especially stars with a relatively high mass, while for less active stars, chromospheric lines perform best. FWHM and dLW show a similar behaviour in all mass and activity regimes, with the highest number of activity detections in the low-mass, high-activity regime. Most of the targets for which we cannot identify any activity-related signals are stars at the low-mass end of the sample (i.e. with the latest spectral types). These low-mass stars also show the lowest RV scatter, which indicates that ultracool M dwarfs could be better candidates for planet searches than earlier types, which show larger RV jitter. Conclusions. Our results show that the spectroscopic activity indicators analysed behave differently, depending on the mass and activity level of the target star. This underlines the importance of considering different indicators of stellar activity when studying the variability of RV measurements. Therefore, when assessing the origin of an RV signal, it is critical to take into account a large set of indicators, or at least the most effective ones considering the characteristics of the star, as failing to do so may lead to false planet claims.
  • Publication
    Calibrating the metallicity of M dwarfs in wide physical binaries with F-, G-, and K-primaries -I: High-resolution spectroscopy with HERMES: stellar parameters, abundances, and kinematics
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2018-09) Montes Gutiérrez, David; González Peinado, R.; Tabernero, H. M.; Caballero, J. A.; Gómez Marfil, Emilio; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; González Hernández, J. I.; Klutsch, A.; Moreno Jodar, C.
    We investigated almost 500 stars distributed among 193 binary or multiple systems made of late-E, G-, or earl y-K-primaries and late-K- or M-dwarf companion candidates, For all of them, we compiled or measured coordinates, J-band magnitudes, spectral types, distances, and proper motions. With these data, we established a sample of 192 physically bound systems. In parallel, we carried out observations with HERMES/Mercator and obtained high-resolution spectra for the 192 primaries and five secondaries. We used these spectra and the automatic STEPAR code for deriving precise stellar atmospheric parameters: T-eff, log g, xi, and chemical abundances for 13 atomic species, including [Fe/H]. After computing Galactocentric space velocities for all the primary stars, we performed a kinematic analysis and classified them in different Galactic populations and stellar kinematic groups of very different ages, which match our own metallicity determinations and isochronal age estimations. In particular, we identified three systems in the halo and 33 systems in the young Local Association, Ursa Major and Castor moving groups, and IC 2391 and Hyades superclusters. We finally studied the exoplanet-metallicity relation in our 193 primaries and made a list 13 M-dwarf companions with very high metallicity that can be the targets of new dedicated exoplanet surveys. All in all, our dataset will be of great help for future works on the accurate determination of metallicity of M dwarfS.
  • Publication
    Reaching the boundary between stellar kinematic groups and very wide binaries III. Sixteen new stars and eight new wide systems in the β Pictoris moving group
    (EDP Sciencies, 2015-11) Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Solano, E.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Aims. We look for common proper motion companions to stars of the nearby young β Pictoris moving group. Methods. First, we compiled a list of 185 β Pictoris members and candidate members from 35 representative works. Next, we used the Aladin and STILTS virtual observatory tools and the PPMXL proper motion and Washington Double Star catalogues to look for companion candidates. The resulting potential companions were subjects of a dedicated astro-photometric follow-up using public data from all-sky surveys. After discarding 67 sources by proper motion and 31 by colour-magnitude diagrams, we obtained a final list of 36 common proper motion systems. The binding energy of two of them is perhaps too small to be considered physically bound. Results. Of the 36 pairs and multiple systems, eight are new, 16 have only one stellar component previously classified as a β Pictoris member, and three have secondaries at or below the hydrogen-burning limit. Sixteen stars are reported here for the first time as moving group members. The unexpected large number of high-order multiple systems, 12 triples and two quadruples among 36 systems, may suggest a biased list of members towards close binaries or an increment of the high-order-multiple fraction for very wide systems.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: two Saturn-mass planets orbiting active stars
    (EDP Sciencies, 2022-07-14) Montes Gutiérrez, David; Caballero, J. A.; otros, ...
    The CARMENES radial-velocity survey is currently searching for planets in a sample of 387 M dwarfs. Here we report on two Saturn-mass planets orbiting TYC 2187-512-1 (M_*) = 0.50 Mꙩ) and TZ Ari ((M_*) = 0.15 Mꙩ), respectively. We obtained supplementary photometric time series, which we use along with spectroscopic information to determine the rotation periods of the two stars. In both cases, the radial velocities also show strong modulations at the respective rotation period. We thus modeled the radial velocities as a Keplerian orbit plus a Gaussian process representing the stellar variability. TYC 2187-512-1 is found to harbor a planet with a minimum mass of 0.33 M_(Jup) in a near-circular 692-day orbit. The companion of TZ Ari has a minimum mass of 0.21 M_(Jup), orbital period of 771 d, and orbital eccentricity of 0.46. We provide an overview of all known giant planets in the CARMENES sample, from which we infer an occurrence rate of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs with periods up to 2 yr in the range between 2 and 6%. TZ Ari b is only the second giant planet discovered orbiting a host with mass less than 0.3 Mꙩ. These objects occupy an extreme location in the planet mass versus host mass plane. It is difficult to explain their formation in core-accretion scenarios, so they may possibly have been formed through a disk fragmentation process.
  • Publication
    Atmospheric characterization of the ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-33b Detection of Ti and V emission lines and retrieval of a broadened line profile
    (EDP Sciencies, 2022-12-02) Caballero, J. A.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    Ultra-hot Jupiters are highly irradiated gas giant exoplanets on close-in orbits around their host stars. The dayside atmospheres of these objects strongly emit thermal radiation due to their elevated temperatures, making them prime targets for characterization by emission spectroscopy. We analyzed high-resolution spectra from CARMENES, HARPS-N, and ESPaDOnS taken over eight observation nights to study the emission spectrum of WASP-33b and draw conclusions about its atmosphere. By applying the cross-correlation technique, we detected the spectral signatures of Ti I, V I, and a tentative signal of Ti II for the first time via emission spectroscopy. These detections are an important finding because of the fundamental role of Ti- and V-bearing species in the planetary energy balance. Moreover, we assessed and confirm the presence of OH, Fe I, and Si I from previous studies. The spectral lines are all detected in emission, which unambiguously proves the presence of an inverted temperature profile in the planetary atmosphere. By performing retrievals on the emission lines of all the detected species, we determined a relatively weak atmospheric thermal inversion extending from approximately 3400 to 4000 K. We infer a supersolar metallicity close to 1.5 dex in the planetary atmosphere, and find that its emission signature undergoes significant line broadening with a Gaussian full width at half maximum of about 4.5 km s^(−1) . Also, we find that the atmospheric temperature profile retrieved at orbital phases far from the secondary eclipse is about 300 to 700 K cooler than that measured close to the secondary eclipse, which is consistent with different day- and nightside temperatures. Moreover, retrievals performed on the emission lines of the individual chemical species lead to consistent results, which gives additional confidence to our retrieval method. Increasing the number of species included in the retrieval and expanding the set of retrieved atmospheric parameters will further advance our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres.
  • Publication
    Modelling the He I triplet absorption at 10 830 Å in the atmospheres of HD 189733 b and GJ 3470 b
    (EDP Sciencies, 2021-03-23) Lampón, M.; López-Puertas, M.; Sanz Forcada, J.; Sánchez-López, A.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Czesla, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Pallé, E.; Caballero, J. A.; Henning, Th.; Salz, M.; Nortmann, L.; Aceituno, J.; Amado, P. J.; Bauer, F. F.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Nagel, E.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.
    Characterising the atmospheres of exoplanets is key to understanding their nature and provides hints about their formation and evolution. High resolution measurements of the helium triplet absorption of highly irradiated planets have been recently reported, which provide a new means of studying their atmospheric escape. In this work we study the escape of the upper atmospheres of HD 189733 b and GJ 3470 b by analysing high resolution He i triplet absorption measurements and using a 1D hydrodynamic spherically symmetric model coupled with a non-local thermodynamic model for the He i triplet state. We also use the H density derived from Lyα observations to further constrain their temperatures, mass-loss rates, and H/He ratios. We have significantly improved our knowledge of the upper atmospheres of these planets. While HD 189733 b has a rather compressed atmosphere and small gas radial velocities, GJ 3470 b, on the other hand with a gravitational potential ten times smaller, exhibits a very extended atmosphere and large radial outflow velocities. Hence, although GJ 3470 b is much less irradiated in the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation, and its upper atmosphere is much cooler, it evaporates at a comparable rate. In particular, we find that the upper atmosphere of HD 189733 b is compact and hot, with a maximum temperature of 12 400^(+400)_(−300) K, with a very low mean molecular mass (H/He=(99.2/0.8)±0.1), which is almost fully ionised above 1.1 R_(P), and with a mass-loss rate of (1.1±0.1) × 10^(11) g s^(−1). In contrast, the upper atmosphere of GJ 3470 b is highly extended and relatively cold, with a maximum temperature of 5100±900 K, also with a very low mean molecular mass (H/He=(98.5/1.5)^(+1.0)_(−1.5)), which is not strongly ionised, and with a mass-loss rate of (1.9±1.1) × 10^(11) gs^(−1). Furthermore, our results suggest that upper atmospheres of giant planets undergoing hydrodynamic escape tend to have a very low mean molecular mass (H/He ˃̰ 97/3).
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: characterization of the nearby ultra-compact multiplanetary system YZ Ceti
    (EDP Sciencies, 2020-04-07) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Díez Alonso, Enrique; Domínguez Fernández, A.J.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Context. The nearby ultra-compact multiplanetary system YZ Ceti consists of at least three planets, and a fourth tentative signal. The orbital period of each planet is the subject of discussion in the literature due to strong aliasing in the radial velocity data. The stellar activity of this M dwarf also hampers significantly the derivation of the planetary parameters. Aims. With an additional 229 radial velocity measurements obtained since the discovery publication, we reanalyze the YZ Ceti system and resolve the alias issues. Methods. We use model comparison in the framework of Bayesian statistics and periodogram simulations based on a method by Dawson and Fabrycky to resolve the aliases. We discuss additional signals in the RV data, and derive the planetary parameters by simultaneously modeling the stellar activity with a Gaussian process regression model. To constrain the planetary parameters further we apply a stability analysis on our ensemble of Keplerian fits. Results. We find no evidence for a fourth possible companion. We resolve the aliases: the three planets orbit the star with periods of 2.02 d, 3.06 d, and 4.66 d. We also investigate an effect of the stellar rotational signal on the derivation of the planetary parameters, in particular the eccentricity of the innermost planet. Using photometry we determine the stellar rotational period to be close to 68 d and we also detect this signal in the residuals of a three-planet fit to the RV data and the spectral activity indicators. From our stability analysis we derive a lower limit on the inclination of the system with the assumption of coplanar orbits which is i_(min) = 0.9 deg. From the absence of a transit event with TESS, we derive an upper limit of the inclination of i_(max) = 87.43 deg. Conclusions. YZ Ceti is a prime example of a system where strong aliasing hindered the determination of the orbital periods of exoplanets. Additionally, stellar activity influences the derivation of planetary parameters and modeling them correctly is important for the reliable estimation of the orbital parameters in this specific compact system. Stability considerations then allow additional constraints to be placed on the planetary parameters.
  • Publication
    Ionized calcium in the atmospheres of two ultra-hot exoplanets WASP-33b and KELT-9b
    (EDP Sciencies, 2019-12-05) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    Ultra-hot Jupiters are emerging as a new class of exoplanets. Studying their chemical compositions and temperature structures will improve our understanding of their mass loss rate as well as their formation and evolution. We present the detection of ionized calcium in the two hottest giant exoplanets - KELT-9b and WASP-33b. By using transit datasets from CARMENES and HARPS-N observations, we achieved high-confidence-level detections of Ca II using the cross-correlation method. We further obtain the transmission spectra around the individual lines of the Ca II H&K doublet and the near-infrared triplet, and measure their line profiles. The Ca II H&K lines have an average line depth of 2.02 +/- 0.17% (effective radius of 1.56 R_p) for WASP-33b and an average line depth of 0.78 +/- 0.04% (effective radius of 1.47 R_p) for KELT-9b, which indicates that the absorptions are from very high upper-atmosphere layers close to the planetary Roche lobes. The observed Ca II lines are significantly deeper than the predicted values from the hydrostatic models. Such a discrepancy is probably a result of hydrodynamic outflow that transports a significant amount of Ca II into the upper atmosphere. The prominent Ca II detection with the lack of significant Ca I detection implies that calcium is mostly ionized in the upper atmospheres of the two planets.
  • Publication
    Stellar activity analysis of Barnard’s Star: very slow rotation and evidence for long-term activity cycle
    (Oxford Univ Press, 2019-10) Montes Gutiérrez, David; Caballero, J. A.
    The search for Earth-like planets around late-type stars using ultrastable spectrographs requires a very precise characterization of the stellar activity and the magnetic cycle of the star, since these phenomena induce radial velocity (RV) signals that can be misinterpreted as planetary signals. Among the nearby stars, we have selected Barnard’s Star (Gl 699) to carry out a characterization of these phenomena using a set of spectroscopic data that covers about 14.5 yr and comes from seven different spectrographs: HARPS, HARPS-N, CARMENES, HIRES, UVES, APF, and PFS; and a set of photometric data that covers about 15.1 yr and comes from four different photometric sources: ASAS, FCAPT–RCT, AAVSO, and SNO. We have measured different chromospheric activity indicators (H α, Ca II HK, and Na I D), as well as the full width at half-maximum (FWHM), of the cross-correlation function computed for a sub-set of the spectroscopic data. The analysis of generalized Lomb–Scargle periodograms of the time series of different activity indicators reveals that the rotation period of the star is 145 ± 15 d, consistent with the expected rotation period according to the low activity level of the star and previous claims. The upper limit of the predicted activity-induced RV signal corresponding to this rotation period is about 1 m s^(−1). We also find evidence of a long-term cycle of 10 ± 2 yr that is consistent with previous estimates of magnetic cycles from photometric time series in other M stars of similar activity levels. The available photometric data of the star also support the detection of both the long-term and the rotation signals.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy. II. Simultaneous multi-wavelength range modeling of activity insensitive lines (Corrigendum vol 627, A161, 2019)
    (EDP Sciencies, 2020-02-04) Caballero, J. A.; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Domínguez Fernández, A.J.; Montes Gutiérrez, David
    We have corrected an error in Passegger et al. (2019) in the calculation of the stellar surface gravity log g from literature masses and radii provided by Gaidos & Mann (2014) and Mann et al. (2015).