García Álvarez, Yolanda

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First Name
Last Name
García Álvarez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología
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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Microcirculation Improvement in Diabetic Foot Patients after Treatment with Sucrose Octasulfate-Impregnated Dressings
    (MDPI, 2023) Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; García-Madrid, Marta; Bohbot, Serge; López Moral, Mateo; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda
    To assess the patients’ microcirculation evolution during the treatment with a sucrose octasulfate-impregnated dressing, fifty patients with neuroischaemic DFU treated with TLC-NOSF dressing were included in a prospective study between November 2020 and February 2022. TcpO2 values were measured on the dorsalis pedis or tibial posterior arteries’ angiosome according to the ulcer location. TcpO2 values were assessed at day 0 and every 4 weeks during 20 weeks of the follow-up or until the wound healed. A cut-off point of tcpO2 < 30 mmHg was defined for patients with impaired microcirculation. The TcpO2 values showed an increase between day 0 and the end of the study, 33.04 � 12.27 mmHg and 40.89 � 13.06 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.001. Patients with impaired microcirculation showed an increase in the tcpO2 values from day 0 to the end of the study (p = 0.023). Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in the TcpO2 values in the forefoot DFU (p = 0.002) and in the rearfoot DFU (p = 0.071), with no difference between the ulcer locations (p = 0.694). The local treatment with TLC-NOSF dressing improved the microcirculation in patients with neuroischaemic DFU, regardless of microcirculation status at the baseline, and in the forefoot, regardless of the location.
  • Publication
    Predictive value of forefoot plantar pressure to predict reulceration in patients at high risk
    (Elsevier, 2022-06-30) García Madrid, Marta; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luiz
    Aims: To analyze a plantar pressure cut-off point for diabetic foot reulceration beneath the metatarsal heads in patients with previous forefoot amputation. Methods: A one-year prospective study was conducted in a total of 105 patients at high risk for foot ulceration. Peak plantar pressure (PPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) in the entire foot, the forefoot region, and each metatarsal head separately were registered. ROC curves were used to select the optimal diagnostic pressure cut-off points. Patients were follow-up monthly or until the development of an ulcer event. Results: A total of 52 (49.5%) patients developed a reulceration. Using ROC analyses for PPP in the full-foot and in the forefoot, did not predict reulceration beneath the metatarsal heads. Analyzing separately each metatarsal head all patients with values greater than or equal to 20.8 N/cm2 at the 1st, 18.62 N/cm2 for the 2nd, 18.85 at the 3rd, 17.88 at the 4th, and 12.2 at the 5th metatarsal heads will suffer a reulceration despite the use of orthopedic treatment with optimum values of sensitivity (from 100 to 87.5) and specificity (from 83.2 to 62.8). Conclusion: Barefoot pressures beneath the metatarsal heads should be analyzed separately to predict the region at risk of reulceration.
  • Publication
    Ultrasound-Assisted Wound (UAW) Debridement in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    (MPDI, 2022-03-30) Flores Escobar, Sebastián; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda; López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; García Morales, Esther Alicia
    A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate the effect of ultrasound-assisted wound (UAW) debridement in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). All selected studies were evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess the risk of bias for randomized controlled trials. PubMed and Web of Science were searched in October 2021 to find randomized clinical trials (RCT) assessing the effect of UAW debridement on DFUs. RevMan v5.4. was used to analyze the data with the Mantel–Haenszel method for dichotomous outcomes. A total of 8 RCT met our inclusion criteria, with 263 participants. Concerning the healing rate comparing UAW versus the control group, a meta-analysis estimated the pooled OR at 2.22 (95% CI 0.96–5.11, p = 0.06), favoring UAW debridement, with low heterogeneity (x2 = 7.47, df = 5, p = 0.19, I2 = 33%). Time to healing was similar in both groups: UAW group (14.25 ± 10.10 weeks) versus the control group (13.38 ± 1.99 weeks, p = 0.87). Wound area reduction was greater in the UAW debridement group (74.58% ± 19.21%) than in the control group (56.86% ± 25.09%), although no significant differences were observed between them (p = 0.24). UAW debridement showed higher healing rates, a greater percentage of wound area reduction, and similar healing times when compared with placebo (sham device) and standard of care in patients with DFUs, although no statistically significant differences were observed between groups.
  • Publication
    Clinical efficacy of therapeutic footwear with a rigid rocker sole in the prevention of recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic polineuropathy: A randomized clinical trial
    (Public Library Science, 2019-07-11) López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; García Morales, Esther Alicia; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan
    Background: Therapeutic footwear becomes the first treatment line in the prevention of diabetic foot ulcer and future complications of diabetes. Previous studies and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot have described therapeutic footwear as a protective factor to reduce the risk of re-ulceration. In this study, we aimed to analyze the efficacy of a rigid rocker sole to reduce the recurrence rate of plantar ulcers in patients with diabetic foot. Methods: Between June 2016 and December 2017, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in a specialized diabetic foot unit. Participants and intervention: Fifty-one patients with diabetic neuropathy who had a recently healed plantar ulcer were randomized consecutively into the following two groups: therapeutic footwear with semi-rigid sole (control) or therapeutic footwear with a rigid rocker sole (experimental). All patients included in the study were followed up for 6 months (one visit each 30 ± 2 days) or until the development of a recurrence event. Main outcome and measure: Primary outcome measure was recurrence of ulcers in the plantar aspect of the foot. Findings: A total of 51 patients were randomized to the control and experimental groups. The median follow-up time was 26 [IQR-4.4-26.1] weeks for both groups. On an intention-to-treat basis, 16 (64%) and 6 (23%) patients in the control and experimental groups had ulcer recurrence, respectively. Among the group with >60% adherence to therapeutic footwear, multivariate analysis showed that the rigid rocker sole improved ulcer recurrence-free survival time in diabetes patients with polyneuropathy and DFU history (P = 0.019; 95% confidence interval, 0.086-0.807; hazard ratio, 0.263). Conclusions: We recommend the use of therapeutic footwear with a rigid rocker sole in patients with diabetes with polyneuropathy and history of diabetic foot ulcer to reduce the risk of plantar ulcer recurrence. Trial registration: NCT02995863.
  • Publication
    A comparison of hyperspectral imaging with routine vascular noninvasive techniques to assess the healing prognosis in patients with diabetic foot ulcers
    (Elsevier, 2022-01) López Moral, Mateo; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Tardaguila García, Aroa; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Objective: To compare the potential healing prognosis of the different routine noninvasive techniques implemented in the International Working Group Diabetic Foot Guidelines with the novel use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Methods: Twenty-one patients with active DFUs participated in this 1-year prospective study in a specialized diabetic foot unit between December 2018 and January 2020. HSI was performed at baseline to quantify tissue oxygenation and should be presented on an anatomical map by analyzing the following parameters: (1) oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin, (2) tissue hemoglobin index, (3) the near-infrared perfusion index, and (4) tissue water index. In addition, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2), systolic toe and ankle pressures, ankle-brachial index, and toe-brachial index values were calculated for the ulcerated limb. The primary outcome measure was wound healing, defined as complete epithelization without any drainage confirmed for at least 10 days after closure was first documented at 24 weeks. Results: During the follow-up period 14 patients (66.66 %) healed and 7 patients did not heal (33.3%) by 24 weeks. The TcpO2 optimal cut-off point as determined by a balance of sensitivity and specificity of 28.5 mm Hg that yielded a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.989 (P = .005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.945-1.000). Followed by the oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin optimal cut-off point as determined by a balance of sensitivity and specificity of 48.5 mm Hg that yielded a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 0.71%, and area under the curve of 0.932 (P = .013; 95% CI, 0.787-1.000). The logistic regression analyses showed that TcpO2 was the only variable associated with wound healing at 24 weeks (P < .001; 95% CI, 0.046-0.642). Conclusions: The HSI was shown to be effective in the prognosis of DFU healing compared with other noninvasive test; only TcpO2 values resulted in better diagnosis potential in wound healing.
  • Publication
    Safety and Efficacy of Several Versus Isolated Prophylactic Flexor Tenotomies in Diabetes Patients: A 1-Year Prospective Study
    (MDPI, 2022-07-14) López Moral, Mateo; Molines Barroso, Raúl J.; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    To assess long-term clinical outcomes of patients who underwent isolated versus several percutaneous flexor tenotomies for the treatment of toe deformities and previous diabetic foot ulcers; Methods: Twenty-three patients (mean age 66.26 ± 11.20, years) who underwent prophylactic percutaneous flexor tenotomies secondary to tip-toe ulcers participated in this 1-year prospective study. The study was stratified into two groups for analyses: (1) isolated tenotomies patients, and (2) several tenotomies patients (two or more tenotomies). Outcome measures were toe reulceration and recurrence, minor lesions, digital deformities, and peak plantar pressure (PPP—N/cm2) and pressure/time Integral (PTI—N/cm2/s) in the hallux and minor toes after a 1-year follow-up period; Results: Patients with isolated tenotomies (n = 11, 35.48%) showed a higher rate of reulceration (n = 8, 72.7%, p < 0.001) in the adjacent toes, additionally, we found more prevalence of hyperkeratosis (n = 11, 100%), minor lesions (n = 9, 81%), and claw toes (n = 11, 100%) (p < 0.001). In several tenotomies patients (n = 20, 64.52%), we found a higher rate of floating toes (n = 16, 80%) in comparison with isolated tenotomies patients (p < 0.001). PPP and PTI in the non-tenotomy toes were higher in the group of patients who underwent isolated tenotomies (p < 0.001); Conclusions: Patients who underwent several tenotomies had better clinical outcomes after a 1-year follow-up period compared to isolated tenotomies.
  • Publication
    Long-Term Complications after Surgical or Medical Treatment of Predominantly Forefoot Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: 1 Year Follow Up
    (MPDI, 2021-05-01) Tardaguila García, Aroa; García Álvarez, Yolanda; García Morales, Esther Alicia; López Moral, Mateo; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Aim: To compare long-term complications according to the treatment received for management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (surgical or medical) at 1 year follow up. Design and Participants: A prospective observational study was conducted involving 116 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The patients received surgical or medical treatment based on the principles described in the literature. To register the development of a complication, both groups of treatments were followed-up 1 year after the ulcer had healed. Results: Ninety-six (82.8%) patients received surgical treatment and 20 (17.2%) medical treatment. No differences were found in the time to healing between both groups of treatment, 15.7 ± 9.2 weeks in the surgical group versus 16.4 ± 12.1 weeks in the medical group; p = 0.103. During follow up, 85 (73.3%) patients developed complications without differences between both groups, 68 (70.8%) in the surgical group versus 17 (85%) in the medical group (p = 0.193). The most common complication in both groups was re-ulceration. We did not observe significant differences comparing complication-free time survival between both treatments (p = 0.665). Conclusion: The onset of complications after healing in patients who suffered from diabetic foot osteomyelitis was not associated with the treatment received. Surgical and medical approaches to the management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis produced similar results in long-term follow up.
  • Publication
    Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Patients with Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis
    (MDPI, 2023-01-19) Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Tardaguila García, Aroa; García Madrid, Marta; López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    This study analysed the bacterial diversity, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance in patients with complications of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). A retrospective observational study was carried out between September 2019 and September 2022 and involved 215 outpatients with a diagnosis of DFO at a specialized diabetic foot unit. A total of 204 positive bone cultures were isolated, including 62.7% monomicrobial cultures, and 37.3% were formed with at least two microorganisms. We observed that Proteus spp., Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Corynebacterium were the most frequently isolated microorganisms and accounted for more than 10% of the DFO cases. With stratification by Grampositive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, we observed that 91.6% of cultures presented at least one GP bacteria species, and 50.4% presented at least one GN bacteria species. The most common GP species were CoNS (29%), S. aureus (25.8%), and Corynebacterium spp. (14%). The most frequent GN species consisted of Proteus spp. (32%), P. aeruginosa (23.3%), and E. coli (17.5%). The main antibiotics with resistance to GP-dominated infections were penicillins without �-lactamase inhibitor, and those in GN-dominated infections were sulfonamides and penicillins without �-lactamase. Significant differences were not observed in mean healing time in DFU with acute osteomyelitis (12.76 weeks (4.50;18)) compared to chronic osteomyelitis (15.31 weeks (7;18.25); p = 0.101) and when comparing cases with soft tissue infection (15.95 (6;20)) and those without such an infection (16.59 (7.25;19.75), p = 0.618). This study shows that when treatment of DFO is based on early surgical treatment, the type of DFO and the presence of soft infection are not associated with different or worse prognoses.