García Álvarez, Yolanda

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First Name
Last Name
García Álvarez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
  • Publication
    Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Patients with Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis
    (MDPI, 2023-01-19) Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Tardáguila García, Aroa; García Madrid, Marta; López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    This study analysed the bacterial diversity, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance in patients with complications of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). A retrospective observational study was carried out between September 2019 and September 2022 and involved 215 outpatients with a diagnosis of DFO at a specialized diabetic foot unit. A total of 204 positive bone cultures were isolated, including 62.7% monomicrobial cultures, and 37.3% were formed with at least two microorganisms. We observed that Proteus spp., Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Corynebacterium were the most frequently isolated microorganisms and accounted for more than 10% of the DFO cases. With stratification by Grampositive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, we observed that 91.6% of cultures presented at least one GP bacteria species, and 50.4% presented at least one GN bacteria species. The most common GP species were CoNS (29%), S. aureus (25.8%), and Corynebacterium spp. (14%). The most frequent GN species consisted of Proteus spp. (32%), P. aeruginosa (23.3%), and E. coli (17.5%). The main antibiotics with resistance to GP-dominated infections were penicillins without �-lactamase inhibitor, and those in GN-dominated infections were sulfonamides and penicillins without �-lactamase. Significant differences were not observed in mean healing time in DFU with acute osteomyelitis (12.76 weeks (4.50;18)) compared to chronic osteomyelitis (15.31 weeks (7;18.25); p = 0.101) and when comparing cases with soft tissue infection (15.95 (6;20)) and those without such an infection (16.59 (7.25;19.75), p = 0.618). This study shows that when treatment of DFO is based on early surgical treatment, the type of DFO and the presence of soft infection are not associated with different or worse prognoses.
  • Publication
    Analysis of Plantar Pressure Pattern after Metatarsal Head Resection. Can Plantar Pressure Predict Diabetic Foot Reulceration?
    (MPDI, 2021-05-24) García Madrid, Marta; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Morales, Esther Alicia; Tardáguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    To evaluate the metatarsal head that was associated with the highest plantar pressure after metatarsal head resection (MHR) and the relations with reulceration at one year, a prospective was conducted with a total of sixty-five patients with diabetes who suffered from the first MHR and with an inactive ulcer at the moment of inclusion. Peak plantar pressure and pressure time integral were recorded at five specific locations in the forefoot: first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal heads. The highest value of the four remaining metatarsals was selected. After resection of the first metatarsal head, there is a displacement of the pressure beneath the second metatarsal head (p < 0.001). Following the resection of the minor metatarsal bones, there was a medial displacement of the plantar pressure. In this way, plantar pressure was displaced under the first metatarsal head following resection of the second or third head (p = 0.001) and under the central heads after resection of the fourth or fifth metatarsal head (p < 0.009 and p < 0.001 respectively). During the one-year follow-up, patients who underwent a metatarsal head resection in the first and second metatarsal heads suffered transfer lesion in the location with the highest pressure. Patients who underwent a minor metatarsal head resection (second–fifth metatarsal heads) showed a medial transference of pressure. Additionally, following the resection of the first metatarsal head there was a transference of pressure beneath the second metatarsal head. Increase of pressure was found to be a predictor of reulceration in cases of resection of the first and second metatarsal heads.
  • Publication
    Differences in the Sub-Metatarsal Fat Pad Atrophy Symptoms between Patients with Metatarsal Head Resection and Those without Metatarsal Head Resection: A Cross-Sectional Study
    (MDPI, 2020-03-14) Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; García Álvarez, Yolanda; García-Klepzig, José Luis; García Morales, Esther Alicia; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    We aimed to evaluate the differences in the sub-metatarsal skin and fat pad atrophy between patients at a high risk of ulceration with and without previous metatarsal head resection. A cross-sectional study was performed in a diabetic foot unit involving 19 participants with a history of metatarsal head resection (experimental group) and 19 (control group) without a history of metatarsal head resection but with an ulcer in other locations in the metatarsal head. No participants had active ulcerations at study inclusion. Sub-metatarsal skin thickness and fat pad thickness in the first and second metatarsals were evaluated by an ultrasound transducer. The experimental group showed sub-metatarsal fat pad atrophy (3.74 ± 1.18 mm and 2.52 ± 1.04 mm for first and second metatarsal, respectively) compared with the control group (5.44 ± 1.12 mm and 4.73 ± 1.59 mm) (p < 0.001, confidence interval: (CI): 0.943–2.457 and p < 0.001, CI: 1.143–3.270 for first and second metatarsal, respectively); however, sub-metatarsal skin thickness was not different between groups (experimental 2.47 ± 0.47 mm vs. control 2.80 ± 0.58 mm (p = 0.063, CI: −0.019–0.672) and 2.24 ± 0.60 mm vs. 2.62 ± 0.50 mm (p = 0.066, CI: −0.027–0.786) for first and second metatarsal, respectively). Patients with previous metatarsal head resection showed sub-metatarsal fat pad atrophy, which could be associated with the risk of reulceration in the metatarsal head.
  • Publication
    Long-Term Complications after Surgical or Medical Treatment of Predominantly Forefoot Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: 1 Year Follow Up
    (MPDI, 2021-05-01) Tardáguila García, Aroa; García Álvarez, Yolanda; García Morales, Esther Alicia; López Moral, Mateo; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Aim: To compare long-term complications according to the treatment received for management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (surgical or medical) at 1 year follow up. Design and Participants: A prospective observational study was conducted involving 116 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The patients received surgical or medical treatment based on the principles described in the literature. To register the development of a complication, both groups of treatments were followed-up 1 year after the ulcer had healed. Results: Ninety-six (82.8%) patients received surgical treatment and 20 (17.2%) medical treatment. No differences were found in the time to healing between both groups of treatment, 15.7 ± 9.2 weeks in the surgical group versus 16.4 ± 12.1 weeks in the medical group; p = 0.103. During follow up, 85 (73.3%) patients developed complications without differences between both groups, 68 (70.8%) in the surgical group versus 17 (85%) in the medical group (p = 0.193). The most common complication in both groups was re-ulceration. We did not observe significant differences comparing complication-free time survival between both treatments (p = 0.665). Conclusion: The onset of complications after healing in patients who suffered from diabetic foot osteomyelitis was not associated with the treatment received. Surgical and medical approaches to the management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis produced similar results in long-term follow up.
  • Publication
    Microcirculation Improvement in Diabetic Foot Patients after Treatment with Sucrose Octasulfate-Impregnated Dressings
    (MDPI, 2023) Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; García-Madrid, Marta; Bohbot, Serge; López Moral, Mateo; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda
    To assess the patients’ microcirculation evolution during the treatment with a sucrose octasulfate-impregnated dressing, fifty patients with neuroischaemic DFU treated with TLC-NOSF dressing were included in a prospective study between November 2020 and February 2022. TcpO2 values were measured on the dorsalis pedis or tibial posterior arteries’ angiosome according to the ulcer location. TcpO2 values were assessed at day 0 and every 4 weeks during 20 weeks of the follow-up or until the wound healed. A cut-off point of tcpO2 < 30 mmHg was defined for patients with impaired microcirculation. The TcpO2 values showed an increase between day 0 and the end of the study, 33.04 � 12.27 mmHg and 40.89 � 13.06 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.001. Patients with impaired microcirculation showed an increase in the tcpO2 values from day 0 to the end of the study (p = 0.023). Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in the TcpO2 values in the forefoot DFU (p = 0.002) and in the rearfoot DFU (p = 0.071), with no difference between the ulcer locations (p = 0.694). The local treatment with TLC-NOSF dressing improved the microcirculation in patients with neuroischaemic DFU, regardless of microcirculation status at the baseline, and in the forefoot, regardless of the location.
  • Publication
    Predictive value of forefoot plantar pressure to predict reulceration in patients at high risk
    (Elsevier, 2022-06-30) García Madrid, Marta; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luiz
    Aims: To analyze a plantar pressure cut-off point for diabetic foot reulceration beneath the metatarsal heads in patients with previous forefoot amputation. Methods: A one-year prospective study was conducted in a total of 105 patients at high risk for foot ulceration. Peak plantar pressure (PPP) and pressure-time integral (PTI) in the entire foot, the forefoot region, and each metatarsal head separately were registered. ROC curves were used to select the optimal diagnostic pressure cut-off points. Patients were follow-up monthly or until the development of an ulcer event. Results: A total of 52 (49.5%) patients developed a reulceration. Using ROC analyses for PPP in the full-foot and in the forefoot, did not predict reulceration beneath the metatarsal heads. Analyzing separately each metatarsal head all patients with values greater than or equal to 20.8 N/cm2 at the 1st, 18.62 N/cm2 for the 2nd, 18.85 at the 3rd, 17.88 at the 4th, and 12.2 at the 5th metatarsal heads will suffer a reulceration despite the use of orthopedic treatment with optimum values of sensitivity (from 100 to 87.5) and specificity (from 83.2 to 62.8). Conclusion: Barefoot pressures beneath the metatarsal heads should be analyzed separately to predict the region at risk of reulceration.
  • Publication
    Uso de insignias digitales para aumentar la motivación y el reconocimiento social online de logros formativos
    (2015-12-15) Beneit Montesinos, Juan Vicente; Carabantes Alarcón, David; García Álvarez, Yolanda; García Morales, Esther Alicia; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; Ortega Colomer, Francisco Javier; Sanz Corbalán, Irene
    El uso de insignias digitales (digital badges) se está imponiendo en la actualidad, enfocado principalmente para aumentar la motivación en logros formativos y el reconocimiento social de los mismos
  • Publication
    The Influence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria on Clinical Outcomes of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Systematic Review
    (MPDI, 2021-05-01) Matta Gutiérrez, Gianmarco; García Morales, Esther Alicia; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Multidrug-resistant organism infections have become important in recent years due to the increased prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and their possible consequences. This study aimed to systematically review and evaluate ulcer duration, healing time, hospital stay, amputation, and mortality rates in patients with diabetic foot ulcers caused by infection with multidrug-resistant organisms. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched in May 2020 to find observational studies in English about the clinical outcomes of multidrug-resistant organism infection in diabetic foot ulcers. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, and these studies included 923 patients. The overall methodological quality of the study was moderate. Ulcer duration was described in six studies, and there was no practical association with multidrug-resistant organisms. Two out of three studies reported a longer healing time in multidrug-resistant organism infections than in non-multidrug-resistant organism infections. Clinical outcomes included the duration of hospitalisation, surgeries, amputations, and deaths. Lower limb amputation was the most reported clinical outcome in the included studies, and was more prevalent in the multidrug-resistant organism infections. We concluded that there was not enough evidence that multidrug-resistant organisms hindered the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. In contrast to the clinical outcomes, multidrug-resistant organisms affect both amputation rates and mortality rates.
  • Publication
    Safety and Efficacy of Several Versus Isolated Prophylactic Flexor Tenotomies in Diabetes Patients: A 1-Year Prospective Study
    (MDPI, 2022-07-14) López Moral, Mateo; Molines Barroso, Raúl J.; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Tardáguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    To assess long-term clinical outcomes of patients who underwent isolated versus several percutaneous flexor tenotomies for the treatment of toe deformities and previous diabetic foot ulcers; Methods: Twenty-three patients (mean age 66.26 ± 11.20, years) who underwent prophylactic percutaneous flexor tenotomies secondary to tip-toe ulcers participated in this 1-year prospective study. The study was stratified into two groups for analyses: (1) isolated tenotomies patients, and (2) several tenotomies patients (two or more tenotomies). Outcome measures were toe reulceration and recurrence, minor lesions, digital deformities, and peak plantar pressure (PPP—N/cm2) and pressure/time Integral (PTI—N/cm2/s) in the hallux and minor toes after a 1-year follow-up period; Results: Patients with isolated tenotomies (n = 11, 35.48%) showed a higher rate of reulceration (n = 8, 72.7%, p < 0.001) in the adjacent toes, additionally, we found more prevalence of hyperkeratosis (n = 11, 100%), minor lesions (n = 9, 81%), and claw toes (n = 11, 100%) (p < 0.001). In several tenotomies patients (n = 20, 64.52%), we found a higher rate of floating toes (n = 16, 80%) in comparison with isolated tenotomies patients (p < 0.001). PPP and PTI in the non-tenotomy toes were higher in the group of patients who underwent isolated tenotomies (p < 0.001); Conclusions: Patients who underwent several tenotomies had better clinical outcomes after a 1-year follow-up period compared to isolated tenotomies.
  • Publication
    Metatarsal Head Resections in Diabetic Foot Patients: A Systematic Review
    (MDPI, 2020) Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Tardáguila García, Aroa; García-Alamino, Josep M.; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    A systematic review and proportional meta-analysis were carried out to investigate the complications that occur after surgical metatarsal head resection in diabetic foot patients. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist recommendations were applied, and the selected studies were evaluated using a Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. PubMed (Medline) and Embase (Elsevier) were searched in December 2019 to find clinical trials, cohort studies, or case series assessing the efficacy of the metatarsal head resection technique in diabetic foot patients. The systematic review covered 21 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria and included 483 subjects. The outcomes evaluated were the time to heal, recurrence, reulceration, amputation, and other complications. The proportion of recurrence was 7.2% [confidence interval (CI) 4.0–10.4, p < 0.001], that of reulceration was 20.7% (CI 11.6–29.8, p < 0.001), and that of amputation was 7.6% (CI 3.4–11.8, p < 0.001). A heterogeneity test indicated I 2 = 72.6% (p < 0.001) for recurrences, I 2 = 94% (p < 0.001) for reulcerations, and I 2 = 79% (p < 0.001) for amputations. We conclude that metatarsal head resections in diabetic foot patients are correlated with significant complications, especially reulceration.