García Álvarez, Yolanda

Profile Picture
First Name
Last Name
García Álvarez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología
UCM identifierORCIDScopus Author IDDialnet ID

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Analyses of transcutaneous oxygen pressure values stratified for foot angiosomes to predict diabetic foot ulcer healing
    (Elsevier, 2023-10-08) López-Moral M; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; Elsevier
    Aims: Previous research suggested that diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) location could affect transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) values following the angiosome concept. Up to our knowledge no studies have yet analyzed if the location of a diabetic foot ulcer can be a confounding factor that modifies TcPO2 values. The primary aim of this study was to compare the potential healing prognosis of TcPO2 differentiated for diabetic foot ulcers in different angiosome locations. Methods: a 2-years observational cohort prospective study was performed in 81 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements were performed at baseline by placing the electrode on two different angiosomes: dorsal zone of the foot (dorsalis pedis angiosome) and between the navicular bone and the tibial malleolus (posterior tibial angiosome). The main outcome was establishing the effectiveness of TcPO2 measurements (dorsalis pedis angiosome and posterior tibial angiosome) for predicting DFU healing. Results: Transcutaneous oxygen pressure probe placed in the dorsum of the foot (dorsalis pedis angiosome) yielded a sensitivity (S) of 95 % and specificity (SP) of 73 %, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.902 (p < 0.001 [0.84–0.96]) for ulcers located in the forefoot and toes; while TcPO2 placed in the posterior tibial angiosome yielded an S of 100 % and SP of 85 % and an AUC of 0.894 (p <0.001 [0-822-0.966]) for DFU located in the midfoot and heel. Conclusion: This study suggests that angiosome-guided TcPO2 contributes to a prognosis of successful foot ulcer healing.
  • Publication
    Correlation between Empirical Antibiotic Therapy and Bone Culture Results in Patients with Osteomyelitis
    (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019-01) Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Morales, Esther Alicia
    Objective: To analyze the correlation between empirical antibiotic therapies prescribed in primary care centers by general practitioners and the microbiology results of bone culture in patients with diabetic foot-related osteomyelitis. Methods: This observational study involved 80 patients with diabetic foot ulcers and clinically suspected osteomyelitis. The patients were taking antibiotics prescribed by general practitioners to treat diabetic foot infections. Bone samples were taken from every patient for microbiology analysis in a specialized diabetic foot unit. Main outcome measure: The sensitivity of the bone cultures to antibiotics was compared with the patient's previous antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic and bacterial resistance were analyzed. Main results: The bone cultures from only 16 patients (22.3%) showed sensitivity to the antibiotics that the patient had been prescribed. Fifty-six patients (77.8%) displayed bacterial resistance to the antibiotic that they were taking. Conclusions: Awareness and implementation of international antibiotic stewardship guidelines are poor in primary care centers. It is important to establish strategies that foster a better understanding of treatment management standards and ensure the proper implementation of guidelines.
  • Publication
    A comparison of hyperspectral imaging with routine vascular noninvasive techniques to assess the healing prognosis in patients with diabetic foot ulcers
    (Elsevier, 2022-01) López Moral, Mateo; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Tardaguila García, Aroa; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Objective: To compare the potential healing prognosis of the different routine noninvasive techniques implemented in the International Working Group Diabetic Foot Guidelines with the novel use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Methods: Twenty-one patients with active DFUs participated in this 1-year prospective study in a specialized diabetic foot unit between December 2018 and January 2020. HSI was performed at baseline to quantify tissue oxygenation and should be presented on an anatomical map by analyzing the following parameters: (1) oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin, (2) tissue hemoglobin index, (3) the near-infrared perfusion index, and (4) tissue water index. In addition, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2), systolic toe and ankle pressures, ankle-brachial index, and toe-brachial index values were calculated for the ulcerated limb. The primary outcome measure was wound healing, defined as complete epithelization without any drainage confirmed for at least 10 days after closure was first documented at 24 weeks. Results: During the follow-up period 14 patients (66.66 %) healed and 7 patients did not heal (33.3%) by 24 weeks. The TcpO2 optimal cut-off point as determined by a balance of sensitivity and specificity of 28.5 mm Hg that yielded a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.989 (P = .005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.945-1.000). Followed by the oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin optimal cut-off point as determined by a balance of sensitivity and specificity of 48.5 mm Hg that yielded a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 0.71%, and area under the curve of 0.932 (P = .013; 95% CI, 0.787-1.000). The logistic regression analyses showed that TcpO2 was the only variable associated with wound healing at 24 weeks (P < .001; 95% CI, 0.046-0.642). Conclusions: The HSI was shown to be effective in the prognosis of DFU healing compared with other noninvasive test; only TcpO2 values resulted in better diagnosis potential in wound healing.
  • Publication
    Complications associated with the approach to metatarsal head resection in diabetic foot osteomyelitis
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-12-04) Tardaguila García, Aroa; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery time and the development of complications in the dorsal and plantar approach to metatarsal head resections (MHR) in patients with diabetic foot ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis. A retrospective study was carried out involving 108 patients who underwent MHRs for the treatment of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Two cohorts were defined: dorsal approach with incision closed with sutures and plantar approach with ulcer healed using conservative treatment. The main outcomes were the weeks until healing and complications related to the approaches. Fifty-three patients (49.1%) underwent a plantar approach and 55 (50.9%) a dorsal approach. Both approaches rendered similar healing times. However, the patients undergoing a dorsal approach developed more post-surgical complications than patients treated through a plantar approach. The dorsal approach intervention was performed on smaller and shallower ulcers; however, more complications developed at follow up using this approach than through a plantar approach for MHR complicated with osteomyelitis.
  • Publication
    Safety and Efficacy of Several Versus Isolated Prophylactic Flexor Tenotomies in Diabetes Patients: A 1-Year Prospective Study
    (MDPI, 2022-07-14) López Moral, Mateo; Molines Barroso, Raúl J.; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    To assess long-term clinical outcomes of patients who underwent isolated versus several percutaneous flexor tenotomies for the treatment of toe deformities and previous diabetic foot ulcers; Methods: Twenty-three patients (mean age 66.26 ± 11.20, years) who underwent prophylactic percutaneous flexor tenotomies secondary to tip-toe ulcers participated in this 1-year prospective study. The study was stratified into two groups for analyses: (1) isolated tenotomies patients, and (2) several tenotomies patients (two or more tenotomies). Outcome measures were toe reulceration and recurrence, minor lesions, digital deformities, and peak plantar pressure (PPP—N/cm2) and pressure/time Integral (PTI—N/cm2/s) in the hallux and minor toes after a 1-year follow-up period; Results: Patients with isolated tenotomies (n = 11, 35.48%) showed a higher rate of reulceration (n = 8, 72.7%, p < 0.001) in the adjacent toes, additionally, we found more prevalence of hyperkeratosis (n = 11, 100%), minor lesions (n = 9, 81%), and claw toes (n = 11, 100%) (p < 0.001). In several tenotomies patients (n = 20, 64.52%), we found a higher rate of floating toes (n = 16, 80%) in comparison with isolated tenotomies patients (p < 0.001). PPP and PTI in the non-tenotomy toes were higher in the group of patients who underwent isolated tenotomies (p < 0.001); Conclusions: Patients who underwent several tenotomies had better clinical outcomes after a 1-year follow-up period compared to isolated tenotomies.
  • Publication
    Metatarsal Head Resections in Diabetic Foot Patients: A Systematic Review
    (MDPI, 2020) Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Tardaguila García, Aroa; García-Alamino, Josep M.; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    A systematic review and proportional meta-analysis were carried out to investigate the complications that occur after surgical metatarsal head resection in diabetic foot patients. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist recommendations were applied, and the selected studies were evaluated using a Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. PubMed (Medline) and Embase (Elsevier) were searched in December 2019 to find clinical trials, cohort studies, or case series assessing the efficacy of the metatarsal head resection technique in diabetic foot patients. The systematic review covered 21 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria and included 483 subjects. The outcomes evaluated were the time to heal, recurrence, reulceration, amputation, and other complications. The proportion of recurrence was 7.2% [confidence interval (CI) 4.0–10.4, p < 0.001], that of reulceration was 20.7% (CI 11.6–29.8, p < 0.001), and that of amputation was 7.6% (CI 3.4–11.8, p < 0.001). A heterogeneity test indicated I 2 = 72.6% (p < 0.001) for recurrences, I 2 = 94% (p < 0.001) for reulcerations, and I 2 = 79% (p < 0.001) for amputations. We conclude that metatarsal head resections in diabetic foot patients are correlated with significant complications, especially reulceration.
  • Publication
    Long-Term Complications after Surgical or Medical Treatment of Predominantly Forefoot Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: 1 Year Follow Up
    (MPDI, 2021-05-01) Tardaguila García, Aroa; García Álvarez, Yolanda; García Morales, Esther Alicia; López Moral, Mateo; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Aim: To compare long-term complications according to the treatment received for management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (surgical or medical) at 1 year follow up. Design and Participants: A prospective observational study was conducted involving 116 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The patients received surgical or medical treatment based on the principles described in the literature. To register the development of a complication, both groups of treatments were followed-up 1 year after the ulcer had healed. Results: Ninety-six (82.8%) patients received surgical treatment and 20 (17.2%) medical treatment. No differences were found in the time to healing between both groups of treatment, 15.7 ± 9.2 weeks in the surgical group versus 16.4 ± 12.1 weeks in the medical group; p = 0.103. During follow up, 85 (73.3%) patients developed complications without differences between both groups, 68 (70.8%) in the surgical group versus 17 (85%) in the medical group (p = 0.193). The most common complication in both groups was re-ulceration. We did not observe significant differences comparing complication-free time survival between both treatments (p = 0.665). Conclusion: The onset of complications after healing in patients who suffered from diabetic foot osteomyelitis was not associated with the treatment received. Surgical and medical approaches to the management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis produced similar results in long-term follow up.
  • Publication
    Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance in Patients with Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis
    (MDPI, 2023-01-19) Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Tardaguila García, Aroa; García Madrid, Marta; López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    This study analysed the bacterial diversity, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance in patients with complications of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). A retrospective observational study was carried out between September 2019 and September 2022 and involved 215 outpatients with a diagnosis of DFO at a specialized diabetic foot unit. A total of 204 positive bone cultures were isolated, including 62.7% monomicrobial cultures, and 37.3% were formed with at least two microorganisms. We observed that Proteus spp., Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Corynebacterium were the most frequently isolated microorganisms and accounted for more than 10% of the DFO cases. With stratification by Grampositive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, we observed that 91.6% of cultures presented at least one GP bacteria species, and 50.4% presented at least one GN bacteria species. The most common GP species were CoNS (29%), S. aureus (25.8%), and Corynebacterium spp. (14%). The most frequent GN species consisted of Proteus spp. (32%), P. aeruginosa (23.3%), and E. coli (17.5%). The main antibiotics with resistance to GP-dominated infections were penicillins without �-lactamase inhibitor, and those in GN-dominated infections were sulfonamides and penicillins without �-lactamase. Significant differences were not observed in mean healing time in DFU with acute osteomyelitis (12.76 weeks (4.50;18)) compared to chronic osteomyelitis (15.31 weeks (7;18.25); p = 0.101) and when comparing cases with soft tissue infection (15.95 (6;20)) and those without such an infection (16.59 (7.25;19.75), p = 0.618). This study shows that when treatment of DFO is based on early surgical treatment, the type of DFO and the presence of soft infection are not associated with different or worse prognoses.
  • Publication
    Analysis of Plantar Pressure Pattern after Metatarsal Head Resection. Can Plantar Pressure Predict Diabetic Foot Reulceration?
    (MPDI, 2021-05-24) García Madrid, Marta; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Morales, Esther Alicia; Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    To evaluate the metatarsal head that was associated with the highest plantar pressure after metatarsal head resection (MHR) and the relations with reulceration at one year, a prospective was conducted with a total of sixty-five patients with diabetes who suffered from the first MHR and with an inactive ulcer at the moment of inclusion. Peak plantar pressure and pressure time integral were recorded at five specific locations in the forefoot: first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal heads. The highest value of the four remaining metatarsals was selected. After resection of the first metatarsal head, there is a displacement of the pressure beneath the second metatarsal head (p < 0.001). Following the resection of the minor metatarsal bones, there was a medial displacement of the plantar pressure. In this way, plantar pressure was displaced under the first metatarsal head following resection of the second or third head (p = 0.001) and under the central heads after resection of the fourth or fifth metatarsal head (p < 0.009 and p < 0.001 respectively). During the one-year follow-up, patients who underwent a metatarsal head resection in the first and second metatarsal heads suffered transfer lesion in the location with the highest pressure. Patients who underwent a minor metatarsal head resection (second–fifth metatarsal heads) showed a medial transference of pressure. Additionally, following the resection of the first metatarsal head there was a transference of pressure beneath the second metatarsal head. Increase of pressure was found to be a predictor of reulceration in cases of resection of the first and second metatarsal heads.