García Álvarez, Yolanda

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First Name
Last Name
García Álvarez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología
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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Analyses of transcutaneous oxygen pressure values stratified for foot angiosomes to predict diabetic foot ulcer healing
    (Elsevier, 2023-10-08) López-Moral M; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; Elsevier
    Aims: Previous research suggested that diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) location could affect transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) values following the angiosome concept. Up to our knowledge no studies have yet analyzed if the location of a diabetic foot ulcer can be a confounding factor that modifies TcPO2 values. The primary aim of this study was to compare the potential healing prognosis of TcPO2 differentiated for diabetic foot ulcers in different angiosome locations. Methods: a 2-years observational cohort prospective study was performed in 81 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements were performed at baseline by placing the electrode on two different angiosomes: dorsal zone of the foot (dorsalis pedis angiosome) and between the navicular bone and the tibial malleolus (posterior tibial angiosome). The main outcome was establishing the effectiveness of TcPO2 measurements (dorsalis pedis angiosome and posterior tibial angiosome) for predicting DFU healing. Results: Transcutaneous oxygen pressure probe placed in the dorsum of the foot (dorsalis pedis angiosome) yielded a sensitivity (S) of 95 % and specificity (SP) of 73 %, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.902 (p < 0.001 [0.84–0.96]) for ulcers located in the forefoot and toes; while TcPO2 placed in the posterior tibial angiosome yielded an S of 100 % and SP of 85 % and an AUC of 0.894 (p <0.001 [0-822-0.966]) for DFU located in the midfoot and heel. Conclusion: This study suggests that angiosome-guided TcPO2 contributes to a prognosis of successful foot ulcer healing.
  • Publication
    Clinical efficacy of therapeutic footwear with a rigid rocker sole in the prevention of recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic polineuropathy: A randomized clinical trial
    (Public Library Science, 2019-07-11) López Moral, Mateo; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; García Morales, Esther Alicia; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan
    Background: Therapeutic footwear becomes the first treatment line in the prevention of diabetic foot ulcer and future complications of diabetes. Previous studies and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot have described therapeutic footwear as a protective factor to reduce the risk of re-ulceration. In this study, we aimed to analyze the efficacy of a rigid rocker sole to reduce the recurrence rate of plantar ulcers in patients with diabetic foot. Methods: Between June 2016 and December 2017, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in a specialized diabetic foot unit. Participants and intervention: Fifty-one patients with diabetic neuropathy who had a recently healed plantar ulcer were randomized consecutively into the following two groups: therapeutic footwear with semi-rigid sole (control) or therapeutic footwear with a rigid rocker sole (experimental). All patients included in the study were followed up for 6 months (one visit each 30 ± 2 days) or until the development of a recurrence event. Main outcome and measure: Primary outcome measure was recurrence of ulcers in the plantar aspect of the foot. Findings: A total of 51 patients were randomized to the control and experimental groups. The median follow-up time was 26 [IQR-4.4-26.1] weeks for both groups. On an intention-to-treat basis, 16 (64%) and 6 (23%) patients in the control and experimental groups had ulcer recurrence, respectively. Among the group with >60% adherence to therapeutic footwear, multivariate analysis showed that the rigid rocker sole improved ulcer recurrence-free survival time in diabetes patients with polyneuropathy and DFU history (P = 0.019; 95% confidence interval, 0.086-0.807; hazard ratio, 0.263). Conclusions: We recommend the use of therapeutic footwear with a rigid rocker sole in patients with diabetes with polyneuropathy and history of diabetic foot ulcer to reduce the risk of plantar ulcer recurrence. Trial registration: NCT02995863.
  • Publication
    Advantages of early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers
    (Elsevier, 2018-12) Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; García Morales, Esther Alicia; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda
    Aims: To evaluate the utility of the sudomotor function test (SFT) as a clinical tool in the Risk Stratification System of diabetic patients and to demonstrate the earlier detection of the risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) compared to the standard clinical tests. Methods: Prospective follow-up study on 263 patients enrolled consecutively over 3.5 years. Diabetic patients without active DFU were classified according to the International Working Group Risk Stratification System (RSS) and categorized according to the results of the Semmes-Wenstein Monofilament (SWM) and biothesiometer measurements or the SFT. The main outcome evaluated was the development of DFU. Results: Median follow-up was 42 [38-44] months. Sixty patients (22.8%) developed DFU after a median of 6.2 [3-17] months. Ten patients that were included in the no-risk group (group 0) based on the SWM and biothesiometer results developed DFU. Thus the sensitivity of this approach was 83.33% and the specificity was 50.47%. Based on the SFT results, all patients that developed DFU were included in the correct risk group. This approach had 100% sensitivity and 31.53% specificity. Regarding the diagnostic accuracy of the two Methods, the respective AUC values were 0.776 (95% CI 0.702-0.849) and 0.816 (95% CI 0.757-0.874). Conclusions: SFT improved RSS in diabetic patients in a specialized diabetic foot unit. SFT categorized patients correctly according to the risk of developing DFU.
  • Publication
    Correlation between Empirical Antibiotic Therapy and Bone Culture Results in Patients with Osteomyelitis
    (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019-01) Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Morales, Esther Alicia
    Objective: To analyze the correlation between empirical antibiotic therapies prescribed in primary care centers by general practitioners and the microbiology results of bone culture in patients with diabetic foot-related osteomyelitis. Methods: This observational study involved 80 patients with diabetic foot ulcers and clinically suspected osteomyelitis. The patients were taking antibiotics prescribed by general practitioners to treat diabetic foot infections. Bone samples were taken from every patient for microbiology analysis in a specialized diabetic foot unit. Main outcome measure: The sensitivity of the bone cultures to antibiotics was compared with the patient's previous antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic and bacterial resistance were analyzed. Main results: The bone cultures from only 16 patients (22.3%) showed sensitivity to the antibiotics that the patient had been prescribed. Fifty-six patients (77.8%) displayed bacterial resistance to the antibiotic that they were taking. Conclusions: Awareness and implementation of international antibiotic stewardship guidelines are poor in primary care centers. It is important to establish strategies that foster a better understanding of treatment management standards and ensure the proper implementation of guidelines.
  • Publication
    A comparison of hyperspectral imaging with routine vascular noninvasive techniques to assess the healing prognosis in patients with diabetic foot ulcers
    (Elsevier, 2022-01) López Moral, Mateo; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Tardaguila García, Aroa; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Objective: To compare the potential healing prognosis of the different routine noninvasive techniques implemented in the International Working Group Diabetic Foot Guidelines with the novel use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Methods: Twenty-one patients with active DFUs participated in this 1-year prospective study in a specialized diabetic foot unit between December 2018 and January 2020. HSI was performed at baseline to quantify tissue oxygenation and should be presented on an anatomical map by analyzing the following parameters: (1) oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin, (2) tissue hemoglobin index, (3) the near-infrared perfusion index, and (4) tissue water index. In addition, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2), systolic toe and ankle pressures, ankle-brachial index, and toe-brachial index values were calculated for the ulcerated limb. The primary outcome measure was wound healing, defined as complete epithelization without any drainage confirmed for at least 10 days after closure was first documented at 24 weeks. Results: During the follow-up period 14 patients (66.66 %) healed and 7 patients did not heal (33.3%) by 24 weeks. The TcpO2 optimal cut-off point as determined by a balance of sensitivity and specificity of 28.5 mm Hg that yielded a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.989 (P = .005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.945-1.000). Followed by the oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin optimal cut-off point as determined by a balance of sensitivity and specificity of 48.5 mm Hg that yielded a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 0.71%, and area under the curve of 0.932 (P = .013; 95% CI, 0.787-1.000). The logistic regression analyses showed that TcpO2 was the only variable associated with wound healing at 24 weeks (P < .001; 95% CI, 0.046-0.642). Conclusions: The HSI was shown to be effective in the prognosis of DFU healing compared with other noninvasive test; only TcpO2 values resulted in better diagnosis potential in wound healing.
  • Publication
    Complications associated with the approach to metatarsal head resection in diabetic foot osteomyelitis
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-12-04) Tardaguila García, Aroa; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Molines Barroso, Raúl Juan; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery time and the development of complications in the dorsal and plantar approach to metatarsal head resections (MHR) in patients with diabetic foot ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis. A retrospective study was carried out involving 108 patients who underwent MHRs for the treatment of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Two cohorts were defined: dorsal approach with incision closed with sutures and plantar approach with ulcer healed using conservative treatment. The main outcomes were the weeks until healing and complications related to the approaches. Fifty-three patients (49.1%) underwent a plantar approach and 55 (50.9%) a dorsal approach. Both approaches rendered similar healing times. However, the patients undergoing a dorsal approach developed more post-surgical complications than patients treated through a plantar approach. The dorsal approach intervention was performed on smaller and shallower ulcers; however, more complications developed at follow up using this approach than through a plantar approach for MHR complicated with osteomyelitis.
  • Publication
    Safety and Efficacy of Several Versus Isolated Prophylactic Flexor Tenotomies in Diabetes Patients: A 1-Year Prospective Study
    (MDPI, 2022-07-14) López Moral, Mateo; Molines Barroso, Raúl J.; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Sanz Corbalán, Irene; Tardaguila García, Aroa; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    To assess long-term clinical outcomes of patients who underwent isolated versus several percutaneous flexor tenotomies for the treatment of toe deformities and previous diabetic foot ulcers; Methods: Twenty-three patients (mean age 66.26 ± 11.20, years) who underwent prophylactic percutaneous flexor tenotomies secondary to tip-toe ulcers participated in this 1-year prospective study. The study was stratified into two groups for analyses: (1) isolated tenotomies patients, and (2) several tenotomies patients (two or more tenotomies). Outcome measures were toe reulceration and recurrence, minor lesions, digital deformities, and peak plantar pressure (PPP—N/cm2) and pressure/time Integral (PTI—N/cm2/s) in the hallux and minor toes after a 1-year follow-up period; Results: Patients with isolated tenotomies (n = 11, 35.48%) showed a higher rate of reulceration (n = 8, 72.7%, p < 0.001) in the adjacent toes, additionally, we found more prevalence of hyperkeratosis (n = 11, 100%), minor lesions (n = 9, 81%), and claw toes (n = 11, 100%) (p < 0.001). In several tenotomies patients (n = 20, 64.52%), we found a higher rate of floating toes (n = 16, 80%) in comparison with isolated tenotomies patients (p < 0.001). PPP and PTI in the non-tenotomy toes were higher in the group of patients who underwent isolated tenotomies (p < 0.001); Conclusions: Patients who underwent several tenotomies had better clinical outcomes after a 1-year follow-up period compared to isolated tenotomies.
  • Publication
    Cryotherapy versus topical nitric‐zinc complex solution for the treatment of plantar warts: A randomized controlled trial
    (Wiley, 2023-11) García Oreja, Sara; Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; López Moral, Mateo; García Álvarez, Yolanda; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    Cryotherapy is commonly regarded as the primary treatment method for plantar warts. A new medical device called nitric–zinc complex solution (NZCS) has also emerged as a potential alternative for wart treatment. The main aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effectiveness of cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen and NZCS in treating plantar warts. We conducted a randomized and controlled clinical trial involving patients with plantar warts. A total of 62 patients were enrolled in the study and monitored for 12 weeks or until their warts were completely resolved. The patients received either cryotherapy or NZCS, with a maximum of six treatment applications. The cure rate was 65.5% in the group treated with cryotherapy and 56.6% in the group treated with NZCS. The average number of treatment applications required for curing warts was significantly lower in the cured group (3.28 ± 1.63) than in the group with unresolved warts (5.5 ± 1.27) (p < 0.01). Moreover, the average number of applications was lower in the cryotherapy group (3.6 ± 1.8) than in the NZCS group (4.8 ± 1.8) (p < 0.01). Based on the findings, NZCS could be considered a favorable first-line treatment option for plantar warts.
  • Publication
    A deeper look at low‐frequency contact ultrasonic debridement in the clinical management of patients with diabetic foot ulcers
    (Wiley, 2023-11) Álvaro Afonso, Francisco Javier; Flores Escobar, Sebastián; Sevillano Fernández, David; García Álvarez, Yolanda; García-Madrid Martín De Almagro, Marta; Lázaro Martínez, José Luis
    The current study aimed to evaluate the dispersal of solution and microbes (aerosol) in the clinical environment during treatment with Low-frequency contact ultrasonic debridement (LFCUD) with or without suction attachment in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). We performed 20 treatments in 10 patients divided into two groups to receive the proposed LFCUD modalities. We measured the microbial load of the environment pre-treatment (sample M1), during treatment with each LFCUD modality (sample M2) and post-treatment (sample M3). The use of LFCUD debridement without a suction attachment results in significantly higher immediate contamination of the clinic environment than the suction attachment, particularly during the procedure (1.70 ± 0.98 log 10 CFU/mL versus 0.77 ± 0.85 log 10 CFU/mL, p = 0.035). When suction is not applied, there are statistically significant differences depending on whether the DFUs are neuropathic or neuroischemic, finding a greater number of microorganisms with high loads in neuropathic DFUs. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between wound area (r = 0.450, p = 0.047) and TBI (r = 0.651, p = 0.006) with the bacterial load during the LFCUD. Based on our results, we recommend using the personal protective equipment required to protect staff members and patients during treatment with LFCUD and using a suction attachment where clinically possible to reduce clinic environmental pollution, especially in neuropathic DFUs and those with larger areas.