Fernández Barrenechea, José María

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First Name
José María
Last Name
Fernández Barrenechea
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Mineralogía y Petrología
Cristalografía y Mineralogía
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 20
  • Publication
    Sources of Sr and S in Aluminum-Phosphate–Sulfate Minerals in Early–Middle Triassic Sandstones (Iberian Ranges, Spain) and Paleoenvironmental Implications for the West Tethys
    (SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2013) Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Newton, Robert J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier
    Aluminum-phosphate–sulfate (APS) minerals, formed during early diagenesis in relation to acid meteoric waters, are the main host of Sr and S in the Early–Middle Triassic continental sandstones of the Iberian Ranges (east of the Iberian Peninsula). The sources of these elements and the effects of paleoenvironmetal changes on these sources and on the formation of APS minerals during Early–Middle Triassic times, were established on the basis of Sr and S isotopic analyses. The S and Sr data (d34S V-CDT = +11 to +14% and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7099–0.7247, respectively) can be interpreted as resulting from mixing of different sources. Strontium was sourced from the dissolution of pre-existing minerals like K-feldspar and clay minerals inherited from the source areas, causing high radiogenic values. However, the isotopic signal must also be influenced by other sources, such as marine or volcanic aerosol that decreased the total 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Marine and volcanic aerosols were also sources of sulfur, but the d34S was lowered by dissolution of pre-existing sulfides, mainly pyrite. Pyrite dissolution and volcanic aerosols would also trigger the acid conditions required for the precipitation of APS minerals. APS minerals in the study area are found mainly in the Cañizar Formation (Olenekian?–Aegian), which has the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The lower abundance of APS minerals in the Eslida Formation (Aegian–Pelsonian) may indicate change in the acidity of pore water towards more alkaline conditions, while the increased 87Sr/86Sr ratios imply decreased Sr input from volcanic activity and/or marine aerosol inputs during Anisian times. Therefore, the decrease in abundance of APS minerals from the Early to Middle Triassic and the variations in the sources of Sr and S are indicative of changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during the beginning of the Triassic Period. These changes from acid to more alkaline conditions are also coincident with the first appearance of carbonate paleosols, trace fossils, and plant fossils in the upper part of the Cañizar Formation (and more in the overlying Eslida Formation) and mark the beginning of biotic recovery in this area. The presence of APS minerals in other European basins of the Western Tethys (such as the German Basin, the Paris Basin and the southeastern France and Sardinia basins) could thus also indicate that unfavorable environmental conditions caused delay in biotic recovery in those areas. In general, the presence of APS minerals may be used as an indicator of arid, acidic conditions unfavorable to biotic colonization.
  • Publication
    Sedimentary evolution of the continental Early–Middle Triassic Cañizar Formation (Central Spain): Implications for life recovery after the Permian–Triassic crisis
    (Elsevier, 2012) López Gómez, José; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Arche, Alfredo; Bourquin, Sylvie; Marzo Carpio, Mariano; Durand, Marc
    The Permian–Triassic transition (P–T) was marked by important geochemical perturbations and the largest known life crisis. Consequences of this event, as oxygen-depleted conditions and the unusual behavior of the carbon cycle, were prolonged during the Early Triassic interval delaying the recovery of life in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Studies on Lower Triassic sediments of continental origin, as in the case of Western Europe, are especially problematic due to the scarcity of fossils and absence of precise dating. The Cañizar Fm. is an Early–Middle Triassic unit of continental origin of the SE Iberian Ranges, E Spain. A detailed sedimentary study of this unit allows a shedding of light on some unresolved problems of the continental deposits of this age. The top of this unit is dated as early Anisian by means of a pollen association, while the age of its base is here estimated as late Smithian or Smithian–Spathian transition. Different facies associations and architectural elements have been defined in this unit. In the western and central parts of the basin, this unit shows sedimentary characteristics of fluvial deposits with locally intercalated aeolian sediments, while in the eastern part there is an alternation of both aeolian and fluvial deposits. Sedimentary structures also indicate changes in the climate conditions, mainly from arid to semiarid. Two marked arid periods when well-preserved aeolian sediments developed during early–middle Spathian and Spathian–Anisian transition. They alternated with two semiarid but more humid periods during the late Spathian and early Anisian. These conditions basically correspond with the general arid and very arid conditions described for central–western European plate during the same period of time. The Ateca–Montalbán High, in the northern border of the study basin, must have represented an important topographic barrier in the western Tethys separating aeolian dominated areas to the N and NE from fluvial dominated areas to the south. The Cañizar Fm. has been subdivided into six members (A–F) separated by seven (1–7) major bounding surfaces (MBS). These surfaces are well recognized laterally over hundred of km and they represent 104–105 My. MBS-5 is considered to be of late Spathian age and it is a clear indication of tectonic activity, represented by a mild unconformity. This event represents a change in the sedimentary characteristics (reactivation) of the unit and from here to the top of the unit are found the first signals of biotic recovery, represented by tetrapod footprints, plants, roots and bioturbation. All of these characteristics and the estimated age represented by the MBS-5 event permit this surface to be related to the coeval Hardegsen unconformity of Central–Western Europe. These first signals of biotic recovery can thus be related to an increased oxygen supply due to the new created paleogeographical corridors in the context of this tectonic activity. These biotic signals occurred 5 My after the Permian–Triassic limit crisis; a similar delay as occurred in other coeval and neighboring basins.
  • Publication
    Transition between Variscan and Alpine cycles in the Pyrenean-Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain): Geodynamic evolution of near-equator European Permian basins
    (Elsevier, 2021-12) Lloret, Joan; López Gómez, José; Heredia, N.; Martín González, Fidel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Borruel Abadía, Violeta; Ronchi, Ausonio; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Galé, Carlos; Ubide, Teresa; Gretter, Nicola; Diez, José B.; Juncal Rosales, Manuel Antonio; Lago, Marceliano
    In the northern Iberian Peninsula, the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogenic belt extends E-W for ca. 1000 km between the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. This orogen developed from the collision between Iberia and Eurasia, mainly in Cenozoic times. Lower-middle Permian sediments crop out in small, elongated basins traditionally considered independent from each other due to misinterpretations on incomplete lithostratigraphic data and scarce radiometric ages. Here, we integrate detailed stratigraphic, sedimentary, tectonic, paleosol and magmatic data from well-dated lithostratigraphic units. Our data reveal a similar geodynamic evolution across the Pyrenean-Cantabrian Ranges at the end of the Variscan cycle. Lower-middle Permian basins started their development under an extensional regime related to the end of the Variscan Belt collapse, which stars in late Carboniferous times in the Variscan hinterland. This orogenic collapse transitioned to Pangea breakup at the middle Permian times in the study region. Sedimentation occurred as three main tectono-sedimentary extensional phases. A first phase (Asselian-Sakmarian), which may have even started at the end of the Carboniferous (Gzhelian) in some sections, is mainly represented by alluvial sedimentation associated with calc-alkaline magmatism. A second stage (late Artinskian–early Kungurian), represented by alluvial, lacustrine and palustrine sediments with intercalations of calc-alkaline volcanic beds, shows a clear upward aridification trend probably related to the late Paleozoic icehouse-greenhouse transition. The third and final stage (Wordian-Capitanian) comprised of alluvial deposits with intercalations of alkaline and mafic beds, rarely deposited in the Cantabrian Mountains, and underwent significant pre- and Early Mesozoic erosion in some segments of the Pyrenees. This third stage can be related to a transition towards the Pangea Supercontinent breakup, not generalized until the Early/Middle Triassic at this latitude because the extensional process stopped about 10 Myr (Pyrenees) to 30 Myr (Cantabrian Mountains). When compared to other well-dated basins near the paleoequator, the tectono-sedimentary and climate evolution of lower-middle Permian basins in Western and Central Europe shows common features. Specifically, we identify coeval periods with magmatic activity, extensional tectonics, high subsidence rates and thick sedimentary record, as well as prolonged periods without sedimentation. This comparison also identifies some evolutionary differences between Permian basins that could be related to distinct locations in the hinterland or foreland of the Variscan orogen. Our data provide a better understanding of the major crustal re-equilibration and reorganization that took place near the equator in Western-Central Europe during the post-Variscan period.
  • Publication
    Shallow burial dolomitisation of Middle–Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids
    (Elsevier, 2011) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Arche, Alfredo
    This work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of theMiddle–Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian–Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much closer to the basin boundary fault than the other two sections. The mineralogy and texture of the carbonate precursor of paleosols in the three studied sections are not preserved because original carbonate is replaced by coarse crystals of dolomite and/or magnesite. Dolomite crystals are typically euhedral, displaying rhombohedral shapes and reddish luminescence, although in the Henarejos section dolomite displays non-planar boundaries and frequently saddle habit. Micas are deformed and adapted to dolomite crystals, which, in turn, are affected by stylolites, suggesting that dolomite precipitated before mechanical and chemical compaction. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of dolomite fromthe three sections showdifferent values (δ13CVPDB mean values=−6.7‰,−5.5‰ and −7.5‰; δ18OVPDB mean values=−4.0‰; –5.6‰and−8.2‰, at Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos sections, respectively). The 87Sr/86Sr ratios are similar in the three sections yielding values between 0.71391 and 0.72213. The petrographic and geochemical features of dolomite in the three studied sections suggest precipitation fromsimilar fluids and during shallow burial diagenesis. Assuming that theminimum temperature for dolomite precipitation in the Henarejos sectionwas 60 °C (as suggested by the presence of non-planar saddle habit), and that the dolomitizing fluid had similar δ18O values at the three localities, then dolomite in the Talayuelas and Landete sections precipitated at temperatures around 16 and 25 °C cooler, respectively. In addition, the δ18OVSMOW values of the water from which dolomite precipitated would have ranged between −0.3 and −2.9‰. Dolomite is partially or totally replaced by non- to dark dull luminescent magnesite in the Landete and Talayuelas sections. Magnesite crystals are affected by stylolites, indicating that it precipitated before chemical compaction. The δ13C mean values are −6.5 and −6.0‰ and the δ18OVPDB mean values are −6.7 and −7.8‰, in the Landete and Talayuelas sections, respectively. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of magnesite are similar in both sections yielding values between 0.71258 and 0.72508. This suggests that they probably precipitated from similar fluids during progressive burial and at higher temperatures than dolomites at the same sections. Assuming thatmagnesite precipitated froma fluid with similar δ18O values in both sections, then it had to precipitate at a temperature around 8 °C higher in Talayuelas than in the Landete section. Dolomitisation and magnesite precipitation probably occurred via reflux of saline to hypersaline brines from the overlying Mid-Late Triassic Muschelkalk and/or Keuper facies. The temperatures inferred for dolomite precipitation, however, are too high for shallow burial if a normal geothermal gradient is applied. Thus, it can be inferred that salinefluidswere heated as theyflowed through the syn-sedimentary extensional faults that controlledMiddle Permian to Middle Triassic sedimentation; consequently fluidswould have been at higher temperatures near the Henarejos area, which was closer to the basin boundary fault than at the Talayuelas and Landete areas, whichwere situated further away. This contention is in agreement with recent studies which demonstrate that an important thermal event took place during Late Triassic–Early Jurassic times in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Publication
    Palaeoenvironmental significance of Late Permian palaeosols in the South-Eastern Iberian Ranges, Spain
    (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008) Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; López Gómez, José; Arche, Alfredo; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier
    The Late Permian (Wuchiapingian) Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Ranges consists of one red alluvial succession where abundant soil profiles developed. Detailed petrographical and sedimentological studies in seven sections of the Alcotas Formation allow six different types of palaeosols, with distinctive characteristics and different palaeogeographical distribution, to be distinguished throughout the South-eastern Iberian Basin. These characteristics are, in turn, related to topographic, climatic and tectonic controls. The vertical distribution of the palaeosols is used to differentiate the formation in three parts from bottom to top showing both drastic and gradual vertical upwards palaeoenvironmental changes in the sections. Reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions based on palaeosols provides evidence for understanding the events that occurred during the Late Permian, some few millions of years before the well-known Permian-Triassic global crisis.
  • Publication
    Early Triassic-Anisian continental sediments from SE Iberian ranges: sedimentological and mineralogical features
    (Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 2008-09) Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Lago San José, Marceliano; Benito Moreno, María Isabel
  • Publication
    A new triadotypomorphan insect from the Anisian (Middle Triassic), Buntsandstein facies, Spain
    (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2009) Béthoux, Olivier; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; López Gómez, José
    The species rubra sp. nov., a new triadotypomorphan insect from the Iberian Ranges, is described on the basis of a newly discovered specimen, found in fine grained sandstones of alluvial origin, in the lowermost part of the Eslida Formation (Buntsandstein facies), in the central part of the Iberian Ranges. The occurrence of a triadotypomorphan suggests an Anisian age of the Eslida Formation. The species represents the oldest Mesozoic insect described from Spain, and provides interesting information to better appreciate the process of ecosystems recovery after the Permian-Triassic boundary crisis. [RESUMEN] La especie rubra sp. nov., un nuevo insecto triadotipomorfo de la Cordillera Ibérica, es descrito en este trabajo en base a un nuevo espécimen hallado en un nivel de areniscas de grano fino de origen aluvial en la parte más baja de la Formación Eslida (facies Buntsandstein), en la zona central de la Cordillera Ibérica. La aparición de este triadotipomorfo confirma la edad Ansíense (Triásico Medio) de la Formación Eslida. La especie encontrada representa el insecto más antiguo hallado en el Mesozoico de España y una interesante información para comprender mejor el proceso de recuperación de los ecosistemas tras la crisis del límite Pérmico-Triásico.
  • Publication
    Geochemical markers of paleoenvironments, weathering, and provenance in Permian–Triassic terrestrial sediments
    (SEPM, 2020) Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Borruel Abadía, Violeta; López Gómez, José
    This study compares several geochemical factors (major and minor rare earth elements, Ti/Al ratios, and chemical index of alteration, CIA, values) in the Early Triassic Cañizar Formation (Fm) (Buntsandtein facies) of E Iberia with those of adjacent Middle Permian and Middle Triassic units (Alcotas and Eslida fms, respectively). According to significant differences detected, it seems that most geochemical perturbation occurred during the Early Triassic. Variations in Ti/Al ratios suggest changes in source areas between the studied units and even within the Cañizar Fm. These provenance changes correlate with successive tectonic pulses during the opening and development of the Iberian Basin, as they can be linked to major sedimentary surfaces and unconformities, as well as major sedimentological variations. Ti enrichment in the lower and middle part of the Cañizar Fm, together with high Sr and P concentrations, may be indicative of environmental alterations related to acid meteoric waters. Moreover, this acid alteration took place under arid conditions as reflected by CIA values, indicating that during the deposition of the Cañizar Fm, variable but predominantly physical weathering prevailed in contrast to the chemical weathering that took place when the Alcotas and Eslida formations were deposited. Our data along with the known fossil record of the study area indicate that during the Middle–Late Permian and Early Triassic, conditions in this tectonically active area changed from humid to arid-acid, hampering biotic recovery. Then, during late Early–Middle Triassic times, the return of more humid and less acid environments promoted biotic development. Geochemical markers emerged as useful tools complementary to sedimentological, paleontological, and tectonic data for unveiling paleoenvironmental events, especially in a setting of significant regional change.
  • Publication
    Late Permian continental sediments in the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain: Petrological and mineralogical characteristics and palaeoenvironmental significance
    (Elsevier, 2005) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Rodas, Magdalena; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Arche, Alfredo; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier
    A detailed mineralogical and petrological study and the analysis of paleosol profiles in continental alluvial sediments of the Late Permian in the SE Iberian Ranges (Spain) allow us to infer the significant environmental changes that occurred during this time period. Three parts have been distinguished in the Late Permian sediments (Alcotas Formation). The lower part includes abundant and well-preserved carbonate paleosol profiles and fine-grained sediments made up by quartz, feldspar, hematite and illite, with scarce kaolinite. The preservation of dolomicrite in some paleosols suggests that they originally developed as dolocretes in an arid to semi-arid climate with marked seasonality. A change towards more humid and acid conditions can be deduced from the presence of siderite and goethite in paleosols in the middle part of the Alcotas Formation. Moreover, the presence of plant remains, coal beds and/or carbonaceous shales at the top of the middle part, and the lack of carbonate paleosols in the upper part of the formation would indicate a further step towards acid conditions. These conditions would increase until the Early Triassic, as indicated by the lack of carbonates and the presence of Sr-rich aluminium phosphate sulphates (APS minerals) at the base of the Triassic (Can˜ izar Formation), which clearly indicates extreme acid conditions during the Permian–Triassic transition of the study area.
  • Publication
    First report of a Middle-Upper Permian magmatism in the SE Iberian Ranges: characterisation and comparison with coeval magmatisms in the western Tethys
    (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2012) Lago San José, Marceliano; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Ubide Garralda, Teresa; Galé, Carlos; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Arche, Alfredo; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Timmerman, Martin J.
    A multiple basic to intermediate sill is reported for the first time in the south-eastern Iberian Ranges. It is composed of several tabular to irregular levels intercalated within the fluvial sediments of the Alcotas Formation (Middle-Upper Permian). The sill could represent the youngest Paleozoic subvolcanic intrusion in the Iberian Ranges. The igneous rocks are classified as basaltic andesites. They show a subophitic microstructure constituted by plagioclase (An62 – An6), augite (En48Wo44Fs7 –En46Wo39Fs15), pseudomorphosed olivine, minor amounts of oxides (magnetite and ilmenite)and accessory F-apatite. According to the mineralogy and whole-rock composition, their geochemical affinity is transitional from subalkaline to alkaline. Radiometric dating of the sill is not feasible due to its significant alteration. Field criteria, however, suggest an emplacement coeval to the deposition of the Alcotas Formation (Middle-Upper Permian). This hypothesis is supported by the transitional affinity of these rocks, similar to other Middle-Upper Permian magmatisms in the western Tethys, e.g., from the Pyrenees. Taking into account their isotopic signature (εSr: -6.8 to -9.2; εNd:+1.7 to +8.3), an enriched mantle source with the involvement of a HIMU component has been identified. This interpretation is supported by the trace element contents. Some of these HIMU characteristics have been recognised in the Middle-Upper Permian magmatisms of the Central Pyrenees (Anayet Basin) and the High Atlas (Argana Basin). However, none of these source features are shared with other Middle-Upper Permian magmatisms of the western Tethys (Catalonian Coastal Ranges, Corsica-Sardinia and southern France), nor with the Lower Permian magmatism of the Iberian Ranges. These differences support the presence of a heterogeneous mantle in the western Tethys during the Permian.