Fernández Barrenechea, José María

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First Name
José María
Last Name
Fernández Barrenechea
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Mineralogía y Petrología
Cristalografía y Mineralogía
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Publication
    Sources of Sr and S in Aluminum-Phosphate–Sulfate Minerals in Early–Middle Triassic Sandstones (Iberian Ranges, Spain) and Paleoenvironmental Implications for the West Tethys
    (SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2013) Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Newton, Robert J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier
    Aluminum-phosphate–sulfate (APS) minerals, formed during early diagenesis in relation to acid meteoric waters, are the main host of Sr and S in the Early–Middle Triassic continental sandstones of the Iberian Ranges (east of the Iberian Peninsula). The sources of these elements and the effects of paleoenvironmetal changes on these sources and on the formation of APS minerals during Early–Middle Triassic times, were established on the basis of Sr and S isotopic analyses. The S and Sr data (d34S V-CDT = +11 to +14% and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7099–0.7247, respectively) can be interpreted as resulting from mixing of different sources. Strontium was sourced from the dissolution of pre-existing minerals like K-feldspar and clay minerals inherited from the source areas, causing high radiogenic values. However, the isotopic signal must also be influenced by other sources, such as marine or volcanic aerosol that decreased the total 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Marine and volcanic aerosols were also sources of sulfur, but the d34S was lowered by dissolution of pre-existing sulfides, mainly pyrite. Pyrite dissolution and volcanic aerosols would also trigger the acid conditions required for the precipitation of APS minerals. APS minerals in the study area are found mainly in the Cañizar Formation (Olenekian?–Aegian), which has the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The lower abundance of APS minerals in the Eslida Formation (Aegian–Pelsonian) may indicate change in the acidity of pore water towards more alkaline conditions, while the increased 87Sr/86Sr ratios imply decreased Sr input from volcanic activity and/or marine aerosol inputs during Anisian times. Therefore, the decrease in abundance of APS minerals from the Early to Middle Triassic and the variations in the sources of Sr and S are indicative of changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during the beginning of the Triassic Period. These changes from acid to more alkaline conditions are also coincident with the first appearance of carbonate paleosols, trace fossils, and plant fossils in the upper part of the Cañizar Formation (and more in the overlying Eslida Formation) and mark the beginning of biotic recovery in this area. The presence of APS minerals in other European basins of the Western Tethys (such as the German Basin, the Paris Basin and the southeastern France and Sardinia basins) could thus also indicate that unfavorable environmental conditions caused delay in biotic recovery in those areas. In general, the presence of APS minerals may be used as an indicator of arid, acidic conditions unfavorable to biotic colonization.
  • Publication
    Sedimentary evolution of the continental Early–Middle Triassic Cañizar Formation (Central Spain): Implications for life recovery after the Permian–Triassic crisis
    (Elsevier, 2012) López Gómez, José; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Arche, Alfredo; Bourquin, Sylvie; Marzo Carpio, Mariano; Durand, Marc
    The Permian–Triassic transition (P–T) was marked by important geochemical perturbations and the largest known life crisis. Consequences of this event, as oxygen-depleted conditions and the unusual behavior of the carbon cycle, were prolonged during the Early Triassic interval delaying the recovery of life in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Studies on Lower Triassic sediments of continental origin, as in the case of Western Europe, are especially problematic due to the scarcity of fossils and absence of precise dating. The Cañizar Fm. is an Early–Middle Triassic unit of continental origin of the SE Iberian Ranges, E Spain. A detailed sedimentary study of this unit allows a shedding of light on some unresolved problems of the continental deposits of this age. The top of this unit is dated as early Anisian by means of a pollen association, while the age of its base is here estimated as late Smithian or Smithian–Spathian transition. Different facies associations and architectural elements have been defined in this unit. In the western and central parts of the basin, this unit shows sedimentary characteristics of fluvial deposits with locally intercalated aeolian sediments, while in the eastern part there is an alternation of both aeolian and fluvial deposits. Sedimentary structures also indicate changes in the climate conditions, mainly from arid to semiarid. Two marked arid periods when well-preserved aeolian sediments developed during early–middle Spathian and Spathian–Anisian transition. They alternated with two semiarid but more humid periods during the late Spathian and early Anisian. These conditions basically correspond with the general arid and very arid conditions described for central–western European plate during the same period of time. The Ateca–Montalbán High, in the northern border of the study basin, must have represented an important topographic barrier in the western Tethys separating aeolian dominated areas to the N and NE from fluvial dominated areas to the south. The Cañizar Fm. has been subdivided into six members (A–F) separated by seven (1–7) major bounding surfaces (MBS). These surfaces are well recognized laterally over hundred of km and they represent 104–105 My. MBS-5 is considered to be of late Spathian age and it is a clear indication of tectonic activity, represented by a mild unconformity. This event represents a change in the sedimentary characteristics (reactivation) of the unit and from here to the top of the unit are found the first signals of biotic recovery, represented by tetrapod footprints, plants, roots and bioturbation. All of these characteristics and the estimated age represented by the MBS-5 event permit this surface to be related to the coeval Hardegsen unconformity of Central–Western Europe. These first signals of biotic recovery can thus be related to an increased oxygen supply due to the new created paleogeographical corridors in the context of this tectonic activity. These biotic signals occurred 5 My after the Permian–Triassic limit crisis; a similar delay as occurred in other coeval and neighboring basins.
  • Publication
    Shallow burial dolomitisation of Middle–Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids
    (Elsevier, 2011) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Arche, Alfredo
    This work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of theMiddle–Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian–Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much closer to the basin boundary fault than the other two sections. The mineralogy and texture of the carbonate precursor of paleosols in the three studied sections are not preserved because original carbonate is replaced by coarse crystals of dolomite and/or magnesite. Dolomite crystals are typically euhedral, displaying rhombohedral shapes and reddish luminescence, although in the Henarejos section dolomite displays non-planar boundaries and frequently saddle habit. Micas are deformed and adapted to dolomite crystals, which, in turn, are affected by stylolites, suggesting that dolomite precipitated before mechanical and chemical compaction. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of dolomite fromthe three sections showdifferent values (δ13CVPDB mean values=−6.7‰,−5.5‰ and −7.5‰; δ18OVPDB mean values=−4.0‰; –5.6‰and−8.2‰, at Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos sections, respectively). The 87Sr/86Sr ratios are similar in the three sections yielding values between 0.71391 and 0.72213. The petrographic and geochemical features of dolomite in the three studied sections suggest precipitation fromsimilar fluids and during shallow burial diagenesis. Assuming that theminimum temperature for dolomite precipitation in the Henarejos sectionwas 60 °C (as suggested by the presence of non-planar saddle habit), and that the dolomitizing fluid had similar δ18O values at the three localities, then dolomite in the Talayuelas and Landete sections precipitated at temperatures around 16 and 25 °C cooler, respectively. In addition, the δ18OVSMOW values of the water from which dolomite precipitated would have ranged between −0.3 and −2.9‰. Dolomite is partially or totally replaced by non- to dark dull luminescent magnesite in the Landete and Talayuelas sections. Magnesite crystals are affected by stylolites, indicating that it precipitated before chemical compaction. The δ13C mean values are −6.5 and −6.0‰ and the δ18OVPDB mean values are −6.7 and −7.8‰, in the Landete and Talayuelas sections, respectively. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of magnesite are similar in both sections yielding values between 0.71258 and 0.72508. This suggests that they probably precipitated from similar fluids during progressive burial and at higher temperatures than dolomites at the same sections. Assuming thatmagnesite precipitated froma fluid with similar δ18O values in both sections, then it had to precipitate at a temperature around 8 °C higher in Talayuelas than in the Landete section. Dolomitisation and magnesite precipitation probably occurred via reflux of saline to hypersaline brines from the overlying Mid-Late Triassic Muschelkalk and/or Keuper facies. The temperatures inferred for dolomite precipitation, however, are too high for shallow burial if a normal geothermal gradient is applied. Thus, it can be inferred that salinefluidswere heated as theyflowed through the syn-sedimentary extensional faults that controlledMiddle Permian to Middle Triassic sedimentation; consequently fluidswould have been at higher temperatures near the Henarejos area, which was closer to the basin boundary fault than at the Talayuelas and Landete areas, whichwere situated further away. This contention is in agreement with recent studies which demonstrate that an important thermal event took place during Late Triassic–Early Jurassic times in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Publication
    First report of a Middle-Upper Permian magmatism in the SE Iberian Ranges: characterisation and comparison with coeval magmatisms in the western Tethys
    (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2012) Lago San José, Marceliano; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Ubide Garralda, Teresa; Galé, Carlos; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Arche, Alfredo; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Timmerman, Martin J.
    A multiple basic to intermediate sill is reported for the first time in the south-eastern Iberian Ranges. It is composed of several tabular to irregular levels intercalated within the fluvial sediments of the Alcotas Formation (Middle-Upper Permian). The sill could represent the youngest Paleozoic subvolcanic intrusion in the Iberian Ranges. The igneous rocks are classified as basaltic andesites. They show a subophitic microstructure constituted by plagioclase (An62 – An6), augite (En48Wo44Fs7 –En46Wo39Fs15), pseudomorphosed olivine, minor amounts of oxides (magnetite and ilmenite)and accessory F-apatite. According to the mineralogy and whole-rock composition, their geochemical affinity is transitional from subalkaline to alkaline. Radiometric dating of the sill is not feasible due to its significant alteration. Field criteria, however, suggest an emplacement coeval to the deposition of the Alcotas Formation (Middle-Upper Permian). This hypothesis is supported by the transitional affinity of these rocks, similar to other Middle-Upper Permian magmatisms in the western Tethys, e.g., from the Pyrenees. Taking into account their isotopic signature (εSr: -6.8 to -9.2; εNd:+1.7 to +8.3), an enriched mantle source with the involvement of a HIMU component has been identified. This interpretation is supported by the trace element contents. Some of these HIMU characteristics have been recognised in the Middle-Upper Permian magmatisms of the Central Pyrenees (Anayet Basin) and the High Atlas (Argana Basin). However, none of these source features are shared with other Middle-Upper Permian magmatisms of the western Tethys (Catalonian Coastal Ranges, Corsica-Sardinia and southern France), nor with the Lower Permian magmatism of the Iberian Ranges. These differences support the presence of a heterogeneous mantle in the western Tethys during the Permian.
  • Publication
    Quantifying aluminium phosphate–sulphate minerals as markers of acidic conditions during the Permian–Triassic transition in the Iberian Ranges, E Spain
    (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2016-07) Borruel Abadía, Violeta; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Horra del Barco,, Raúl, De la; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; López Gómez, José
    In this paper, a method based on element mapping of randomly selected areas of thin sections on electron microprobe is proposed to quantify the relative contents of strontium-rich hydrated aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals in siliciclastic continental sedimentary rocks. The main problems for these minerals to be quantified are related to their small size, low concentrations, and optical properties. By comparing the element maps obtained for the rocks in the study area of the Iberian Ranges (E Spain) with the results of whole rock analysis and with factors indicating the presence of life (bioturbation, palaeosols, and macro-plant remains), it has been possible to correlate relatively high levels of APS minerals in the first sedimentary record (Cañizar Formation) after the Permian–Triassic boundary, with the lack of living organisms. The APS are related to early diagenetic phases precipitated at low pH conditions and are therefore markers of formation in an acidic environment. Our findings suggest a long period of sustained acidic conditions followed by an environmental change linked with the recovery of life and with lower APS mineral contents. This change is detected at the top of the Cañizar Formation, at the end of the Sphatian. The method proposed could be used as a tool to address the environmental changes that took place during the Permian–Triassic transition in continental environments
  • Publication
    U-Pb Ages of Detrital Zircons from the Permo-Triassic Series of the Iberian Ranges: A Record of Variable Provenance during Rift Propagation
    (Chicago, University of Chicago Press., 2012) Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Arenas Martín, Ricardo; Gerdes, A.; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; López Gómez, José; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Arche, Alfredo
    The provenance of the Permo-Triassic series of the Talayuelas anticline (Iberian Ranges) have been studied using UPb geochronology (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of detrital zircons. These intracontinental siliciclastic series were formed by extensive sandy braided fluvial systems associated with ephemeral lake deposits and aeolian sediments, with paleocurrents suggesting constant NW-SE transport directions. Upper Permian reddish sandstones from the Upper Alcotas Formation (Lopingian) contain a dominant Variscan zircon population (290–360 Ma), which indicates source areas located in the axial zone of the Variscan belt, in the core of the Ibero- Armorican arc. However, in the Lower Triassic sandstones of the Canñizar Formation (Olenekian), the Variscan zircon population is almost completely replaced by Cadomian zircons (520–750 Ma), with important Avalonian (390–520 Ma), Mesoproterozoic (900–1750 Ma), Eburnian (1.78–2.35 Ga), and post-Eburnian and Archaean (12.4 Ga) zircon populations. This detrital zircon content now suggests source areas located more to the NW, in the Avalonian microcontinent, although a limited supply coming from the southern part of Laurentia cannot be ruled out. Finally, in the Middle Triassic (Anisian), the source areas returned to the Variscan axial zone, since the Variscan zircon population is again highly dominant during this period. The changes detected in the source areas of the Permo-Triassic series are related to the development and propagation of the Iberian rift, one of the large extensional structures that determined the generation of the sedimentary basins and finally caused the breakup of Pangea. The methodology followed in this article is very useful to understand the generation and evolution of these intracontinental basins and also the relationships between the different rift systems generated in the North Atlantic realm during the Permo- Triassic times.
  • Publication
    New ichnites from the Middle Triassic of the Iberian Ranges (Spain): paleoenvironmental and paleogeographical implications
    (Taylor & Francis, 2010-03) Ganda, Georges; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Galán-Abellán, Belén; López Gómez, José; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Arche, Alfredo; Benito Moreno, Isabel María
    The Iberian Basin or its present-day expression, the Iberian Ranges, was refilled with red bed sediments of alluvial origin during the late Olenekian–Anisian period represented by the Cañizar (Olenekian–Anisian) and Eslida (Anisian) Formations, both commonly known as Buntsandstein facies. In the late part of the Anisian, the Tethys Sea reached the eastern side of the Iberian microplate, represented by the shallow marine facies of the Landete and Cañete Formations, also called Muschelkalk facies. The ichnites studied in this paper belong to the Anisian continental-marine transition in the SE Iberian Ranges. The Cañizar Formation shows the oldest Triassic footprints found in the Iberian Peninsula, consisting in swimming, uncomplete lacertoid three digit Rhynchosauroides traces with possibly resting (cubichnia) and furrowing (pascichnia) Cruziana/Rusophycus due to large triopsids. Specimens from Lacertoïd and Crocodiloïd groups have been collected in the Eslida Formation. Rhynchosauroides sp. is the most representative ichnospecies of the first group, while in the Crocodiloïd group, the presence of Chirotherium barthii Kaup 1835 and Isochirotherium cf coureli (Demathieu 1970) are distinctive. In the Landete Formation specimens are found from Crocodiloïd and Dinosauroïd groups. Brachychirotherium gallicum Willruth 1917, Brachychirotherium sp. and Chirotherium sp. are characteristic of the first one, and ‘Coelurosaurichnus’ perriauxi and cf Paratrisauropus latus as the most representative of the second group. Some of the specimens described here present ancestors in the Early Triassic and have been described in the Triassic of North America, Italy and France. Possible paleogeographical connections with faunas of SE France can be inferred. Based on different sedimentary structures and plant remains, the footprints are related to fluvial systems within huge flood plains, playa and shallow marine environments, with alternating dry and wet periods. The vertical ichnites distribution during the Anisian shows that the fauna modification was weak at a high clade level. In the Triassic of the Iberian microplate, there are no findings of traces prior to the Anisian, and the footprint content for the Middle Triassic is less diversified than in other neighbouring regions. By comparison with other western Pangea areas, there was a later appearance of the forms after the end-Permian mass extinction event in the studied area
  • Publication
    Mineralogía, sedimentología y paleosuelos del evento pluvial del Carniense (CPE) en el este de España: indicadores de humedad y variaciones del nivel del mar
    (Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 2017-07) Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la
  • Publication
    Could acidity be the reason behind the Early Triassic biotic crisis on land?
    (Elsevier, 2019-06-20) Borruel-Abadía, Violeta; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Galán-Abellán, Belén; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Ronchi, Ausonio; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Marzo Carpio, Mariano
    In recent years there is growing evidence of the importance of the Smithian-Spathian (Early Triassic) ecological crisis to explain the delayed recovery of life after the Permian-Triassic Boundary mass extinction. This study focuses on sedimentary continental rocks of middle Permian to Middle Triassic age from four different Peritethys basins in subequatorial latitudes. Similar distribution patterns of aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals contents in these rocks in the four studied basins provide evidence of increased acidity during the Smithian-Spathian transition, coinciding with a lack of indicators of organic activity in the same interval. Thus, this period of high acidity on land, may have been one of the causes of this biological crisis. Based on the quantification of APS minerals in the studied sedimentary sequences, we propose that it was not until acidity in the environment diminished, that biotic recovery was possible. APS data may also be useful to interpret other past biotic crises.
  • Publication
    Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental changes during the continental Middle–Late Permian transition at the SE Iberian Ranges, Spain
    (Elsevier, B.V., 2012) Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; López Gómez, José; Sheldon, N.D.; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Arche, Alfredo; Benito Moreno, María Isabel
    The Middle and Late Permian are characterized by a pair of mass-extinction events that are recorded in both marine and continental environments. Here, we present the first continental western peri-Tethyan record of an extinction event located in the Middle–Late interval. In the SE Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, the transition between the Lower and Middle subunits of the Middle Permian Alcotas Formation indicates a significant paleoclimatic change from arid and semiarid conditions towards more humid conditions. Coincident with the onset of humid conditions there were changes in the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry that indicate significant environmental changes including a shift in weathering intensity and a change of fluvial style from braided to meandering systems. Near the top of the Middle Subunit, a local biotic crisis is recorded by palynomorph assemblages. Following this crisis, there is a total absence of coal beds, plant remains, and microflora that defines a barren zone in the uppermost part of the Alcotas Formation which is recorded throughout the basin. The barren zone is accompanied by a shift back to braided stream systems, but not by a return to carbonate-bearing paleosols indicative of arid or semi-arid conditions. This combination of features is consistent with other Middle–Late continental basins related with mass extinctions, so the barren zone is interpreted as the extinction interval. The regional character of the extinction interval and its proximity with the Middle–Late Permian transition could be related with the global mid-Capitanian biotic turnover described in this period of time in other marine basins. However, the common difficulties of dating with precision non-marine rocks make this relationship difficult to probe in the Iberian Basin and in other Middle– Late Permian basins. Further work, including high resolution carbon-isotope analyses and complete studies of the magnetostratigraphy, should be desirable in order to obtain a better age constraint and to produce reliable comparisons with marine sections.