Fernández Barrenechea, José María

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First Name
José María
Last Name
Fernández Barrenechea
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Mineralogía y Petrología
Cristalografía y Mineralogía
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 22
  • Publication
    Clay minerals as provenance indicators in continental lacustrine sequences: the Leza Formation, early Cretaceous, Cameros Basin, northern Spain
    (Blackwell Scientific publications, 2005) Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Mas Mayoral, José Ramón
    Variations in clay mineral assemblages, changes in KuÈbler index (KI), and the chemical composition of chlorites are used to identify source areas in the lacustrine materials in the Lower Cretaceous Leza Limestone Formation of the Cameros Basin, northern Spain. This formation has fairly homogeneous lithological characteristics and facies associations which do not allow for identification and characterization of local source areas. The Arnedillo lithosome of the Leza Limestone Formation contains a clay mineral association (Mg-chlorite, illite and smectite) indicative of its provenance. Chlorite composition and illite KI values indicate that these minerals were formed at temperatures higher than those reached by the Leza Formation which indicates its detrital origin. The similarity in the Mg-chlorite composition between the Arnedillo lithosome and the Keuper sediments of the area indicates that these materials acted as a local source area. This implies that Triassic sediments were exposed, at least locally, at the time of deposition of the Leza Formation. The presence of smectite in the Leza Formation is related to a retrograde diagenesis event that altered the Mg-chlorites in some samples.
  • Publication
    Influence of grinding on graphite crystallinity from experimental and natural data: implications for graphite thermometry and sample preparation
    (Mineralogical Society (Great Britain), 2006) Crespo Feo, Elena; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Rodas, Magdalena
    This paper examines the effects of shear stress on the structuralparameters that define the ‘crystallinity’ of graphite. The results show that highly crystalline graphite samples ground for up to 120 min do not undergo detectable changes in the three-dimensional arrangement of carbon layers but crystallite sizes (Lc and La) decrease consistently with increasing grinding time. Grinding also involves particle-size diminution that results in lower temperatures for the beginning of combustion and exothermic maxima in the differentialthermalanal ysis curves. These changes in the structuraland thermalcharacteristics of graphite upon grinding must be taken into account when such data are used for geothermometric estimations. Tectonic shear stress also induces reduction of the particle size and the Lc and La values of highly crystalline graphite. Thus, the temperature of formation of graphite according to structural as well as thermaldata is underestimated by up to 100ºC in samples that underwent the most intense shear stress. Therefore, application of graphite geothermometry to fluid-deposited veins where graphite is the only mineralfound should take into consideration the effect of tectonic shearing, or the estimated temperatures must be considered as minimum temperatures of formation only.
  • Publication
    Mechanical graphite transport in fault zones and the formation of graphite veins
    (Mineralogical Society (Great Britain), 2005) Crespo Feo, Elena; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Rodas, Magdalena
    This paper describes a vein-shaped graphite occurrence in which, for the first time, the geological, mineralogical and isotopic evidence support its formation by physical remobilization of previously formed syngenetic graphite. The deposit studied is located in the Spanish Central System and it occurs along the contact between a hydrothermal Ag-bearing quartz vein and a graphite-bearing quartzite layer. The characteristics of this occurrence differ from those of fluid-deposited vein-type graphite mineralization in that: (1) graphite flakes are oriented parallel to the vein walls; (2) graphite crystallinity is slightly lower than in the syngenetic precursor (graphite disseminated in the quartzite); and (3) the isotopic signatures of both types of graphite are identical and correspond to biogenic carbon. In addition, the P-T conditions of the hydrothermal Ag-bearing quartz veins in the study area (P <1 kbar, and T up to 360ëC) contrast with the high degree of structural order of graphite in the vein. Therefore, physical remobilization of graphite can be regarded as a suitable alternative mechanism to account for some cases of vein-shaped graphite deposits. Such a mechanism would require a previous concentration of disseminated syngenetic graphite promoted, in this case, by the retrograde solubility of quartz. This process would generate monomineralic graphite aggregates enhancing its lubricant properties and permitting graphite to move in the solid state along distances in the range of up to several metres.
  • Publication
    Caracterización de la materia carbonosa grafitizada de las pizarras silúricas de San Ciprián- Hermisende (Zamora)
    (Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 2009-09) Crespo Feo, Elena; Rodas, Magdalena; Arche, Alfredo; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Wada, Hideki; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier
  • Publication
    Late Permian continental sediments in the SE Iberian Ranges, eastern Spain: Petrological and mineralogical characteristics and palaeoenvironmental significance
    (Elsevier, 2005) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; López Gómez, José; Rodas, Magdalena; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Arche, Alfredo; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier
    A detailed mineralogical and petrological study and the analysis of paleosol profiles in continental alluvial sediments of the Late Permian in the SE Iberian Ranges (Spain) allow us to infer the significant environmental changes that occurred during this time period. Three parts have been distinguished in the Late Permian sediments (Alcotas Formation). The lower part includes abundant and well-preserved carbonate paleosol profiles and fine-grained sediments made up by quartz, feldspar, hematite and illite, with scarce kaolinite. The preservation of dolomicrite in some paleosols suggests that they originally developed as dolocretes in an arid to semi-arid climate with marked seasonality. A change towards more humid and acid conditions can be deduced from the presence of siderite and goethite in paleosols in the middle part of the Alcotas Formation. Moreover, the presence of plant remains, coal beds and/or carbonaceous shales at the top of the middle part, and the lack of carbonate paleosols in the upper part of the formation would indicate a further step towards acid conditions. These conditions would increase until the Early Triassic, as indicated by the lack of carbonates and the presence of Sr-rich aluminium phosphate sulphates (APS minerals) at the base of the Triassic (Can˜ izar Formation), which clearly indicates extreme acid conditions during the Permian–Triassic transition of the study area.
  • Publication
    Sandstone petrography of continental depositional sequences of an intraplate rift basin: western Cameros Basin (North Spain)
    (SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2009) Arribas Mocoroa, José; Alonso Millán, Ángela; Mas Mayoral, José Ramón; Tortosa, A.; Rodas, Magdalena; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Artigas, Rosana
    The Cameros Basin in Central Spain is an intraplate rift basin that developed from Late Jurassic to Middle Albian time along NW–SE trending troughs. The sedimentary basin fill was deposited predominantly in continental environments and comprises several depositional sequences. These sequences consist of fluvial sandstones that commonly pass upward into lacustrine deposits at the top, producing considerable repetition of facies. This study focused on the western sector of the basin, where a total of seven depositional sequences (DS- 1 to DS-7) have been identified. The composition of sandstones permits the characterization of each sequence in terms of both clastic constituents and provenance. In addition, four main petrofacies are identified. Petrofacies A is quartzosedimentolithic (mean of Qm85F2Lt13) and records erosion of marine Jurassic pre-rift cover during deposition of fluvial deposits of DS-1 (Brezales Formation). Petrofacies B is quartzofeldspathic (mean of Qm81F14Lt5) with P/F > 1 at the base. This petrofacies was derived from the erosion of low- to medium-grade metamorphic terranes of the West Asturian–Leonese Zone of the Hesperian Massif during deposition of DS-2 (Jaramillo Formation) and DS-3 (Salcedal Formation). Quartzose sandstones characterize the top of DS-3 (mean of Qm92F4Lt4). Petrofacies C is quartzarenitic (mean of Qm95F3Lt2) with P/F > 1 and was produced by recycling of sedimentary cover (Triassic arkoses and carbonate rocks) in the SW part of the basin (DS-4, Pen˜ - acoba Formation). Finally, depositional sequences 5, 6, and 7 (Pinilla de los Moros–Hortigüela, Pantano, and Abejar–Castrillo de la Reina formations, respectively) contain petrofacies D. This petrofacies is quartzofeldspathic with P/F near zero and a very low concentration of metamorphic rock fragments (from Qm85F11Lt4 in Pantano Formation to Qm73F26Lt1 in Castrillo de la Reina Formation). Petrofacies D was generated by erosion of coarse crystalline plutonics located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Hesperian Massif. In addition to sandstone petrography, these provenance interpretations are supported by clay mineralogy of interbedded shales. Thus, shales related to petrofacies A and C have a variegated composition (illite, kaolinite, and randomly interlayered illite–smectite mixed-layer clays); the presence of chlorite characterizes interbedded shales from petrofacies B; and Illite and kaolinite are the dominant clays associated with petrofacies D. These petrofacies are consistent with the depositional sequences and their hierarchy. An early megacycle, consisting of petrofacies A and B (DS-1 to DS-3) was deposited during the initial stage of rifting, when troughs developed in the West Asturian–Leonese Zone. A second stage of rifting resulted in propagation of trough-bounding faults to the SW, involving the Central Iberian Zone as a source terrane and producing a second megacycle consisting of petrofacies C and D (DS-4, DS-5, DS-6, and DS-7). Sandstone composition has proven to be a powerful tool in basin analysis and related tectonic inferences on intraplate rift basins because of the close correlation that exists between depositional sequences and petrofacies.
  • Publication
    Graphite morphologies from the Borrowdale deposit (NW England, UK): Raman and SIMS data
    (Springer Science Business Media, 2009) Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Millward, David; Ortega Menor, Lorena; Beyssac, Olivier; Rodas, Magdalena
    Graphite in the Borrowdale (Cumbria, UK) deposit occurs as large masses within mineralized pipe-like bodies, in late graphite–chlorite veins, and disseminated through the volcanic host rocks. This occurrence shows the greatest variety of crystalline graphite morphologies recognized to date from a single deposit. These morphologies described herein include flakes, cryptocrystalline and spherulitic aggregates, and dish-like forms. Colloform textures, displayed by many of the cryptocrystalline aggregates, are reported here for the first time from any graphite deposit worldwide. Textural relationships indicate that spherulitic aggregates and colloform graphite formed earlier than flaky crystals. This sequence of crystallization is in agreement with the precipitation of graphite from fluids with progressively decreasing supersaturation. The structural characterization carried out by means of Raman spectroscopy shows that, with the exception of colloform graphite around silicate grains and pyrite within the host rocks, all graphite morphologies display very high crystallinity. The microscale SIMS study reveals light stable carbon isotope ratios for graphite (δ13C = -34.5 to -30.2%), which are compatible with the assimilation of carbon-bearing metapelites in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group magmas. Within the main mineralized breccia pipelike bodies, the isotopic signatures (with cryptocrystalline graphite being lighter than flaky graphite) are consistent with the composition and evolution of the mineralizing fluids inferred from fluid inclusion data which indicate a progressive loss of CO2. Late graphite–chlorite veins contain isotopically heavier spherulitic graphite than flaky graphite. This agrees with CH4-enriched fluids at this stage of the mineralizing event, resulting in the successive precipitation of isotopically heavier graphite morphologies. The isotopic variations of the different graphite morphologies can be attributed therefore, to changes in the speciation of carbon in the fluids coupled with concomitant changes in the XH2O during precipitation of graphite and associated hydrous minerals (mainly epidote and chlorite).
  • Publication
    Fluid composition and reactions of graphite precipitation in the volcanic-Hosted deposit at Borrowdale (NW England): evidence from fluid inclusions
    (Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 2008-09) Ortega Menor, Lorena; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Millward, David; Beyssac, Olivier; Hizenga, Jan Marten; Rodas, Magdalena
  • Publication
    Chlorite, corrensite, and chlorite-mica in Late Jurassic fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the Cameros Basin of Norheastern Spain
    (Clay Minerals Society, 2000) Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Rodas, Magdalena; Frey, Martín; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Mas Mayoral, José Ramón
    The distribution and crystal-chemical characteristics of chlorite, eorrensite, and mica in samples from a stratigraphic profile in the Cameros basin are controlled by changes in the sedimentary facies. The lacustrine marls and limestones from the base and the top of the profile contain quartz + calcite + illite ± dolomite ± chlorite ± albite ± paragonite + Na, K-rich mica. Chlorite is rich in Mg, with Fe/ (Fe + Mg) ratios ranging between 0.18-0.37. A formation mechanism involving reaction between Mgrich carbonate and dioctahedral phyllosilicates is proposed for these Mg-rich chlorites, on the basis of the mutually exclusive relationship found between Mg-rich chlorite and dolomite, together with the relative increase in the proportion of calcite in samples containing chlorite. The mudrocks from the middle part of the profile are composed of quartz + albite + illite + corrensite (with a mean coefficient of variability of 0.60%) + chlorite. Corrensite and chlorite are richer in Fe 2+ than those from the base or top of the profile, with mean Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios of 0.51 and 0.56, respectively. Textural and compositional features suggest a formation mechanism for the corrensite, chlorite, and chlorite-mica crystals through replacement of detrital igneous biotite. Whether or not corrensite occurs with chlorite appears to be related to redox conditions. The presence of corrensite alone is apparently favored by oxidizing conditions, whereas the occurrence of corrensite + chlorite is related to more reducing conditions. Corrensite shows higher Si and Na + K + Ca contents, and slightly lower Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios than chlorite. The presence of corrensite and the lack of random chlorite-smectite interlayering is discussed in terms of the fluid/rock ratio; the occurrence is related to the hydrothermal character of metamorphism in the Cameros basin.
  • Publication
    Microstructure and mineralogy of lightweight aggregates produced from washing aggregate sludge, fly ash and used motor oil
    (Elsevier Applied Science, 2010) González Corrochano, B.; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Fernández Barrenechea, José María
    The microstructures and mineralogical compositions of lightweight aggregates (LWAs) manufactured with washing aggregate sludge (WS), fly ash (FA) and used motor oil (UMO) have been studied. Most LWAs with WS and FA exhibited an external layer and a glassy core with isolated pores. LWAs with WS and UMO did not present external shells or signs of bloating. Iron oxides, within the external layer, and pyrrhotite, in the inner glass, were observed. The mineralogical analyses revealed the neo-formation of plagioclase and pyroxene, along with minor gehlenite. Some relationships could be established: (i) the presence of larger pores is related to a decrease in the dry particle density values, (ii) when the LWA lacks the external layer, the water absorption values were dependent on the size and amount of each type of pore (open or closed), and (iii) the neo-formation of Ca-plagioclase and the consumption of quartz improved the compressive strength values.