Zapico Alonso, Ignacio

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Zapico Alonso
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Geodinámica Externa
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Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Baseline to evaluate off-sitesuspended sediment-related mining effects in the Alto Tajo Natural Park, Spain
    (Wiley, 2017-01) Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Laronne, Jonathan; Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, José Francisco; Ortega, Ana; Sánchez Castillo,Lázaro
    Mining is a human activity with considerable environmental impact. To evaluate such impacts, international laws require undertaking local studies based on direct sampling to establish baseline conditions of parameters modified by human activities. Mining takes place near the Alto Tajo Natural Park, where a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) baseline is required to determine whether mining affects water quality. To this end, we have monitored the Tajo River and its tributary the Tajuelo following Before–After Control-Impact (BACI) techniques, recommended by Australian and New Zealand laws, requiring a specific method based on continuous monitoring and sampling to enable evaluation of SSCs. An SSC baseline has been defined at stations situated upstream of the mining area and compared with those downstream. The highest detected SSC upstream of the Tajuelo mines was 24 g l−1 whereas the highest simultaneous downstream value was 391 g l−1, more than one order of magnitude higher than the supposed baseline (24 g l−1). Additionally, this value is 1000 times more than the average concentration of 25 mg l−1, used by the European Union until 2015, to guarantee the quality of salmonid waters. Following a BACI approach, a statistically significant SSC impact has been identified. The mined areas are the only source that can explain this increase. This is the first instance that such an increase and baseline have been found using this method. BACI is a simple and reliable method recommended for studying degraded areas rather than an irrelevant, fixed standard as included in most international laws.
  • Publication
    The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin
    (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 2014) Martín Moreno, Cristina; Fidalgo Hijano, C.; Martín Duque, José Francisco; González Martín, J.A.; Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Laronne, Jonathan
    Gullies are developed under different climatic conditions and lithologies; however, those formed on sands have been scarcely described. This paper reports the study of the Ribagorda sand gully, 2.57 ha in area (east-central Spain). The main objectives were to characterize and quantify its geomorphic dynamics and to trace its origin. We described the landforms of the gully and measured the surface strength of the sand. We monitored, for six years, the filling of the storage areas of three check dams built downstream from the gully, and related it with rainfall characteristics. We also described the nature of the sediments trapped by the dams and estimated the amount of sediment eroded since the gully formation. Finally, we consulted historical records and maps to determine past land uses and transformations that may have affected the origin of the gully. The study shows a high diversity of landforms, denoting active processes, consistent with a measured mean annual sediment yield of 114 Mg ha−1 yr−1. A statistically significant relationship exists between the mass of sediment (Mg) and: 1) the total rainfall (mm) (P = 0.0007) or 2) the analysed rainfall intensities. Among five identified facies in the sedimentarywedge, the sandy ones are predominant. The total amount of sediment eroded by the Ribagorda gully since its originwas 962,800Mg. The results are unequivocal signs of an intense geomorphic activity within the gully, with an alluvial-fan type deposition in the dams.We interpret that the Ribagorda gully was initiated by deforestation after the 13th century, when forests began to be intensively logged, and before the 18th century,when the gullywas first indirectly described in print. The age, origin, evolution and dynamics of this gully indicate that this landscape is currently evolving towards a new steady state, after human disturbances over centuries. Given the gully evolution and local extent, we suggest that no correction measures are needed for its management.
  • Publication
    Morpho-textural implications to bedload flux and texture in the sand-gravel ephemeral Poveda Gully
    (Elsevier, 2018-12-01) Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Laronne, Jonathan; Lucía Vela, Ana; Martín Duque, José Francisco
    We report on channel morpho-texture and bedload transport in a natural, steep, sand-gravel ephemeral channel draining the small Poveda Gully watershed in the mining area of the Alto Tajo Natural Park, Spain. First-ever continuous bedload flux and texture monitoring in a transitional sand-gravel environment was undertaken by two independent Reid-type slot samplers. Morphological changes in the feeder reach have been quantified by TLS (terrestrial laser scanning) and SfM (structure from motion) technologies. We identified a pattern in channel-bed morphology and texture (morpho-texture): when the channel is incised its texture is coarser, otherwise sand-filling occurs. These changes determine bedload flux and texture: sand fill brings rise to high fluxes and fine-grained bedload, whereas incision caused by evacuation of sand leaves a sandy-gravel surface with lower bedload fluxes and coarser texture. A video camera recording during events allowed identification of dramatic changes in bedload flux and texture owing to the appearance and erosion of bars, supplying field evidence to explain the difficulty in the prediction of bedload flux at short time intervals.