Zapico Alonso, Ignacio

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Zapico Alonso
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Geodinámica Externa
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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Modelos a escala de ríos (Flumes), fotogrametría digital, técnicas LiDAR, e impresión 3D para el desarrollo de un manual docente de prácticas de laboratorio con el objetivo de dinamizar la enseñanza de los procesos ligados a la geomorfología fluvial
    (2022-12-28) Garrote Revilla, Julio; Sanz Santos, Miguel Angel; Uribelarrea del Val, David; Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, José Francisco; Fernández Esteban, David; Comas López, Nuria; Durán Cerrato, Daniel; Garcia Mendez, Alejandro; Gómez Garre, Daniel; Sarobe García, Héctor
    Este proyecto de innovación docente (Proyecto INNOVA-Docencia 2021/22 - Nº 72), continuación de los proyectos INNOVA-Docencia 2019/20 - Nº 38, e INNOVA-Docencia 2020/21 - Nº 301, tiene varios objetivos específicos: a) la actualización y mejora del modelo a escala de río para que el mismo pueda reproducir todos los tipos de cauces que encontramos en la naturaleza; b) enseñanza de formas y procesos geomorfológicos fluviales mediante el desarrollo de un manual de ejercicios prácticos; y c), la exposición pública a la comunidad educativa de los experimentos y logros alcanzados.
  • Publication
    Baseline to evaluate off-sitesuspended sediment-related mining effects in the Alto Tajo Natural Park, Spain
    (Wiley, 2017-01) Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Laronne, Jonathan; Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, José Francisco; Ortega, Ana; Sánchez Castillo,Lázaro
    Mining is a human activity with considerable environmental impact. To evaluate such impacts, international laws require undertaking local studies based on direct sampling to establish baseline conditions of parameters modified by human activities. Mining takes place near the Alto Tajo Natural Park, where a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) baseline is required to determine whether mining affects water quality. To this end, we have monitored the Tajo River and its tributary the Tajuelo following Before–After Control-Impact (BACI) techniques, recommended by Australian and New Zealand laws, requiring a specific method based on continuous monitoring and sampling to enable evaluation of SSCs. An SSC baseline has been defined at stations situated upstream of the mining area and compared with those downstream. The highest detected SSC upstream of the Tajuelo mines was 24 g l−1 whereas the highest simultaneous downstream value was 391 g l−1, more than one order of magnitude higher than the supposed baseline (24 g l−1). Additionally, this value is 1000 times more than the average concentration of 25 mg l−1, used by the European Union until 2015, to guarantee the quality of salmonid waters. Following a BACI approach, a statistically significant SSC impact has been identified. The mined areas are the only source that can explain this increase. This is the first instance that such an increase and baseline have been found using this method. BACI is a simple and reliable method recommended for studying degraded areas rather than an irrelevant, fixed standard as included in most international laws.
  • Publication
    Geomorphic rehabilitation in Europe: recognition as best available technology and its role in LIFE projects
    (2019) Martín Duque, José Francisco; Tejedor, M.; Martín Moreno, Cristina; Nicolau Ibarra, José Manuel; Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Fourie, A. B.; Tibbett, M.
    Geomorphic rehabilitation ([GR], also known as geomorphic reclamation or geomorphic restoration) is a general term to describe alternative methods and procedures to conventional mine rehabilitation. The main aim of GR is to replicate ‘natural’ landforms for the new conditions after mining and to restore functionality and diversity of ecosystems at degraded sites. The correct application of the GR technique ensures visual integration with surrounding landscapes. Although GR is a broad term, referring to any geomorphic restoration of land, GR is often synonymous with fluvial GR, mostly following the GeoFluvTM-Natural Regrade method. This paper describes how and why the application of GR through GeoFluv-Natural Regrade in Spain since 2009 has attracted formal recognition by the European Commission (EC) of the European Union (EU) as one, among others, of a catalogue of best available techniques (BATs) for the management of waste from extractive industries, in accordance with the European Directive 2006/21/EC. GR has been recognised as BAT at the EU for multiple reasons, including mine site monitoring results that demonstrate increased physical stability with minimised erosion from stormwater and snowmelt runoff; natural hydrological function being established; the variability within the formed landform promotes ecological diversity for vegetation and wildlife communities; construction and short and long-term maintenance and repair costs are minimised; and visual impact of the mined landscape is reduced. This paper describes also the role of GeoFluv-Natural Regrade GR in the L’Instrument Financier pour l’Environnement (LIFE) program, which is the EU’s most important funding instrument addressing environment and climate action. A focus is provided on the LIFE TECMINE project, described in detail, since it is the most recent and complete GeoFluv-Natural Regrade example in Europe. The TECMINE project is a geomorphic-based ecological restoration project in the Valencia province, within the Iberian Mountain Range and where conventional mine rehabilitation practice, based on gradient terraces, shows general and widespread failure. The demonstration project is fostered by the Administration of the Valencia Region, which seeks to test innovative techniques (GR, micro-catchments, soil amendments and new protocols of revegetation) for mine rehabilitation, promote improved practices and disseminate the best practice output through their development and analysis. Testing GR is the main focus of the project. The application of GR at the TECMINE project included (a) finding ‘natural’ and ‘stable’ landforms and landscapes to be used as reference or analogues for replication in GR, although difficult, was possible due to ancestral land transformation; (b) the steep terrain, characteristic of the Iberian Range, challenged the formation of GR GeoFluv-Natural Regrade designs, but the project demonstrated that they can be implemented in that mountain setting; (b) the mining company reported similar cost estimations for this alternative GR rehabilitation (as-built) as that for a conventional restoration design (projected); (c) a holistic approach to GR, not dealing only with topography, allowed the identification and use of limestone colluvium as an adequate growth media for initiating soil development; this solution not used before for rehabilitation in this region provided a clear and advanced contribution from the project.
  • Publication
    The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin
    (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 2014) Martín Moreno, Cristina; Fidalgo Hijano, C.; Martín Duque, José Francisco; González Martín, J.A.; Zapico Alonso, Ignacio; Laronne, Jonathan
    Gullies are developed under different climatic conditions and lithologies; however, those formed on sands have been scarcely described. This paper reports the study of the Ribagorda sand gully, 2.57 ha in area (east-central Spain). The main objectives were to characterize and quantify its geomorphic dynamics and to trace its origin. We described the landforms of the gully and measured the surface strength of the sand. We monitored, for six years, the filling of the storage areas of three check dams built downstream from the gully, and related it with rainfall characteristics. We also described the nature of the sediments trapped by the dams and estimated the amount of sediment eroded since the gully formation. Finally, we consulted historical records and maps to determine past land uses and transformations that may have affected the origin of the gully. The study shows a high diversity of landforms, denoting active processes, consistent with a measured mean annual sediment yield of 114 Mg ha−1 yr−1. A statistically significant relationship exists between the mass of sediment (Mg) and: 1) the total rainfall (mm) (P = 0.0007) or 2) the analysed rainfall intensities. Among five identified facies in the sedimentarywedge, the sandy ones are predominant. The total amount of sediment eroded by the Ribagorda gully since its originwas 962,800Mg. The results are unequivocal signs of an intense geomorphic activity within the gully, with an alluvial-fan type deposition in the dams.We interpret that the Ribagorda gully was initiated by deforestation after the 13th century, when forests began to be intensively logged, and before the 18th century,when the gullywas first indirectly described in print. The age, origin, evolution and dynamics of this gully indicate that this landscape is currently evolving towards a new steady state, after human disturbances over centuries. Given the gully evolution and local extent, we suggest that no correction measures are needed for its management.