Cao García, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
Cao García
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Estructura de la Materia, Física Térmica y Electrónica
Física Aplicada
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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Reliability of rectified transport: Coherence and reproducibility of transport by open-loop and feedback-controlled Brownian ratchets
    (Amer Physical Soc, 2018-09-04) Jarillo, Javier; García Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Brownian ratchets are small-scale systems which rectify thermal fluctuations to produce a net current of particles. They have inspired many models of molecular motors that perform transport in the noisy environment of living cells. For the most common ratchet systems, this rectification is achieved by means of the switching of a periodic and spatially asymmetric potential (flashing ratchets) or by means of a rocking force (rocking ratchets). The rectification mechanism can be applied without information on the state of the system (open-loop ratchets) or using information on the state of the system (feedback or closed-loop ratchets). In order to characterize the transport, the most used quantity is the mean velocity of the center of mass of the system. However, another important transport attribute that has not received much attention is its quality. Here we analyze the quality of transport by studying the coherence and reproducibility of the transport induced by several representative open-and closed-loop rectification protocols under the maximum mean velocity conditions. We find that for few-particle systems, the best protocol is the rocked feedback protocol, producing the transport of particles with the highest coherence and reproducibility per distance traveled at the maximum mean velocity, while for larger systems it is overtaken by its open-loop counterpart. Our results also show that protocols with similar maximum mean velocities can have quite different coherences and reproducibilities. This highlights the importance of studying the reliability of rectified transport to develop performant synthetic rectification devices. These contributions to the emerging field of reliable transport in noisy environments are expected also to provide insight into the performance of natural molecular motors.
  • Publication
    Noncooperative thermodynamics and kinetic models of ligand binding to polymers: Connecting McGhee-von Hippel model with the Tonks gas model
    (American Physical Society, 2020-07-20) García Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Vidal, Jules; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Ligand binding to polymers modifies the physical and chemical properties of the polymers, leading to physical, chemical, and biological implications. McGhee and von Hippel obtained the equilibrium coverage as a function of the ligand affinity, through the computation of the possible binding sites for the ligand. Here, we complete this theory deriving the kinetic model for the ligand-binding dynamics and the associated equilibrium chemical potential, which turns out to be of the Tonks gas model type. At low coverage, the Tonks chemical potential becomes the Fermi chemical potential and even the ideal gas chemical potential. We also discuss kinetic models associated with these chemical potentials. These results clarify the kinetic models of ligand binding, their relations with the chemical potentials, and their range of validity. Our results highlight the inaccuracy of ideal and simplified kinetic approaches for medium and high coverages.
  • Publication
    Mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics of ligand binding to biopolymers
    (Public LibraryI Science, 2017-04-05) Jarillo Díaz, Javier; Morín, José A.; Beltrán de Heredia Rodríguez, Elena; García Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Ibarra, Borja; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Ligands binding to polymers regulate polymer functions by changing their physical and chemical properties. This ligand regulation plays a key role in many biological processes. We propose here a model to explain the mechanical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of the process of binding of small ligands to long biopolymers. These properties can now be measured at the single molecule level using force spectroscopy techniques. Our model performs an effective decomposition of the ligand-polymer system on its covered and uncovered regions, showing that the elastic properties of the ligand-polymer depend explicitly on the ligand coverage of the polymer (i.e., the fraction of the polymer covered by the ligand). The equilibrium coverage that minimizes the free energy of the ligand-polymer system is computed as a function of the applied force. We show how ligands tune the mechanical properties of a polymer, in particular its length and stiffness, in a force dependent manner. In addition, it is shown how ligand binding can be regulated applying mechanical tension on the polymer. Moreover, the binding kinetics study shows that, in the case where the ligand binds and organizes the polymer in different modes, the binding process can present transient shortening or lengthening of the polymer, caused by changes in the relative coverage by the different ligand modes. Our model will be useful to understand ligand-binding regulation of biological processes, such as the metabolism of nucleic acid. In particular, this model allows estimating the coverage fraction and the ligand mode characteristics from the force extension curves of a ligand-polymer system.
  • Publication
    Cooperative kinetics of ligand binding to linear polymers
    (Elsevier, 2022) García Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Ligands change the chemical and mechanical properties of polymers. In particular, single strand binding protein (SSB) non-specifically bounds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), modifying the ssDNA stiffness and the DNA replication rate, as recently measured with single-molecule techniques. SSB is a large ligand presenting cooperativity in some of its binding modes. We aim to develop an accurate kinetic model for the cooperative binding kinetics of large ligands. Cooperativity accounts for the changes in the affinity of a ligand to the polymer due to the presence of another bound ligand. Large ligands, attaching to several binding sites, require a detailed counting of the available binding possibilities. This counting has been done by McGhee and von Hippel to obtain the equilibrium state of the ligands-polymer complex. The same procedure allows to obtain the kinetic equations for the cooperative binding of ligands to long polymers, for all ligand sizes. Here, we also derive approximate cooperative kinetic equations in the large ligand limit, at the leading and next-to-leading orders. We found cooperativity is negligible at the leading-order, and appears at the next-to-leading order. Positive cooperativity (increased affinity) can be originated by increased binding affinity or by decreased release affinity, implying different kinetics. Nevertheless, the equilibrium state is independent of the origin of cooperativity and only depends on the overall increase in affinity. Next-to-leading approximation is found to be accurate, particularly for small cooperativity. These results allow to understand and characterize relevant ligand binding processes, as the binding kinetics of SSB to ssDNA, which has been reported to affect the DNA replication rate for several SSB-polymerase pairs. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology.