Cao García, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
Cao García
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Estructura de la Materia, Física Térmica y Electrónica
Física Aplicada
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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Efficiency at maximum power of a discrete feedback ratchet
    (American Physical Society, 2016-01-22) Jarillo Díaz, Javier; Tangarife, Tomás; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Efficiency at maximum power is found to be of the same order for a feedback ratchet and for its open-loop counterpart. However, feedback increases the output power up to a factor of five. This increase in output power is due to the increase in energy input and the effective entropy reduction obtained as a consequence of feedback. Optimal efficiency at maximum power is reached for time intervals between feedback actions two orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of diffusion over a ratchet period length. The efficiency is computed consistently taking into account the correlation between the control actions. We consider a feedback control protocol for a discrete feedback flashing ratchet, which works against an external load. We maximize the power output optimizing the parameters of the ratchet, the controller, and the external load. The maximum power output is found to be upper bounded, so the attainable extracted power is limited. After, we compute an upper bound for the efficiency of this isothermal feedback ratchet at maximum power output. We make this computation applying recent developments of the thermodynamics of feedback-controlled systems, which give an equation to compute the entropy reduction due to information. However, this equation requires the computation of the probability of each of the possible sequences of the controller's actions. This computation becomes involved when the sequence of the controller's actions is non-Markovian, as is the case in most feedback ratchets. We here introduce an alternative procedure to set strong bounds to the entropy reduction in order to compute its value. In this procedure the bounds are evaluated in a quasi-Markovian limit, which emerge when there are big differences between the stationary probabilities of the system states. These big differences are an effect of the potential strength, which minimizes the departures from the Markovianicity of the sequence of control actions, allowing also to minimize the departures from the optimal performance of the system. This procedure can be applied to other feedback ratchets and, more in general, to other control systems.
  • Publication
    DNA synthesis determines the binding mode of the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein
    (Oxford University Press, 2017-07-07) Morin, José A.; Cerron Campoo, Fernando; Jarillo Díaz, Javier; Beltrán de Heredia Rodríguez, Elena; Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Arias González, J. Ricardo; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Cao García, Francisco Javier; Ibarra, Borja
    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) play a key role in genome maintenance, binding and organizing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates. Multimeric SSBs, such as the human mitochondrial SSB (HmtSSB), presentmultiple sites to interact with ssDNA, which has been shown in vitro to enable them to bind a variable number of single-stranded nucleotides depending on the salt and protein concentration. It has long been suggested that different binding modes might be used selectively for different functions. To study this possibility, we used optical tweezers to determine and compare the structure and energetics of long, individual HmtSSB-DNA complexes assembled on preformed ssDNA and on ssDNA generated gradually during 'in situ' DNA synthesis. We show that HmtSSB binds to preformed ssDNA in two major modes, depending on salt and protein concentration. However, when protein binding was coupled to strand-displacement DNA synthesis, only one of the two binding modes was observed under all experimental conditions. Our results reveal a key role for the gradual generation of ssDNA in modulating the binding mode of a multimeric SSB protein and consequently, in generating the appropriate nucleoprotein structure for DNA synthetic reactions required for genome maintenance.
  • Publication
    Mechanics, thermodynamics, and kinetics of ligand binding to biopolymers
    (Public LibraryI Science, 2017-04-05) Jarillo Díaz, Javier; Morín, José A.; Beltrán de Heredia Rodríguez, Elena; García Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Ibarra, Borja; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Ligands binding to polymers regulate polymer functions by changing their physical and chemical properties. This ligand regulation plays a key role in many biological processes. We propose here a model to explain the mechanical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of the process of binding of small ligands to long biopolymers. These properties can now be measured at the single molecule level using force spectroscopy techniques. Our model performs an effective decomposition of the ligand-polymer system on its covered and uncovered regions, showing that the elastic properties of the ligand-polymer depend explicitly on the ligand coverage of the polymer (i.e., the fraction of the polymer covered by the ligand). The equilibrium coverage that minimizes the free energy of the ligand-polymer system is computed as a function of the applied force. We show how ligands tune the mechanical properties of a polymer, in particular its length and stiffness, in a force dependent manner. In addition, it is shown how ligand binding can be regulated applying mechanical tension on the polymer. Moreover, the binding kinetics study shows that, in the case where the ligand binds and organizes the polymer in different modes, the binding process can present transient shortening or lengthening of the polymer, caused by changes in the relative coverage by the different ligand modes. Our model will be useful to understand ligand-binding regulation of biological processes, such as the metabolism of nucleic acid. In particular, this model allows estimating the coverage fraction and the ligand mode characteristics from the force extension curves of a ligand-polymer system.
  • Publication
    Spatial scales of population synchrony in Predator-Prey Systems
    (The University of Chicago Press Chicago, IL, 2020-02) Jarillo Díaz, Javier; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Many species show synchronous fluctuations in population size over large geographical areas, which are likely to increase their regional extinction risk. Here we examine how the degree of spatial synchrony in population dynamics is affected by trophic interactions using a two-species predator-prey model with spatially correlated environmental noise. We show that the predator has a larger spatial scale of population synchrony than the prey if the population fluctuations of both species are mainly determined by the direct effect of stochastic environmental variations in the prey. This result implies that in ecosystems regulated from the bottom up, the spatial scale of synchrony of the predator population increases beyond the scale of the spatial autocorrelation in the environmental noise and in the prey fluctuations. Harvesting the prey increases the spatial scale of population synchrony of the predator, while harvesting the predator reduces the spatial scale of the population fluctuations of its prey. Hence, the development of sustainable harvesting strategies should also consider the impact on unharvested species at other trophic levels as well as human perturbations of ecosystems, whether the result of exploitation or an effect on dispersal processes, as they can affect food web structures and trophic interactions over large geographical areas.
  • Publication
    Spatial scales of population synchrony of two competing species: effects of harvesting and strength of competition
    (2018-06-14) Jarillo Díaz, Javier; Sæther, Bernt‐Erik; Engen, Steinar; Cao García, Francisco Javier
    Theoretical analyses of single‐species models have revealed that the degree of synchrony in fluctuations of geographically separated populations increases with increasing spatial covariation in environmental fluctuations and increased interchange of individuals, but decreases with local strength of density dependence. Here we extend these results to include interspecific competition between two species as well as harvesting. We show that the effects of interspecific competition on the geographical scale of population synchrony are dependent on the pattern of spatial covariation of environmental variables. If the environmental noise is uncorrelated between the competing species, competition generally increases the spatial scale of population synchrony of both species. Otherwise, if the environmental noises are strongly correlated between species, competition generally increases the spatial scale of population synchrony of at least one, but also often of both species. The magnitude of these spatial scaling effects is, however, strongly influenced by the dispersal capacity of the two competing species. If the species are subject to proportional harvesting, this may synchronise population dynamics over large geographical areas, affecting the vulnerability of harvested species to environmental changes. However, the strength of interspecific competition may strongly modify this effect of harvesting on the spatial scale of population synchrony. For example, harvesting of one species may affect the spatial distribution of competing species that are not subject to harvesting. These analytical results provide an important illustration of the importance of applying an ecosystem rather than a single‐species perspective when developing harvest strategies for a sustainable management of exploited species.