Arrabal Durán, Raúl

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First Name
Last Name
Arrabal Durán
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Químicas
Ingeniería Química y de Materiales
Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 22
  • Publication
    LDH Post-Treatment of Flash PEO Coatings
    (MDPI, 2019-05-30) Olmo, Rubén del; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Mingo, Beatriz; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Matykina, Endzhe
    This work investigates environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic and carcinogenic Cr (VI)-based surface treatments for aluminium alloys. It is focused on multifunctional thin or flash plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)-layered double hydroxides (LDH) coatings. Three PEO coatings developed under a current-controlled mode based on aluminate, silicate and phosphate were selected from 31 processes (with different combinations of electrolytes, electrical conditions and time) according to corrosive behavior and energy consumption. In situ Zn-Al LDH was optimized in terms of chemical composition and exposure time on the bulk material, then applied to the selected PEO coatings. The structure, morphology and composition of PEO coatings with and without Zn-Al-LDH were characterized using XRD, SEM and EDS. Thicker and more porous PEO coatings revealed higher amounts of LDH flakes on their surfaces. The corrosive behavior of the coatings was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion resistance was enhanced considerably after the PEO coatings formation in comparison with bulk material. Corrosion resistance was not affected after the LDH treatment, which can be considered as a first step in achieving active protection systems by posterior incorporation of green corrosion inhibitors.
  • Publication
    Degradation Behaviour of Mg0.6Ca and Mg0.6Ca2Ag Alloys with Bioactive Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings
    (MDPI, 2019-06-13) Moreno Turiegano, Lara; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Mingo, Beatriz; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Matykina, Endzhe
    Bioactive Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coatings enriched in Ca, P and F were developed on Mg0.6Ca and Mg0.6Ca2Ag alloys with the aim to impede their fast degradation rate. Different characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, EDX, SKPFM, XRD) were used to analyze the surface characteristics and chemical composition of the bulk and/or coated materials. The corrosion behaviour was evaluated using hydrogen evolution measurements in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for up to 60 days of immersion. PEO-coated Mg0.6Ca showed a 2–3-fold improved corrosion resistance compared with the bulk alloy, which was more relevant to the initial 4 weeks of the degradation process. In the case of the Mg0.6Ag2Ag alloy, the obtained corrosion rates were very high for both non-coated and PEO-coated specimens, which would compromise their application as resorbable implants. The amount of F− ions released from PEO-coated Mg0.6Ca during 24 h of immersion in 0.9% NaCl was also measured due to the importance of F− in antibacterial processes, yielding 33.7 μg/cm2, which is well within the daily recommended limit of F− consumption.
  • Publication
    Design and Multidimensional Screening of Flash-PEO Coatings for Mg in Comparison to Commercial Chromium(VI) Conversion Coating
    (MDPI, 2021-02-17) Wierzbicka, Ewa; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulations demand for an expedient discovery of a Cr(VI)-free alternative corrosion protection for light alloys even though the green alternatives might never be as cheap as current harmful technologies. In the present work, flash- plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings (FPEO) with the process duration < 90 s are developed on AZ31B alloy in varied mixtures of silicate-, phosphate-, aluminate-, and fluoride-based alkaline electrolytes implementing current density and voltage limits. The overall evaluation of the coatings’ anticorrosion performance (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), neutral salt spray test (NSST), paintability) shows that from nine optimized FPEO recipes, two (based on phosphate, fluoride, and aluminate or silicate mixtures) are found to be an adequate substitute for commercially used Cr(VI)-based conversion coating (CCC). The FPEO coatings with the best corrosion resistance consume a very low amount of energy (~1 kW h m−2 µm−1). It is also found that the lower the energy consumption of the FPEO process, the better the corrosion resistance of the resultant coating. The superb corrosion protection and a solid environmentally friendly outlook of PEO-based corrosion protection technology may facilitate the economic justification for industrial end-users of the current-consuming process as a replacement of the electroless CCC process.
  • Publication
    Calcium Doped Flash-PEO Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Mg Alloy
    (MDPI, 2020-07-09) Wierzbicka, Ewa; Pillado Rios, Borja; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Matykina, Endzhe
    This study demonstrates a significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of an AZ31B magnesium alloy achieved by the application of 1 um-thin coatings generated by an environmentally friendly flash plasma electrolytic oxidation (FPEO) process in Ca-containing electrolytes. Two compounds with different solubility, calcium oxide (CaO) or calcium glycerophosphate (CaGlyP), were used as sources of Ca in the electrolyte. Very short durations (20–45 s) of the FPEO process were employed with the aim of limiting the energy consumption. The corrosion performance of the developed coatings was compared with that of a commercial conversion coating (CC) of similar thickness. The viability of the coatings in a full system protection approach, consisting of FPEO combined with an inhibitor-free epoxy primer, was verified in neutral salt spray and paint adhesion tests. The superior corrosion performance of the FPEO_CaGlyP coating, both as a stand-alone coating and as a full system, was attributed to the formation of a greater complexity of Ca2+ bonds with SiO2 and PO4 3- species within the MgO ceramic network during the in situ incorporation of Ca into the coating from a double chelated electrolyte and the resultant difficulties with the hydrolysis of such a network. The deterioration of the FPEO_CaGlyP coating during immersion was found over ten times slower compared with Ca-free flash-PEO coating.
  • Publication
    Energy consumption, wear and corrosion of PEO coatings on preanodized Al alloy: the influence of current and frequency
    (MPDI, 2022-10-13) Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; López, E.; Mingo Román, Beatriz; Moon, S.; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    The influence of current and frequency on energy consumption of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of a commercial aluminium alloy pre-treated by conventional anodizing in sulphuric acid has been investigated. The combination of a 20-μm thick precursor anodic porous film, high current (500 mA cm−2) and frequency (400 Hz) during PEO enables up to 76% energy savings compared to direct PEO treatment (50 Hz). The time needed to achieve a uniform coating thickness was also reduced from 3350 s to 750 s, for PEO_50 and A + PEO_400, respectively. The wear and corrosion performance of the optimised coatings (400 Hz) were also improved despite the lower thickness of the coatings. Such improvement was mainly attributed to the microstructural refinement associated with high frequency processing and early transaction to the “soft-sparking” regime. The modification of the frequency has a stronger influence on the corrosion response than the presence of the anodic precursor. The best corrosion response was obtained for PEO_400 followed closely by A + PEO_400.
  • Publication
    Catálogo de actividades prácticas sobre corrosión y protección de materiales metálicos para el aprendizaje autónomo
    Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Matykina, Endzhe; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Pardo Gutiérrez del Cid, Ángel; Muñoz Sánchez, Jesús Ángel; Gómez de Castro, Consuelo; Mora Sánchez, Hugo; Samaniego Miracle, Alejandro; Mateo Gómez, Gerardo; Pillado Ríos, Borja; Moreno Turiégano, Lara; Olmo Martínez, Rubén del; López Martínez, Esther; Carnero García, Jonás; Ramos Capón, Carolina
    El fin último del presente proyecto de innovación es la creación de recursos didácticos que permitan a los estudiantes desarrollar en casa y con elementos asequibles una serie de actividades prácticas dirigidas al aprendizaje autónomo sobre fundamentos de la corrosión y protección de materiales metálicos.
  • Publication
    Combination of Electron Beam Surface Structuring and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Advanced Surface Modification of Ti6Al4V Alloy
    (MDPI, 2022) Mora-Sanchez, Hugo; Pixner, Florian; Buzolin, Ricardo; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Warchomicka, Fernando; Matykina, Endzhe
    The objective of this work is to study for the first time the combination of electron beam (EB) surface structuring and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim of providing a multiscale topography and bioactive surface to the Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications. Ca and P-containing coatings were produced via 45 s PEO treatments over multi-scale EB surface topographies. The coatings morphology and composition were characterized by a means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The effect on the previous EB topography was evaluated by means of a 3D optical profilometry and electrochemical response via potentiodynamic polarization tests. In general, the PEO process, morphology, composition and growth rate of the coatings were almost identical, irrespective of the topography treated. Minimal local differences were found in terms of morphology, and the growth rate were related to specific topographical features. Nevertheless, all the PEO-coated substrates presented essentially the same corrosion resistance. Electrochemical tests revealed a localized crevice corrosion susceptibility of all the bare EB topographies, which was successfully prevented after the PEO treatment.
  • Publication
    Data: Energy consumption, wear and corrosion of PEO coatings on preanodized Al alloy: the influence of current and frequency. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 21, pp. 2061-2075 (2022).
    Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; López Martínez, Esther; Mingo, Beatriz; Moon, Sungmo; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Pillado Rios, Borja
  • Publication
    Flash-PEO coatings loaded with corrosion inhibitors on AA2024
    (Elsevier, 2020-08-20) Olmo Martínez, Rubén del; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Visser, Peter; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    Flash plasma electrolytic oxidation (flash-PEO) with in situ incorporation of inhibitors is explored as a strategy for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium (Al) alloys. Thin (~5 μm) and energy-efficient coatings were successfully developed on the Al substrate in 100 s treatment time using different electrolytes based on molybdate, stannate, tungstate, vanadate lanthanum or cerium salts additives with and without complexing agent (EDTA). Screening of the optimum combination in search of minimum thickness and best corrosion protective performance was performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Coatings based on EDTA-Ce and WO42 were selected and investigated further in comparison with the inhibitor-free phosphate coating in terms of morphology, composition, corrosion behaviour and paint adhesion. EDTA-Ce coating showed excellent paint adhesion and the highest impedance modulus at short immersion times in 3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution. Neutral salt spray testing of this coating as a full system comprising an epoxy primer showed no signs of corrosion after 1000 h of exposure.
  • Publication
    Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings Loaded with Corrosion Inhibitors for Corrosion Protection of AZ31 †
    (MDPI, 2021) Pillado Rios, Borja; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Olmo Martínez, Rubén del; Mingo, Beatriz; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    Layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coatings were developed for the corrosion protection of AZ31 Mg alloy. AZ31 is widely used in the transport industry due to its low mass density and good mechanical properties. LDH coatings were fabricated under co-precipitation conditions and applied under hydrothermal conditions. Two different systems Zn-Al LDH and Li-Al LDH were studied. Specimens were post-treated via immersion for 2 h at 45 °C in inhibitor aqueous baths. Na2WO4·H2O and LiNO3 inorganic inhibitors were used, respectively, to produce inhibitor-loaded systems: Zn-Al LDH(W) and Li-Al LDH(Li). The characterization of the coatings was carried out by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The corrosion process was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The surface was also evaluated via the determination of water drop contact angle and the performance of a paint adhesion test using an epoxy primer. The characterization of the coating revealed two-layered coatings with a denser inner layer and a flaky outer layer. Both coatings improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ31 alloy. Loading with inhibitor further increased the corrosion resistance by one order of magnitude (bare substrate, Z10mHz~102 Ω cm2; LDH, Z10mHz~103–4 Ω cm2; LDH-inhibitor, Z10mHz~105 Ω cm2).