Arrabal Durán, Raúl

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First Name
Last Name
Arrabal Durán
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Químicas
Ingeniería Química y de Materiales
Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Hard Anodizing and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of an Additively Manufactured Al-Si alloy
    (Elsevier Science, 2021-05-26) Mora Sánchez, H.; Olmo, Rubén del; Rams, J.; Torres, B.; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Matykina, E.; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) and Hard Anodizing (HA) coatings are investigated on an Additively Manufactured (AM) Al10Si1Mg alloy obtained via Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Results are compared to those obtained for a conventional A361 cast alloy. Findings revealed that the microstructure of the AM alloy, consisting of α-Al cells enclosed in a Si network, produces coatings that are more uniform –in terms of morphology, thickness and roughness of the coating/substrate interface– than those obtained on the cast alloy. However, enhanced oxidation of the fine Si network in the AM alloy results in softer coatings. In both alloys, PEO coatings demonstrate superior wear protection than HA due to the presence of mullite in the former. The anisotropy in the microstructure of the AM alloy influences the tribological behaviour of studied coatings, with the XZ plane showing superior wear performance.
  • Publication
    Effect of cerium (IV) on thin sulfuric acid anodizing of 2024-T3 alloy
    (Elsevier Science BV, 2021-10-07) Olmo, R. del; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Visser, P.; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Araceli; Matykina, E.; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    Chromic acid anodizing (CAA) is still being used today for corrosion protection of fatigue-critical components in the aeronautic industry due to the lack of feasible alternatives. Ce-containing sulfuric acid anodizing (SAA) has been identified as a promising strategy for the development of alternatives to toxic CAA. This work explores thin sulfuric acid anodizing (TSAA) focusing on the following effects: (i) current density and voltage values; (ii) concentration of Ce(IV). Screening of the optimum combination in search of minimum thickness and the best corrosion resistance was performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Two Ce-containing anodic films were selected and further investigated in comparison with the inhibitor-free film in terms of morphology (FEG-SEM, TEM), composition (RBS), corrosion resistance (EIS, NSST), high-cycle fatigue and paint adhesion. The results indicate that the path to approach the CAA performance lies through thin (<1 μm) SAA-Ce films formed at low current density.
  • Publication
    Design and Multidimensional Screening of Flash-PEO Coatings for Mg in Comparison to Commercial Chromium(VI) Conversion Coating
    (MDPI, 2021-02-17) Wierzbicka, Ewa; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulations demand for an expedient discovery of a Cr(VI)-free alternative corrosion protection for light alloys even though the green alternatives might never be as cheap as current harmful technologies. In the present work, flash- plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings (FPEO) with the process duration < 90 s are developed on AZ31B alloy in varied mixtures of silicate-, phosphate-, aluminate-, and fluoride-based alkaline electrolytes implementing current density and voltage limits. The overall evaluation of the coatings’ anticorrosion performance (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), neutral salt spray test (NSST), paintability) shows that from nine optimized FPEO recipes, two (based on phosphate, fluoride, and aluminate or silicate mixtures) are found to be an adequate substitute for commercially used Cr(VI)-based conversion coating (CCC). The FPEO coatings with the best corrosion resistance consume a very low amount of energy (~1 kW h m−2 µm−1). It is also found that the lower the energy consumption of the FPEO process, the better the corrosion resistance of the resultant coating. The superb corrosion protection and a solid environmentally friendly outlook of PEO-based corrosion protection technology may facilitate the economic justification for industrial end-users of the current-consuming process as a replacement of the electroless CCC process.
  • Publication
    Corrosion of Steel Rebars in Anoxic Environments. Part II: Pit Growth Rate and Mechanical Strength
    (MDPI AG, 2021) García, Elena; Torres, Julio; Rebolledo, Nuria; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Sánchez, Javier
    Reinforced concrete may corrode in anoxic environments such as offshore structures. Under such conditions the reinforcement fails to passivate completely, irrespective of chloride content, and the corrosion taking place locally induces the growth of discrete pits. This study characterised such pits and simulated their growth from experimentally determined electrochemical parameters. Pit morphology was assessed with an optical profilometer. A finite element model was developed to simulate pit growth based on electrochemical parameters for different cathode areas. The model was able to predict long-term pit growth by deformed geometry set up. Simulations showed that pit growth-related corrosion tends to maximise as cathode area declines, which lower the pitting factor. The mechanical strength developed by the passive and prestressed rebar throughout its service life was also estimated. Passive rebar strength may drop by nearly 20% over 100 years, whilst in the presence of cracking from the base of the pit steel strength may decline by over 40%.
  • Publication
    Corrosion of Steel Rebars in Anoxic Environments. Part I: Electrochemical Measurements
    (MDPI AG, 2021) García, Elena; Torres, Julio; Rebolledo, Nuria; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Sánchez, Javier
    The number of reinforced concrete structures subject to anoxic conditions such as offshore platforms and geological storage facilities is growing steadily. This study explored the behaviour of embedded steel reinforcement corrosion under anoxic conditions in the presence of different chloride concentrations. Corrosion rate values were obtained by three electrochemical techniques: Linear polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and chronopotenciometry. The corrosion rate ceiling observed was 0.98 µA/cm2, irrespective of the chloride content in the concrete. By means of an Evans diagram, it was possible to estimate the value of the cathodic Tafel constant (bc) to be 180 mV dec−1, and the current limit yielded an ilim value of 0.98 µA/cm2. On the other hand, the corrosion potential would lie most likely in the −900 mVAg/AgCl to −1000 mVAg/AgCl range, whilst the bounds for the most probable corrosion rate were 0.61 µA/cm2 to 0.22 µA/cm2. The experiments conducted revealed clear evidence of corrosion-induced pitting that will be assessed in subsequent research.
  • Publication
    Combination of Electron Beam Surface Structuring and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Advanced Surface Modification of Ti6Al4V Alloy
    (MDPI, 2022) Mora-Sanchez, Hugo; Pixner, Florian; Buzolin, Ricardo; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Warchomicka, Fernando; Matykina, Endzhe
    The objective of this work is to study for the first time the combination of electron beam (EB) surface structuring and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim of providing a multiscale topography and bioactive surface to the Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications. Ca and P-containing coatings were produced via 45 s PEO treatments over multi-scale EB surface topographies. The coatings morphology and composition were characterized by a means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The effect on the previous EB topography was evaluated by means of a 3D optical profilometry and electrochemical response via potentiodynamic polarization tests. In general, the PEO process, morphology, composition and growth rate of the coatings were almost identical, irrespective of the topography treated. Minimal local differences were found in terms of morphology, and the growth rate were related to specific topographical features. Nevertheless, all the PEO-coated substrates presented essentially the same corrosion resistance. Electrochemical tests revealed a localized crevice corrosion susceptibility of all the bare EB topographies, which was successfully prevented after the PEO treatment.
  • Publication
    Flash-PEO coatings loaded with corrosion inhibitors on AA2024
    (Elsevier, 2020-08-20) Olmo Martínez, Rubén del; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Visser, Peter; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    Flash plasma electrolytic oxidation (flash-PEO) with in situ incorporation of inhibitors is explored as a strategy for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium (Al) alloys. Thin (~5 μm) and energy-efficient coatings were successfully developed on the Al substrate in 100 s treatment time using different electrolytes based on molybdate, stannate, tungstate, vanadate lanthanum or cerium salts additives with and without complexing agent (EDTA). Screening of the optimum combination in search of minimum thickness and best corrosion protective performance was performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Coatings based on EDTA-Ce and WO42 were selected and investigated further in comparison with the inhibitor-free phosphate coating in terms of morphology, composition, corrosion behaviour and paint adhesion. EDTA-Ce coating showed excellent paint adhesion and the highest impedance modulus at short immersion times in 3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution. Neutral salt spray testing of this coating as a full system comprising an epoxy primer showed no signs of corrosion after 1000 h of exposure.
  • Publication
    Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings Loaded with Corrosion Inhibitors for Corrosion Protection of AZ31 †
    (MDPI, 2021) Pillado Rios, Borja; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Olmo Martínez, Rubén del; Mingo, Beatriz; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl
    Layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coatings were developed for the corrosion protection of AZ31 Mg alloy. AZ31 is widely used in the transport industry due to its low mass density and good mechanical properties. LDH coatings were fabricated under co-precipitation conditions and applied under hydrothermal conditions. Two different systems Zn-Al LDH and Li-Al LDH were studied. Specimens were post-treated via immersion for 2 h at 45 °C in inhibitor aqueous baths. Na2WO4·H2O and LiNO3 inorganic inhibitors were used, respectively, to produce inhibitor-loaded systems: Zn-Al LDH(W) and Li-Al LDH(Li). The characterization of the coatings was carried out by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The corrosion process was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The surface was also evaluated via the determination of water drop contact angle and the performance of a paint adhesion test using an epoxy primer. The characterization of the coating revealed two-layered coatings with a denser inner layer and a flaky outer layer. Both coatings improved the corrosion resistance of the AZ31 alloy. Loading with inhibitor further increased the corrosion resistance by one order of magnitude (bare substrate, Z10mHz~102 Ω cm2; LDH, Z10mHz~103–4 Ω cm2; LDH-inhibitor, Z10mHz~105 Ω cm2).
  • Publication
    Hybrid sol-gel coatings applied on anodized AA2024-T3 for active corrosion protection
    (Elsevier Science, 2021-08-15) Olmo Martínez, Rubén del; Tiringer, U.; Milosev, I; Visser, P.; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; Matykina, Endzhe
    The effect of the presence of an anodic film and hybrid sol-gel coating loaded with corrosion inhibitors was evaluated as a strategy for enhanced barrier and active corrosion protection of aluminium alloy 2024-T3. In this study, AA2024-T3 specimens were anodized in a modified sulphuric-citric acid bath (SCA) as the first layer of a corrosion protective multilayer system and subsequently protected by the application of silica-based hybrid sol-gel coatings. These coatings were doped with LiNO3 and Ce(NO3)3 as corrosion inhibitors and studied in comparison with the inhibitor-free sol-gel coating in terms of morphology, composition and corrosion protection of intact and scribed specimens. The anodized AA2024-T3 with an overlaying inhibitor-free sol-gel coating showed the highest impedance modulus during long-term immersion in 0.1 mol·L−1 NaCl aqueous solution. Active corrosion protection of scribed coated specimens was studied by exposure to a 0.5 mol·L−1 NaCl solution and evaluated by surface analytical techniques. The addition of Li- and Ce-based salts into the hybrid sol-gel formulation showed active corrosion protection compared to the inhibitor-free scribed hybrid sol-gel coating. The Ce-doped sol-gel coating showed less visual corrosion and higher active corrosion protection than the Li-containing one during the long-term immersion test in 0.5 mol·L−1 NaCl. Present findings reveal that the combination of the anodic/hybrid sol-gel layers on AA2024-T3 enhances the corrosion protective properties barrier properties of both stand-alone systems and the incorporation of Li- and Ce-based inhibitors provide active corrosion.
  • Publication
    PLA deposition on surface treated magnesium alloy: Adhesion, toughness and corrosion behaviour
    (Elsevier Science, 2020-04-25) Muñoz, Marta; Torres, Belén; Mohedano Sánchez, Marta; Matykina, Endzhe; Arrabal Durán, Raúl; López, A.J.; Rams, J.
    This study shows that the use of polylactic acid polymer (PLA) coatings deposited by dip-coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy can increase the integrity of the system and the fracture toughness of magnesium substrates treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). This provides a novel and promising use of a multilayered system made of fully biocompatible materials. The maximum adhesion strength value for PLA coatings on AZ31 was >50% higher than the maximum one for AZ31/PEO/PLA, while the maximum bending strain tripled. The limitations observed in the AZ31/PEO system arise from the brittle nature of the oxides formed during PEO treatments; their negative impact is reduced when incorporating a PLA layer that is capable of filling the pores and sealing the cracks of the PEO layer. PLA coatings reduce corrosion of AZ31 and maintain the corrosion protection provided by the PEO treatments. The characteristics of the PLA coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy and on AZ31/PEO systems were evaluated by using a Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) method using the following processing parameters: (i) number of layers, (ii) withdrawal speed and (iii) polymer concentration. The effect of these three degrees of freedom and, the surface treatment has been evaluated with regards to different properties desired for the coatings, i.e., adhesion, thickness, roughness, and corrosion resistance.