Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo

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First Name
Juan Gonzalo
Last Name
Carracedo Rodríguez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Óptica y Optometría
Optometría y Visión
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Publication
    Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye in Keratoconus Patients Before and After Intrastromal Corneal Rings Surgery
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Recchioni, Alberto; Alejandre Alba, Nicolás; Martín Gil, Alba; Batres Valderas, Laura; Jiménez Alfaro-Morote, Ignacio; Pintor, Jesús
    Purpose: Based on the relationship between keratoconus and dry eye, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in signs and symptoms of dry eye in keratoconus patients before and after intrastromal corneal ring surgery. Methods: Fifteen keratoconus patients were enrolled in Fundación Jiménez-Díaz of Madrid and University Clinic of Optometry of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Madrid, Spain). Tear break up time (TBUT), Schirmer test without anesthesia, corneal staining, diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were evaluated. Impression cytology combined with laser confocal microscopy was performed to evaluate goblet cell density, mucin cloud height (MCH), and cell layer thickness (CLT). All measurements were performed before (pre) surgery, 1 month (post) and 6 months after surgery (post6m). Results: We found no statistical differences in time in Schirmer test, TBUT, and corneal staining. OSDI scores were 44.96  ±  8.65, 26.30 ± 6.79, and 19.31 ± 4.28 for (pre), (post), and (post6m) surgery, respectively (p < 0.001). Impression cytology showed a decrease in cell density at (post6m) compared with presurgery (47.36 ± 35.15 cells/mm2 and 84.88 ± 32.08 cells/mm2, respectively, p = 0.04). At post6m, the MCH increased compared with presurgery values (13.97 ± 4.26 µm and 6.77 ± 2.51 µm, respectively, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in CLT in time. Ap4A tear concentrations were lower post6m than presurgery (1.02  ±  0.65 and 2.56   ± 1.10  µM, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Intrastromal corneal ring surgery induces changes improving dry eye symptoms but no changes were found in signs of dry eye after surgery in keratoconus patients except for the MCH that increases drastically. More studies are needed to clarify the reason of its improvement.
  • Publication
    Epithelium-Off vs. transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking in progressive keratoconus: 3 years of follow-up
    (Spanish General Council of Optometrists, 2020-09-01) Arance Gil, Ángeles; Villa Collar, César; Pérez Sánchez, Belén; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Gutiérrez Ortega, Ángel Ramón
    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of epithelium-off corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) with transepithelial CXL in patients with progressive keratoconus with a follow-up of 3 years, taking into account the patients’ age and the location of the corneal ectasia. Methods: In this prospective study participated 64 eyes with progressive keratoconus were included in this long-term study, of which 31 eyes were treated by epithelium-off CXL and 33 by transepithelial CXL. All of the patients with a follow-up of 36 months were evaluated for visual variables (corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal aberrations, and corneal densitometry), structure variables (astigmatism, keratometry, corneal asphericity, maximum posterior elevation, corneal thickness, and corneal volume), and keratoconus index variables. Results: After corneal CXL, CDVA improved significantly in both central and paracentral keratoconus, with greater improvement in the centrals (p = 0.001), asphericity at 6 mm improved in central keratoconus (p = 0.047). In the epi-off group, there was a significant improvement in coma-like (p = 0.038), higher-order aberrations (p = 0.036), asphericity at 8 mm (p = 0.049), asphericity at 10 mm (p = 0.049), and index of surface variance (p = 0.049). Conclusion: Although both techniques halted and stabilized the progression of keratoconus, epithelium-off CXL was more effective. In addition, after the corneal CXL, there was a greater degree of regularization of the corneal surface and, therefore, a greater improvement in the CDVA with central keratoconus than with paracentral keratoconus.
  • Publication
    Short and long term corneal biomechanical analysis after overnight orthokeratology
    (Press of International Journal of Ophthalmology, 2022-07-18) Nieto Bona, Amelia; Porras Ángel, Paloma; Ayllón Gordillo, Adela Elena; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Piñero, David Pablo
    Aim: To investigate the short and long term corneal biomechanical changes after overnight orthokeratology (OK) and compare them with those occurring in subjects not wearing contact lenses. Methods: Retrospective case control study enrolling 54 subjects that were divided into three groups 18 subjects each: control group (CG), short term (15 nights) OK (STOK) group, and long term (more than 1y of OK wear) OK (LTOK) group. Corneal biomechanics were characterized using the CorVis® ST system (Oculus), recording parameters such as time [first/second applanation time (AT1, AT2)], speed [velocity of corneal apex at the first/second applanation time (AV1, AV2)], and amplitude of deformation (AD1, AD2) in the first and second corneal flattening, corneal stiffness (SPA1), biomechanically corrected intraocular pressure (bIOP) and corneal (CBI) and tomographic biomechanical indices (TBI). Results: Significantly lower AD1 and standard deviate on of Ambrosio's relational average thickness related to the horizontal profile (ARTh) values were found in the OK groups compared to CG (P<0.05). Likewise, significantly higher values of CBI were found in STOK and LTOK groups compared to CG (P<0.01). No significant differences between groups were found in integrated radius index (P=0.24), strain stress index (P=0.22), tomographic biomechanical index (P=0.91) and corneal stiffness parameter (SPA1, P=0.97). Significant inverse correlations were found between corneal thickness and CBI in STOK (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and LTOK groups (r=-0.71, P<0.01). Conclusion: OK does not seem to alter significantly the corneal biomechanical properties, but special care should be taken when analyzing biomechanical parameters influenced by corneal thickness such as amplitude of deformation, ARTh or CBI, because they change significantly after treatment but mainly due to the reduction and pachymetric progression induced by the corneal molding secondary to OK treatment.
  • Publication
    Comparison of Intraocular Pressure before and after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Refractive Surgery Measured with Perkins Tonometry, Noncontact Tonometry, and Transpalpebral Tonometry
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015) Cacho, Isabel; Sánchez Naves, Juan; Batres Valderas, Laura; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Pintor Just, Jesús
    Purpose. To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK), measured by Diaton, Perkins, and noncontact air pulse tonometers. Methods. Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 34.88 were scheduled for myopia LASIK treatment. Spherical equivalent refraction (SER), corneal curvature (K), and central corneal thickness (CCT) and superior corneal thickness (SCT) were obtained before and after LASIK surgery. IOP values before and after surgery were measured using Diaton, Perkins, and noncontact air pulse tonometers. Results. The IOP values before and after LASIK surgery using Perkins tonometer and air tonometers were statistically significant (). However, no significant differences were found () for IOP values measured with Diaton tonometer. CCT decreases significantly after surgery () but no statistical differences were found in SCT (). Correlations between pre- and postsurgery were found for all tonometers used, with and for the air pulse tonometer, and for Perkins, and and for Diaton. Conclusion. Transpalpebral tonometry may be useful for measuring postsurgery IOP after myopic LASIK ablation because this technique is not influenced by the treatment.
  • Publication
    Comparison Between Viscous Teardrops and Saline Solution to Fill Orthokeratology Contact Lenses Before Overnight Wear
    (Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc, 2018-09) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Villa Collar, César; Martín Gil, Alba; Serramito Blanco, María; Santamaría, Leticia
    Objective: To compare, in terms of efficacy, the differences between the use of saline solution and a viscous artificial tear to fill the lens during the first month of orthokeratology wear. Methods: A pilot, double-masked, crossed, randomized, and prospective study was conducted. In this study, 20 subjects (14 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 16.29±6.22 years (range, 10–26) were fitted with orthokeratology contact lenses. For the study, nonpreserved 0.9% NaCl commercial saline solution (Avizor, Madrid, Spain) and nonpreserved artificial teardrops with 0.3% of hyaluronic acid (Ocudry 0.3%; Avizor, Madrid, Spain) were used. Corneal staining, tear break up time (TBUT), topography, refraction, visual acuity, and subjective comfort and vision with the visual analog scale (score from 0 to 10, being 10 better comfort and vision) were evaluated at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month of contact lens wear. Results: The corneal staining was statistically greater in the saline group than in the Ocudry group for the first day and during 1 week of wear (P<0.05). Comfort was found to be statistically better, with Ocudry 0.3% than saline solution, being 7.17±1.94 and 6.37±1.63, for the first day, and 8.78±0.43 and 8.15±0.62 for the day 28, respectively (P<0.05). However, no differences were found for subjective vision scores, TBUT, spherical equivalent, best-corrected visual acuity and uncorrected visual acuity, and mean keratometry between groups for any visit (P>0.05). Conclusion: Viscous artificial tears improve the subjective comfort of patients and reduce the corneal staining, compared with saline solution during the orthokeratology lenses fitting process. However, no differences between solutions for the treatment efficacy, in vision and corneal topography, were found.
  • Publication
    The Topographical Effect of Optical Zone Diameter in Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in High Myopes
    (Hindawi, 2019-01-02) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Espinosa Vidal, Teresa M.; Martínez Alberquilla, Irene; Batres Valderas, Laura
    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of the optical zone diameter (OZ) in orthokeratology contact lenses regarding the topographical profile in patients with high myopia (−4.00 D to −7.00 D) and to study its effect over the visual quality. Materials and Methods. Twelve patients (18 eyes) were fitted with overnight orthokeratology (OrthoK) with a randomized 6 mm or 5 mm OZ lens worn for 2 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period, between both designs. Keratometry (K) readings, optical zone treatment diameter (OZT), peripheral ring width (PRW), higher-order aberrations (HOA), high (HC) and low contrast (LC) visual acuity, and subjective vision and comfort were measured at baseline and after 2 weeks of OrthoK lens wear of each contact lens. Results. No significant differences were found between any measurements for the same subject at both baselines ( value > 0.05). There was no difference between OZ lens designs found in refraction, subjective vision or comfort, and HC and LC visual acuity. Contrast sensitivity was decreased in the 5 mm OZ lens design compared with 6 mm OZ design (-value < 0.05). 5 mm OZ design provoked a greater flattening, more powerful midperipheral ring and 4th-order corneal and total spherical aberration than the 6 mm OZ design, being statistically significant after 7 days, for corneal aberration, and 15 days, for corneal and total, of wearing the lens (-value < 0.05). The OZT obtained were 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and 3.1 ± 0.1 mm for 5 mm and 6 mm OZ design, respectively (-value < 0.05). Regarding PRW, the 5 mm OZ design had a wider ring width in both the nasal and temporal zones (-value < 0.05). Conclusions. A smaller diameter optical zone (5 mm) in orthokeratology lenses produces a smaller treatment area and a larger and more powerful midperipheral ring, increasing the 4th-order spherical aberration that affects only the contrast sensitivity but without differences in visual acuity and subjective vision compared with a larger OZ diameter (6 mm).
  • Publication
    Accommodation response and spherical aberration during Orthokeratology
    (Springer, 2020-01) Batres Valderas, Laura; Peruzzo, Sara; Serramito Blanco, María; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo
    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in the accommodative response and in the corneal and internal spherical aberration during three months of wear of orthokeratology lenses from the baseline. Methods: Fifty children aged 8 to 17 were recruited for a prospective study and were fitted with orthokeratology lenses. Refraction without cycloplegia, high and low uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), accommodation lag, horizontal near phoria without correction, corneal topography, corneal and total wavefront aberration were performed at baseline, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Data were analysed by Student t-test for related samples, repeated measures ANOVA test and Pearson Correlation test. Results: The spherical equivalent (SE) before and after three months was -3.33 ± 1.60 D and -0.30±0.46 D, respectively. Accommodation lag was 0.53±0.38 D and 0.20±0.33 D at baseline and at three months, respectively. A moderate correlation between lag at the baseline and its change between baseline and the 3-month visit was found (P<0.05; R= 0.748). The spherical aberration (SA) increased for anterior corneal and total measurement, being statistically significant for all visits (P<0.05). The internal SA decreased: -0.105±0.006 at baseline and -0.196±0.203 at 1 week (P< 0.05). No difference between baseline and the follow up visits in posterior corneal SA was found (P>0.05) Conclusion: The negative SA of the lens increases during OK treatment compensated for the increase of the anterior corneal surface positive SA, in addition to increasing the accommodative response.
  • Publication
    Changes in Peripheral Refractive Profile after Orthokeratology for Different Degrees of Myopia
    (Taylor & Francis, 2016) González-Méijome, José Manuel; Faria Ribeiro, Migue A.; Lopes Ferreira, Daniela P.; Fernandes, Paulo; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Queiros, Antonio
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthokeratology for different degrees of myopia correction in the relative location of tangential (FT) and sagittal (FS) power errors across the central 70° of the visual field in the horizontal meridian. Methods: Thirty-four right eyes of 34 patients with a mean age of 25.2 ± 6.4 years were fitted with Paragon CRT (Mesa, AZ) rigid gas permeable contact lenses to treat myopia (−2.15 ± 1.26D, range: −0.88 to −5.25D). Axial and peripheral refraction were measured along the central 70° of the horizontal visual field with the Grand Seiko WAM5500 open-field auto-refractor. Spherical equivalent (M), as well as tangential (FT) and sagittal power errors (FS) were obtained. Analysis was stratified in three groups according to baseline spherical equivalent: Group 1 [MBaseline = −0.88 to −1.50D; n = 11], Group 2 [MBaseline = −1.51 to −2.49D; n = 11], and Group 3 [MBaseline = −2.50 to −5.25D; n = 12]. Results: Spherical equivalent was significantly more myopic after treatment beyond the central 40° of the visual field (p < 0.001). FT became significantly more myopic for all groups in the nasal and temporal retina with 25° (p ≤ 0.017), 30° (p ≤ 0.007) and 35° (p ≤ 0.004) of eye rotation. Myopic change in FS was less consistent, achieving only statistical significance for all groups at 35° in the nasal and temporal retina (p ≤ 0.045). Conclusions: Orthokeratology changes significantly FT in the myopic direction beyond the central 40° of the visual field for all degrees of myopia. Changes induced by orthokeratology in relative peripheral M, FT and FS with 35° of eye rotation were significantly correlated with axial myopia at baseline.
  • Publication
    Stabilization in early adult-onset myopia with corneal refractive therapy
    (Elsevier, 2016-02) González Méijome, José Manuel; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Lopes Ferreira, Daniela P.; Faria Ribeiro, Migue A.; Peixoto de Matos, Sofía C.; Queiros, Antonio
    Purpose: To describe the stabilization of early adult-onset myopia in three university students after initiating orthokeratology treatment with corneal refractive therapy contact lenses. Methods: Three Caucasian early adult-onset progressing myopic subjects (1 male, 2 females) were fitted with corneal refractive therapy lenses to correct myopia between −1.50 and −2.50 D of sphere using Paragon CRT (Paragon Vision Sciences, Mesa, AZ) lenses for overnight orthokeratology. The pre-treatment refractive history from 2005 as well as refraction and axial length after treatment onset are reported over a period of 3 years between December 2009 and January 2013 with an additional year of follow-up after treatment discontinuation (January–December 2013). The peripheral refractive patterns and topographic changes are also reported individually. Results: Treatment was successful in all three subjects achieving uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better monocularly. During a period of 3 years of follow-up the subjects did not experience progression in their refractive error, nor in their axial length (measured during the last 2 years of treatment and 1 year after discontinuation). Furthermore, the subjects recovered to their baseline refraction and did not progressed further over the following year after lens wear discontinuation. Conclusions: We cannot attribute a causative effect to the orthokeratology treatment alone as underlying mechanism for myopia stabilization in this 3 patients. However, the present report points to the possibility of stabilization of early adult-onset myopia progression in young adults using corneal refractive therapy treatment.
  • Publication
    Effect of overnight orthokeratology on conjunctival goblet cells
    (Elsevier, 2016-08) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Martín Gil, Ana; Fonseca, Begoña; Pintor, Jesús
    Objective: To evaluate the differences between goblet cell density (GCD) and symptomatology after one month of orthokeratology lens wear. Methods: A pilot, short-term study was conducted. Twenty-two subjects (29.7. ±. 7.0 years old) participated voluntarily in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups: habitual silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers (SiHCLW) and new contact lens wearers (NCLW). Schirmer test, tear break up time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and conjunctival impression cytology. GCD, mucin cloud height (MCH) and cell layer thickness (CLT) were measured. All measurements were performed before orthokeratology fitting and one month after fitting to assess the evolution of the changes throughout this time. Results: No differences in tear volume and TBUT between groups were found (p>0.05). However, the OSDI score was statistically better after one month of orthokeratology lens wear than the baseline for the SiHCLW group (p=0.03). Regarding the goblet cell analysis, no differences were found in CLT and MCH from the baseline visit to the one month visit for the SiHCLW compared with NCLW groups (p>0.05). At baseline, the GCD in the SiHCLW group were statistically lower than NCLW group (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in GCD after orthokeratology fitting from 121±140cell/mm2 to 254±130cell/mm2 (p<0.001) in the SiHCLW group. Conclusion: Orthokeratology improves the dry eye subject symptoms and GCD after one month of wearing in SiHCLW. These results suggest that orthokeratology could be considered a good alternative for silicone hydrogel contact lens discomfort and dryness. © 2016 British Contact Lens Association.