Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo

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First Name
Juan Gonzalo
Last Name
Carracedo Rodríguez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Óptica y Optometría
Optometría y Visión
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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye in Keratoconus Patients: A Pilot Study
    (Taylor & Francis, 2015-11) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Recchioni, Alberto; Alejandre Alba, Nicolás; Martín Gil, Alba; Crooke, Almudena; Jiménez Alfaro-Morote, Ignacio; Pintor, Jesús
    Purpose: To compare signs and symptoms of dry eye in keratoconus (KC) patients versus healthy subjects. Methods: A total of 15 KC patients (KC group, n = 15 eyes) and 16 healthy subjects (control group, 16 eyes) were enrolled in this study. The Schirmer I test with no anesthetic, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal staining characteristics, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores were evaluated for both groups. Impression cytology, combined with/scanning laser confocal microscopy (LCM), was performed to evaluate goblet cell density, mucin cloud height (MCH), and goblet cell layer thickness (CLT). Finally, tear concentrations of di-adenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) were assessed. Results were statistically analyzed using Shapiro–Wilk and non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: KC patients had lower tear volumes and greater corneal staining than did healthy subjects (p < 0.05). OSDI scores were 44.96 ± 8.65 and 17.78 ± 6.50 for the KC and control groups, respectively (p < 0.05). We found no statistically significant differences in TBUT between groups. Impression cytology revealed lower goblet cell densities in KC group patients versus control group subjects (84.88 ± 32.98 and 128.88 ± 50.60 cells/mm,2 respectively, p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant reduction in MCH and CLT in KC group patients compared with control group subjects. Ap4A tear concentrations were higher in KC group patients than in control group subjects (2.56 ± 1.10 and 0.15 ± 0.12 µM, respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The parameters evaluated in this study indicate that KC patients suffer greater symptoms of dry eye and greater tear instability, primarily due to the decreased mucin production in their tears, than do healthy patients with no KC.
  • Publication
    Melatonin-Eluting Contact Lenses Effect on Tear Volume: In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments
    (MDPI, 2022-05) Serramito Blanco, María; Pereira da Mota, Ana Filipa; Carpena Torres, Carlos; Huete Toral, Fernando; Álvarez Lorenzo, Carmen Isabel; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo
    Background: The purpose of this study was to synthesize melatonin-eluting contact lenses (CLs) and evaluate both the ocular kinetics of the released melatonin and its effect on tear volume and intraocular pressure. Methods: In vitro, melatonin-eluting CLs were synthesized by using non-functionalized (HEMA) and functionalized (HEMA/APMA) monomers. In vivo, a short-term prospective and randomized study was performed on 15 rabbits divided into two groups: 12 rabbits wearing functionalized CLs and 3 rabbits without CLs as a control. The melatonin levels in tears, aqueous humor, vitreous body and retina, tear volume, and intraocular pressure were measured for 8 h. Results: In vitro, both monomers did not show differences in terms of melatonin loading and release (p ≥ 0.05). In vivo, the melatonin concentration was elevated in tears and aqueous humor after 2 and 4 h of wearing CLs, respectively (p < 0.05). Additionally, the CLs increased tear volume for 2 h (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The melatonin-eluting CLs released their content over the ocular surface for at least 2 h, which was associated with a secretagogue effect on tear volume. However, the increased amount of melatonin found in the aqueous humor had no effect on intraocular pressure.
  • Publication
    Increased Levels of Diadenosine Polyphosphates in Dry Eye
    (The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc., 2006-09) Peral Cerdá, Assumpta; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Acosta Boj, Mª Carmen; Gallar Martínez, Juana; Pintor, Jesús
    Purpose. To analyze the levels of the diadenosine polyphosphates Ap4A and Ap5A in tears, in a set of control subjects and in groups of symptomatic and nonsymptomatic persons with dry eye. Methods. Ninety-seven subjects participated in the study. The subjects were divided into five experimental groups: control subjects; symptomatic patients with normal tear secretion; symptomatic patients with low tear secretion; forced blink; and corneal mechanical stimulation provided by a gas esthesiometer. The Schirmer I test was used to measure and collect tear secretions from each subject. All samples were processed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and their Ap4A and Ap5A levels determined. Results. The levels of Ap4A and Ap5A in tears were greater in all symptomatic patients than in control subjects, especially in symptomatic subjects with low tear secretion. Within the symptomatic subjects with normal tear secretion, significant differences in concentrations of Ap4A and Ap5A were found between men and women. In the forced blink experiments, concentrations of the Ap4A and Ap5A rose with increasing blink frequency. When the cornea was mechanically stimulated, the levels of Ap4A and Ap5A rose significantly during both moderate and high-flow rate tests. Conclusions. The increased levels of Ap4A and Ap5A in tears of patients with dry eye allow these dinucleotides to be used as objective biomarkers in dry eye conditions.
  • Publication
    The influence of rigid gas permeable lens wear on the concentrations of dinucleotides in tears and the effect on dry eye signs and symptoms in keratoconus
    (Elsevier, 2016-10) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; González-Méijome, José Manuel; Martín Gil, Alba; Carballo Álvarez, Jesús; Pintor, Jesús
    Purpose: To evaluate the signs and symptoms of dry eye and dinucleotide secretion in tears of keratoconus patients (KC) and the potential effect of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens wear. Methods: Twenty-three KC patients and forty control subjects were enrolled in this study. Signs of dry eye including tear volume, tear stability and corneal staining along with symptoms were assessed using the McMonnies questionnaire. Tears were collected using Schirmer strips, and dinucleotide concentrations in collected tears measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. Values obtained in KC and controls were compared. The effect of contact lens wear in KC was also assessed. Results: KC eyes showed a significantly lower tear volume compared to controls, shorter tear break up time (TBUT), higher corneal staining and higher McMonnies dry eye questionnaire scores (p < 0.05). When compared with non-wearers, KC contact lens wearers showed significantly higher symptoms, lower Schirmer and TBUT values (p < 0.05). Concentration of Ap4A (0.695 ± 0.304 μM vs. 0.185 ± 0.178 μM) and Ap5A (0.132 ± 0.128 μM vs. 0.045 ± 0.036 μM) were higher in KC compared to controls (p < 0.001) and only Ap4A was statistically higher in RGP wearers compared to non-wearers (0.794 ± 0.478 μM vs. 0.417 ± 0.313 μM) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Signs and symptoms of dry eye as well as concentrations of Ap4A and Ap5A were markedly increased in KC patients compared to controls. Moreover, Ap4A and symptoms of dry eye were statistically higher in RGP wearers compared to non-wearers. This seems to indicate that factors such as RGP contact lens wear might exacerbate the clinical condition of dry eye.
  • Publication
    Short-term Effect of Scleral Lens on the Dry Eye Biomarkers in Keratoconus
    (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2016-02) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Serramito Blanco, María; Martín Gil, Alba; Wang, Zicheng; Carballo Álvarez, Jesús; Pintor, Jesús
    Purpose: To evaluate the most important signs of dry eye, such as osmolarity, inflammation, and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration before and after wearing scleral lenses for 8 h in keratoconus patients. Methods: A pilot, experimental, short-term study involved 26 keratoconus patients (average age, 36.95 ± 8.95 years). They voluntarily enrolled in the study at the Optometry Clinic of the Faculty of Optics and Optometry in the University Complutense of Madrid. They were divided into two groups: patients with intrastromal corneal ring, the ICRS group, and patients without ICRS, the keratoconus (KC) group. Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, the Schirmer test without anesthesia, tear break-up time, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) concentration, osmolarity, and Ap4A concentration were evaluated before and after wearing a scleral lens for 8 h. Results: The patients wore the scleral lenses from 6 to 9 h, with a mean of 7.59 ± 0.73 h. The mean scleral lens sag for all patients was 4310 ± 166.31 μm, ranging from 4200 μm to 4800 μm. No significant changes in the Schirmer test and tear break-up time were found for either group. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were statistically lower after wearing scleral lenses for both groups (p < 0.05). A significantly lower osmolarity and a significant rise of MMP-9 concentration after wearing scleral lenses were found in both groups (p < 0.05). Diadenosine tetraphosphate concentration was lower after wearing the scleral lens in the KC group (p < 0.05) but no significant difference was found for the ICRS group (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Short-term scleral lens wearing improves the symptomatology and some signs of dry eye, such as osmolarity and Ap4A concentration. The increase of MMP-9 concentration could be caused by tear film stagnation and use of preserved saline.
  • Publication
    Dry Eye Treatment Based on Contact Lens Drug Delivery: A Review
    (Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, 2016-09) Guzmán Aránguez, Ana Isabel; Fonseca, Begoña; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Martín Gil, Alba; Martínez Águila, Alejandro; Pintor, Jesús
    Dry eye disease affects a substantial segment of the word population with increasing frequency. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film, which causes ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Because of its multifactorial etiology, the use of different pharmacological treatment for dry eye treatment has been proposed, which include anti-inflammatory molecules, lubricants or comfort agents, and secretagogues. However, in some cases these pharmacological approaches only relieve symptoms temporarily, and consequently, eye care professionals continue to have difficulties managing dry eye. To improve pharmacological therapy that allows a more efficient and long-term action, effective ocular drug delivery of the currently available drugs for dry eye treatment is required. Contact lenses are emerging as alternative ophthalmic drugs delivery systems that provide an increased residence time of the drug at the eye, thus leading to enhanced bioavailability and more convenient and efficacious therapy. In this article, we reviewed the different techniques used to prepare contact lens-based drug delivery systems and focused on articles that describe the delivery of compounds for dry eye treatment through contact lenses.
  • Publication
    Evaluation of tear meniscus by optical coherence tomography after different sodium hyaluronate eyedrops instillation
    (Wiley, 2018-10-02) Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Pastrana, Cristina; Serramito, María; Rodríguez-Pomar, Candela
    Purpose: To evaluate changes in tear meniscus dynamics using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after the instillation of different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate (SH) ophthalmic solutions. Methods: An experimental, double‐masked, randomized study was performed. Twenty‐three healthy subjects (16 women and seven men; mean age 23.57 ± 2.56 years) participated in this study. About 35 μl of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% SH ophthalmic solutions and saline solution was instilled in a randomly assigned eye. Tear meniscus measurements (height, depth and turbidity) were taken with OCT at 30 seconds and 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 min after instillation. Subsequently, the Schirmer test and tear break‐up time (TBUT) were evaluated. Results: Tear meniscus depth and tear meniscus height showed a significant increase with all solutions compared to basal values: up to 3 min for 0.1% SH, up to 5 min for 0.2% and up to 10 min for 0.3% SH ophthalmic solution. Tear meniscus turbidity was also increased at 30 seconds for 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% SH artificial tears (p < 0.05). This increase remained significant for up to 1 min for 0.2% and 0.3% SH solutions (p < 0.05). After 5 min of saline and 0.1% SH instillation, the turbidity was lower than basal values (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the TBUT for all solutions after instillation (p < 0.05). No differences between the Schirmer pre‐ and postinstillation were found (p > 0.05). Finally, the comfort was significantly improved for all ophthalmic solutions (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Sodium hyaluronate (SH) ophthalmic solutions increase residence time in healthy subjects and are positively correlated with its concentration and therefore the viscosity.
  • Publication
    Therapeutic Targets in Dry Eye Syndrome
    (Prous Science, 2008-04-01) Peral Cerda, María Asunción; Domínguez Godínez, Carmen Olalla; Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo; Pintor Just, Jesús Jerónimo; Prous Science
    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and the ocular surface that manifests with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. It is prevalent in about 33% of the population worldwide. Due to the importance of the pathology, new tests, drugs and technologies have been developed to assist the diagnosis, management and follow-up of the disease. Current available therapies try to alleviate symptoms and to reduce signs in order to restore the ocular surface. Depending on the etiology of the pathology it is possible to use lubricants, secretagogues, biological tear substitutes or antiinflammatory drugs, either independently or combined. Nowadays, the therapies under clinical trial are devoted to stimulating tear components (e.g., diquafosol, a P2Y receptor agonist), or mucin secretion (e.g., rebamipide, an amino acid analogue of quinolinone). Others include gefarnate, a water-insoluble terpene fatty acid that contributes to restoring mucins on the ocular surface, or cevimeline, an oral cholinergic agonist that reduces the symptoms associated with dry eye. Other potential compounds described in patents are in a lower phase of drug development. These compounds come from different families of therapies, and among others, can be found in the form of steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, vitamins A and D, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.