Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo

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First Name
Pablo Guillermo
Last Name
Pérez González
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Astronomía y Astrofísica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 28
  • Publication
    Evolution of the anti-truncated stellar profiles of SO galaxies since z=0.6 in the SHARDS survey II. Structural and photometric evolution
    (EDP Sciences S A, 2018-07-05) Borlaff, Alejandro; Eliche Moral, Carmen; Beckman, John E.; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Lumbreras Calle, Alejandro; Ciambur, Bogdan C.; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolás; Barro, Guillermo; Cava, Antonio
    Context. Anti-truncated lenticular galaxies (Type-III S0s) present tight scaling relations between their surface brightness photometric and structural parameters. Although several evolutionary models have been proposed for the formation of these structures, the observations of Type-III S0 galaxies are usually limited to the local Universe. Aims. We aim to compare the properties of Type-III discs in a sample of S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6with those of the local Universe. In this paper, we study the evolution of the photometric and structural scaling relations measured in the rest-frame R-band with z and the possible differences between the rest-frame (B - R) colours of the inner and outer disc profiles. Methods. We make use of a sample of 14 Type-III E/ S0-S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0 : 6 from the GOODS-N field identified and characterised in a previous paper. We study whether or not the correlations found in local Type-III S0 galaxies were present similar to 6 Gyr ago. We analyse the distribution of the surface brightness characteristic parameters (R-break, mu(break), h(i), h(o), mu(0;) i and mu(0; o)) as a function of the stellar mass and look to see if there is a significant change with z. We also derive their rest-frame (B - R) colour profiles. Finally, we compare these results with the predictions from a grid of SSP models. Results. We find that the inner and outer scale-lengths of Type-III S0 galaxies at 0.4 < z < 0.6follow compatible trends and scaling relations with those observed in local S0 galaxies as a function of the break radius, R-break. We do not detect any significant differences between the location of R-break between z similar to 0.6 and z similar to 0 for a fixed stellar mass of the object, whereas the surface brightness at the break radius mu(break) is similar to 1.5 mag arcsec 2 dimmer in the local Universe than at z similar to 0.6 for a fixed stellar mass. We find no significant differences in the (B - R) colour between the inner and outer profiles of the Type-III S0 galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6. Conclusions. In contrast to Type-II (down-bending) profiles, the anti-truncated surface brightness profiles of S0 galaxies present compatible R-break values and scaling relations during the last 6 Gyr. This result and the similarity of the colours of the inner and outer discs point to a highly scalable and stable formation process, probably more related to gravitational and dynamical processes than to the evolution of stellar populations.
  • Publication
    The minor role of gas-rich major mergers in the rise of intermediate-mass early types at z ≤ 1
    (American Astronomical Society, 2010-02-20) López Sanjuan, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Barro, Guillermo; García Dabó, César Enrique; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime
    We study the evolution of galaxy structure since z ~ 1 to the present. From a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South (GOODS-S) multi-band catalog, we define (blue) luminosity- and mass-weighted samples, limited by MB ≤ –20 and M sstarf ≥ 1010 M ☉, comprising 1122 and 987 galaxies, respectively. We extract early-type (ET; E/S0/Sa) and late-type (LT; Sb-Irr) subsamples by their position in the concentration-asymmetry plane, in which galaxies exhibit a clear bimodality. We find that the ET fraction, f ET, rises with cosmic time, with a corresponding decrease in the LT fraction, f LT, in both luminosity- and mass-selected samples. However, the evolution of the comoving number density is very different: the decrease in the total number density of MB ≤ –20 galaxies since z = 1 is due to the decrease in the LT population, which accounts for ~75% of the total star formation rate in the range under study, while the increase in the total number density of M sstarf ≥ 1010 M ☉ galaxies in the same redshift range is due to the evolution of ETs. This suggests that we need a structural transformation between LT galaxies that form stars actively and ET galaxies in which the stellar mass is located. Comparing the observed evolution with the gas-rich major merger rate in GOODS-S, we infer that only ~20% of the new ET galaxies with M sstarf ≥ 1010 M ☉ appeared since z ~ 1 can be explained by this kind of mergers, suggesting that minor mergers and secular processes may be the driving mechanisms of the structural evolution of intermediate-mass (M sstarf ~ 4 × 1010 M ☉) galaxies since z ~ 1.
  • Publication
    AEGIS-X: deep Chandra imaging of the central Groth Strip
    (University Chicago Press, 2015-09) Barro, Guillermo; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; otros, ...
    We present the results of deep Chandra imaging of the central region of the Extended Groth Strip, the AEGIS-X Deep (AEGIS-XD) survey. When combined with previous Chandraobservations of a wider area of the strip, AEGIS-X Wide (AEGIS-XW), these provide data to a nominal exposure depth of 800 ks in the three central ACIS-I fields, a region of approximately 0.29 deg^2. This is currently the third deepest X-ray survey in existence; a factor ∼2-3 shallower than the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs), but over an area ∼3 times greater than each CDF. We present a catalog of 937 point sources detected in the deep Chandra observations, along with identifications of our X-ray sources from deep ground-based, Spitzer, GALEX, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Using a likelihood ratio analysis, we associate multiband counterparts for 929/937 of our X-ray sources, with an estimated 95% reliability, making the identification completeness approximately 94% in a statistical sense. Reliable spectroscopic redshifts for 353 of our X-ray sources are available predominantly from Keck (DEEP2/3) and MMT Hectospec, so the current spectroscopic completeness is ∼38%. For the remainder of the X-ray sources, we compute photometric redshifts based on multiband photometry in up to 35 bands from the UV to mid-IR. Particular attention is given to the fact that the vast majority the X-ray sources are active galactic nuclei and require hybrid templates. Our photometric redshifts have mean accuracy of σ = 0.04 and an outlier fraction of approximately 5%, reaching σ = 0.03 with less than 4% outliers in the area covered by CANDELS . The X-ray, multiwavelength photometry, and redshift catalogs are made publicly available.
  • Publication
    Characterization of active galactic nuclei and their hosts in the extended groth strip: a multiwavelength analysis
    (IOP Publishing ltd, 2009-01) Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Barro, Guillermo; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo
    We have employed a reliable technique of classification of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on the fit of well sampled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with a complete set of AGN and starburst galaxy templates. We have compiled UV, optical, and IR data for a sample of 116 AGNs originally selected for their X-ray and mid-IR emissions (96 with single detections and 20 with double optical counterparts). This is the most complete compilation of multiwavelength data for such a large sample of AGN in the Extended Groth Strip. Through these SEDs, we are able to obtain highly reliable photometric redshifts and to distinguish between pure and host-dominated AGNs. For the objects with unique detection we find that they can be separated into five main groups, namely: Starburst-dominated AGNs (24% of the sample), Starburst-contaminated AGNs (7%), Type-1 AGNs (21%), Type-2 AGNs (24%), and Normal galaxy hosting AGN (24%). We find these groups concentrated at different redshifts: Type-2 AGNs and Normal galaxy hosting AGNs are concentrated at low redshifts, whereas Starburst-dominated AGNs and Type-1 AGNs show a larger span. Correlations between hard/soft X-ray and UV, optical and IR luminosities are reported for the first time for such a sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. For the 20 objects with double detection, the percentage of Starburst-dominated AGNs increases up to 48%.
  • Publication
    UV-to-fir analysis of spitzer/irac sources in the extended groth strip. II. Photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates
    (University Chicago Press, 2011-04) Barro, Guillermo; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Villar, V.; Yamada, T.; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime
    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 μ m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] ≤ 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg^2. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is ∆z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 μ m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z ≳1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 μ m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.
  • Publication
    The stellar mass assembly of galaxies from z=0 to z=4: Analysis of a sample selected in the rest-frame near-infrared with Spitzer
    (American Astronomical Society, 2008-03-01) Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Rieke, George H.;, George H.; Villar, Victor; Barro, Guillermo; Blaylock, Myra; Egami, Eiichi; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Gil de Paz, Armando; Pascual, Sergio; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Donley, Jennifer L.
    Using a sample of ~28,000 sources selected at 3.6-4.5 μm with Spitzer observations of the Hubble Deep Field North, the Chandra Deep Field South, and the Lockman Hole (surveyed area ~664 arcmin^2), we study the evolution of the stellar mass content of the universe at 0 < z < 4. We calculate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, based on ~2000 templates built with stellar population and dust emission models fitting the ultraviolet to mid-infrared spectral energy distributions of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We estimate stellar mass functions for different redshift intervals. We find that 50% of the local stellar mass density was assembled at 0 < z < 1 (average star formation rate [SFR] 0.048 M-☉ yr^−1 Mpc^−3), and at least another 40% at 1 < z < 4 (average SFR 0.074 M_☉ yr^−1 Mpc^−3). Our results confirm and quantify the "downsizing" scenario of galaxy formation. The most massive galaxies (M > 10^12.0 M_☉) assembled the bulk of their stellar content rapidly (in 1-2 Gyr) beyond z ~ 3 in very intense star formation events (producing high specific SFRs). Galaxies with 10^11.5 < M < 10^12.0 M_☉ assembled half of their stellar mass before z ~ 1.5, and more than 90% of their mass was already in place at z ~ 0.6. Galaxies with M < 1011.5 M☉ evolved more slowly (presenting smaller specific SFRs), assembling half of their stellar mass below z ~ 1. About 40% of the local stellar mass density of 10^9.0 < M < 10^11.0 M_☉ galaxies was assembled below z ~ 0.4, most probably through accretion of small satellites producing little star formation. The cosmic stellar mass density at z > 2.5 is dominated by optically faint (Rgsim 25) red galaxies (distant red galaxies or BzK sources), which account for ~30% of the global population of galaxies, but contribute at least 60% of the cosmic stellar mass density. Bluer galaxies (e.g., Lyman break galaxies) are more numerous but less massive, contributing less than 50% of the global stellar mass density at high redshift.
  • Publication
    The Hα-based star formation rate density of the universe at z=0.84
    (American Astronomical Society, 2008-04-10) Villar, Victor; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Pascual, Sergio; Noeske, Kai; Koo, David C.; Barro, Guillermo; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime
    We present the results of an Hα near-infrared narrowband survey searching for star-forming galaxies at redshift z = 0.84. This work is an extension of our previous narrowband studies in the optical at lower redshifts. After removal of stars and redshift interlopers (using spectroscopic and photometric redshifts), we build a complete sample of 165 Hα emitters in the extended Groth strip and GOODS-N fields with L(Hα) > 10^41 ergs s^−1. We compute the Hα luminosity function at z = 0.84 after corrections for [N_π] flux contamination, extinction, systematic errors, and incompleteness. Our sources present an average dust extinction of A(H α) = 1.5 mag. Adopting Hα as a surrogate for the instantaneous SFR, we measure an extinction-corrected SFR density of 0.17^+0.03_−0.03 M_☉ yr^−1 Mpc^−3. Combining this result to our prior measurements at z = 0.02, 0.24, and 0.40, we derive an Hα-based evolution of the SFR density proportional to (1 + z)^β with β = 3.8 ± 0.5. This evolution is consistent with that derived by other authors using different SFR tracers.
  • Publication
    Evolutionary paths among different red galaxy types at 0.3 < z < 1.5 and the late buildup of massive E-S0's through major mergers
    (Wiley, 2013-01) Prieto, Mercedes; Eliche Moral, María del Carmen; Balcells, Marc; Cristobal Hornillos, David; Erwin, Peter; Abreu, David; Domínguez Palmero, Lilian; Hempel, Ángela; López Sanjuan, Carlos; Guzmán, Rafael; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Barro, Guillermo; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime
    Some recent observations seem to disagree with hierarchical theories of galaxy formation about the role played by major mergers in the late buildup of massive E-S0s. We re-address this question by analysing the morphology, structural distortion level and star formation enhancement of a sample of massive galaxies (M_* > 5x10^10M_⨀) lying on the Red Sequence and its surroundings at 0.3 < z < 1.5. We have used an initial sample of ∼1800 sources with K_s < 20.5 mag over an area ∼155 arcmin^2 on the Groth Strip, combining data from the Rainbow Extragalactic Database and the Galaxy Origins and Young Assembly survey. Red galaxy classes that can be directly associated with intermediate stages of major mergers and with their final products have been defined. We report observational evidence of the existence of a dominant evolutionary path among massive red galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.5, consisting in the conversion of irregular discs into irregular spheroids, and of these ones into regular spheroids. This result implies: (1) the massive red regular galaxies at low redshifts derive from the irregular ones populating the Red Sequence and its neighbourhood at earlier epochs up to z ∼ 1.5; (2) the progenitors of the bulk of present-day massive red regular galaxies have been discs that seem to have migrated to the Red Sequence mostly through major mergers at 0.6 < z < 1.2 (these mergers thus starting at z ∼ 1.5) and (3) the formation of E-S0s that end up with M_* > 10^11 M_⨀ at z = 0 through gas-rich major mergers has frozen since z similar to 0.6. All these facts support that major mergers have played a dominant role in the definitive buildup of present-day E-S0s with M-* > 10(11) M-circle dot at 0.6 < z < 1.2, in good agreement with hierarchical scenarios of galaxy formation.
  • Publication
    Investigating evidence for different black hole accretion modes since redshift z ∼ 1
    (Wiley, 2014-05) Georgakakis, A.; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Fanidakis, N.; Salvato, M.; Aird, J.; Messias, H.; Lotz, J. M.; Barro, Guillermo; Hsu, Li-Ting; Nandra, K.; Rosario, D.; Cooper, M. C.; Kocevski, D. d.; Newman, J. A.
    Chandra data in the COSMOS, AEGIS-XD and 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South are combined with multiwavelength photometry available in those fields to determine the rest-frame U − V versus V − J colours of X-ray AGN hosts in the redshift intervals 0.1 < z < 0.6 (mean z¯=0.40) and 0.6 < z < 1.2 (mean z¯=0.85). This combination of colours provides an effective and least model-dependent means of separating quiescent from star-forming, including dust reddened, galaxies. Morphological information emphasizes differences between AGN populations split by their U − V versus V − J colours. AGN in quiescent galaxies consist almost exclusively of bulges, while star-forming hosts are equally split between early- and late-type hosts. The position of AGN hosts on the U − V versusV − J diagram is then used to set limits on the accretion density of the Universe associated with evolved and star-forming systems independent of dust induced biases. It is found that most of the black hole growth at z≈ 0.40 and 0.85 is associated with star-forming hosts. Nevertheless, a non-negligible fraction of the X-ray luminosity density, about 15–20 per cent, at both z¯=0.40 and 0.85, is taking place in galaxies in the quiescent region of the U − V versus V − J diagram. For the low-redshift sub-sample, 0.1 < z < 0.6, we also find tentative evidence, significant at the 2σ level, that AGN split by their U − V and V − J colours have different Eddington ratio distributions. AGN in blue star-forming hosts dominate at relatively high Eddington ratios. In contrast, AGN in red quiescent hosts become increasingly important as a fraction of the total population towards low Eddington ratios. At higher redshift, z > 0.6, such differences are significant at the 2σ level only for sources with Eddington ratios ≳ 10^− 3. These findings are consistent with scenarios in which diverse accretion modes are responsible for the build-up of supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. We compare these results with the predictions of theGALFORM semi-analytic model for the cosmological evolution of AGN and galaxies. This model postulates two black hole fuelling modes, the first is linked to star formation events and the second takes place in passive galaxies. GALFORM predicts that a substantial fraction of the black hole growth at z < 1 is associated with quiescent galaxies, in apparent conflict with the observations. Relaxing the strong assumption of the model that passive AGN hosts have zero star formation rate could bring those predictions in better agreement with the data.
  • Publication
    The buildup of E–S0 galaxies at z < 2 from pure luminosity evolution models
    (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2010) Eliche Moral, María del Carmen; Prieto, M.; Barro, Guillermo; Balcells, M.; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gil de Paz, Armando; Guzmán, R.; Pelló, R.; Villar, V.
    Considering that the recent history of E-S0’s can be approximated by Pure Luminosity Evolution (PLE), we have examined a set of PLE models in order to de-limit the epoch in which the majority of the red galaxy population moved away this simple evolution framework. The models assume that they were assembled and formed most of their stars at a given formation redshift (zf), and that they have evolved without merging or substantial dust obscuration since then. Comparing the model predictions with real data, we conclude that most of E-S0’s at low and inter-mediate luminosities must have been progressively built up at 1 < z < 2, being the bulk of formation at z ∼ 1.5, as recently claimed by several observational studies.