Person: Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
Now showing 1 - 10 of 57
PublicationLine strengths and line strength gradients in bulges along the Hubble sequence(Springer, 1999) Goudfrooij, Paul; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Jablonka, PascaleWe present first results of a comprehensive survey of deep long-slit spectra along the minor axis of bulges of edge-on spiral galaxies. Our results indicate that stellar populations in bulges are fairly old and encompass a range of metallicities. The luminosity-weighted ages of bulges range from those found for cluster ellipticals to slightly 'younger' (by up to only a few Gyr, however). Their alpha/Fe element ratio is typically supersolar, consistent with those found in giant ellipticals. The radial line-strength gradients in bulges correlate with bulge luminosity. Generally, these findings are more compatible with predictions of the 'dissipative collapse' model than with those of the 'secular evolution' model. PublicationStellar population study in early-type galaxies: an approach from the K band(Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009-08) Mármol Queraltó, Esther; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Trager, S.C.; Peletier, R. F.; Kuntschner, H.; Silva, D. R.; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco JavierA full understanding of the physical properties of integrated stellar systems demands a multiwavelength approach since each spectral window shows us the contribution of different types of stars. However, most of the observational effort in stellar population studies has been focused on the optical range. Now, the new generation of instruments allow us to explore the K band, where RGB and AGB stars dominate the light of the integrated spectra. Here we present a K-band spectroscopic analysis of early-type galaxies in different environments. Our sample comprises 12 field early-type galaxies observed with ISAAC at VLT with medium resolution, and they are compared with 11 Fornax cluster galaxies previously reported by Silva et al. (2008). The clear differences found in the infrared DCO and NaI indices between field and Fornax galaxies are discussed, trying to solve the puzzle formed by the near-infrared and optical measurements. PublicationDifferences in carbon and nitrogen abundances between field and cluster early-type galaxies(IOP Publishing, 2003-06-20) Sánchez Blázquez, Patricia; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Cenarro, J.; González, J. J.Central line-strength indices were measured in the blue spectral region for a sample of 98 early-type galaxies in different environments. For most indices (Mg b and [Fe] in particular), elliptical galaxies in rich clusters and in low-density regions follow the same index-sigma relations. However, striking spectral differences between field elliptical galaxies and their counterparts in the central region of the Coma Cluster are found for the first time, with galaxies in the denser environment showing significantly lower C4668 and CN2 absorption strengths. The most convincing interpretation of these results is that they represent a difference in abundance ratios arising from distinct star formation and chemical-enrichment histories of galaxies in different environments. A scenario in which elliptical galaxies in clusters are fully assembled at earlier stages than their low-density counterparts is discussed. PublicationEmpirical calibration of the near-infrared CaII triplet - II. The stellar atmospheric parameters(Wiley, 2001-09-21) Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Pedraz, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Vazdekis, A.We present a homogeneous set of stellar atmospheric parameters (T-eff, log g, [Fe/H]) for a sample of about 700 field and cluster stars which constitute a new stellar library in the near-IR developed for stellar population synthesis in this spectral region (lambda 8350-9020). Having compiled the available atmospheric data in the literature for field stars, we have found systematic deviations between the atmospheric parameters from different bibliographic references. The Soubiran, Katz & Cayrel sample of stars with very well determined fundamental parameters has been taken as our standard reference system, and other papers have been calibrated and bootstrapped against it. The obtained transformations are provided in this paper. Once most of the data sets were on the same system, final parameters were derived by performing error weighted means. Atmospheric parameters for cluster stars have also been revised and updated according to recent metallicity scales and colour-temperature relations. PublicationFormation and evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster II. Kinematic scaling relations (Corrigendum) (vol 548, pg A76, 2012)(EDP Sciencies, 2013-09) Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Falcón Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier PublicationSpectral indexes in cooling flow galaxies: evidence of star formation(Wiley, 1995-11-15) Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Aragón Salamanca, A.Spectroscopic observations of central dominant cluster galaxies, with and without cooling flows, are presented. Through the analysis of absorption spectral features, namely the strength of the magnesium absorption at lambda 5175 Angstrom and the lambda 4000-Angstrom break, both in the galaxy centres and as a function of radius, we have been able to estimate the ongoing star formation induced by the large amounts of gas accreted on to cooling now galaxies. A correlation between the central spectral indices and the mass accretion rate is found in the sense that galaxies located in clusters with large cooling flows exhibit lower Mg-2 and D-4000 indices. A similar correlation with D-4000 was previously reported by Johnstone, Fabian & Nulsen. Our work, with the inclusion of the correlation in Mg-2, adds further weight to the conclusion that these spectral anomalies are caused by recent star formation. The application of simple stellar population models reveals that the measured indices are explained if a relatively small fraction of the total mass now (5-17 per cent) is forming new stars with a normal initial mass function. However, we argue that this is only a lower limit, and conclude that a large fraction of the gas accreted inside the galaxy could be forming stars. We find that spectral gradients in some cooling now galaxies flatten in the internal regions (r less than or similar to r(e)), where emission lines are usually detected. Gradients measured in the inner galaxy regions are, in the mean, lower than those of normal ellipticals, and exhibit a hint of a correlation with M. Application of the same population models to the observed spectral gradients allows us to conclude that the ongoing star formation is concentrated towards the inner parts of the cooling now galaxies and, therefore, the star formation does not follow the X-ray derived mass accretion profiles. Simultaneously, the spectral indices in the outer regions of some galaxies with and without cooling flow attain extremely low values, suggesting that they could be hosting star formation with an origin that is not related to the cooling flows. PublicationThe origin of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster(EDP Sciencies, 2011) Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas García, Francisco JavierWe present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster. These data are used to study the origin of the dE population inhabiting rich clusters. Within them we detect two different subpopulations: half of the sample (52%) are rotationally supported and the other half are pressure supported. We also find that the rotationally supported dEs are located in the outer parts of the cluster, present disky morphological shapes and are younger than those pressure supported that are concentrated in the core of the cluster without any underlying structures. Our analysis reveals that the rotationally supported objects have rotation curves similarly shaped to those of star forming galaxies of similar luminosities and follow the Tully-Fisher relation. This is expected if dE galaxies are the descendant of low luminosity star forming systems which recently entered the cluster and lost their gas due to a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation activity and transforming them into quiescent systems, but conserving their angular momentum. PublicationKinematic properties as probes of the evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster(IOP Publishing, 2009-12-10) Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Peletier, R. F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gadotti, D. A.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Pedraz, S.; Yildiz, U.We present new observational results on the kinematical, morphological, and stellar population properties of a sample of 21 dEs located both in the Virgo Cluster and in the field, which show that 52% of the dEs (1) are rotationally supported, (2) exhibit structural signs of typical rotating systems such as disks, bars, or spiral arms, (3) are younger (~3 Gyr) than non-rotating dEs, and (4) are preferentially located either in the outskirts of Virgo or in the field. This evidence is consistent with the idea that rotationally supported dwarfs are late-type spirals or irregulars that recently entered the cluster and lost their gas through a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation and becoming dEs through passive evolution. We also find that all, but one, galaxies without photometric hints for hosting disks are pressure supported and are all situated in the inner regions of the cluster. This suggests a different evolution from the rotationally supported systems. Three different scenarios for these non-rotating galaxies are discussed (in situ formation, harassment, and ram pressure stripping). PublicationLine-strength indices in bright spheroidal galaxies: Evidence for a stellar population dichotomy between spheroidal and elliptical galaxies(IOP Publishing, 1997-05-20) Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Pedraz, Santos; Guzmán, Rafael; Cardiel López, Nicolás; González, J. J.We present new measurements of central line-strength indices (namely, Mg-2, (Fe), and H beta) and gradients for a sample of six bright spheroidal (Sph) galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. Comparison with similar measurements for elliptical (E) galaxies, galactic globular clusters (GGCs), and stellar population models yield the following results: (1) in contrast with bright E galaxies, bright Sph galaxies are consistent with solar abundance [Mg/Fe] ratios; (2) bright Sph galaxies exhibit metallicities ranging from values typical for metal-rich GGCs to those for E galaxies; (3) although absolute mean ages are quite model dependent, we find evidence that the stellar populations of some (if not all) Sph galaxies look significantly younger than GCCs; and (4) Mg-2 gradients of bright Sph galaxies are significantly shallower than those of E galaxies. We conclude that the dichotomy found in the structural properties of Sph and E galaxies is also observed in their stellar populations. A tentative interpretation in terms of differences in star formation histories is suggested. PublicationSpectral gradients in central cluster galaxies: further evidence of star formation in cooling flows(Wiley, 1998-08-21) Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Aragón Salamanca, A.We have obtained radial gradients in the spectral features of the lambda 4000-Angstrom break (D(4000)) and Mg(2) for a sample of 11 central cluster galaxies (CCGs): eight in clusters with cooling flows and three in clusters without. After careful removal of the emission lines found within the D(4000) and Mg(2) bandpasses for some objects, the new data strongly confirm the correlations between line-strength indices and the cooling flow phenomenon found in our earlier study. We find that such correlations depend on the presence and characteristics of emission lines in the inner regions of the CCGs. The nuclear indices are correlated with the mass deposition rate ((M) over dot) only when emission lines are found in the central regions of the galaxies. The central D(4000) and Mg(2) indices in cooling flow galaxies without emission lines are completely consistent with the indices measured in CCGs in clusters without cooling flows. CCGs in cooling flow clusters exhibit a clear sequence in the D(4000)-Mg(2) plane, with a neat segregation depending on emission-line type and blue morphology. This sequence can be modelled, using stellar population models with a normal initial mass function (IMF), by a recent (similar to 0.1 Gyr old) burst of star formation, although model uncertainties do not allow us to completely discard continuous star formation or a series of bursts over the last few Gyr. In CCGs with emission lines, the gradients in the spectral indices are flat or positive inside the emission-line regions, suggesting the presence of young stars. Outside the emission-line regions, and in cooling flow galaxies without emission lines, gradients are negative and consistent with those measured in CCGs in clusters without cooling hows and giant elliptical galaxies. Index gradients measured exclusively in the emission-line region correlate with hi. Using the same population models we have estimated the radial profiles of the mass transformed into new stars. The derived profiles are remarkably parallel to the expected radial behaviour of the mass deposition rate derived from X-ray observations. Moreover, a large fraction (probably most) of the cooling flow gas accreted into the emission-line region is converted into stars. In the Light of these new data, we discuss the evolutionary sequence suggested by McNamara, in which radio-triggered star formation bursts take place several times during the lifetime of the cooling flow. We conclude that this scenario is consistent with the available observations.