Gorgas García, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
Gorgas García
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
UCM identifierORCIDScopus Author IDWeb of Science ResearcherIDDialnet ID

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Stellar population study in early-type galaxies: an approach from the K band
    (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009-08) Mármol Queraltó, Esther; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Trager, S.C.; Peletier, R. F.; Kuntschner, H.; Silva, D. R.; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    A full understanding of the physical properties of integrated stellar systems demands a multiwavelength approach since each spectral window shows us the contribution of different types of stars. However, most of the observational effort in stellar population studies has been focused on the optical range. Now, the new generation of instruments allow us to explore the K band, where RGB and AGB stars dominate the light of the integrated spectra. Here we present a K-band spectroscopic analysis of early-type galaxies in different environments. Our sample comprises 12 field early-type galaxies observed with ISAAC at VLT with medium resolution, and they are compared with 11 Fornax cluster galaxies previously reported by Silva et al. (2008). The clear differences found in the infrared DCO and NaI indices between field and Fornax galaxies are discussed, trying to solve the puzzle formed by the near-infrared and optical measurements.
  • Publication
    Empirical calibration of the near-infrared CaII triplet - II. The stellar atmospheric parameters
    (Wiley, 2001-09-21) Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Pedraz, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Vazdekis, A.
    We present a homogeneous set of stellar atmospheric parameters (T-eff, log g, [Fe/H]) for a sample of about 700 field and cluster stars which constitute a new stellar library in the near-IR developed for stellar population synthesis in this spectral region (lambda 8350-9020). Having compiled the available atmospheric data in the literature for field stars, we have found systematic deviations between the atmospheric parameters from different bibliographic references. The Soubiran, Katz & Cayrel sample of stars with very well determined fundamental parameters has been taken as our standard reference system, and other papers have been calibrated and bootstrapped against it. The obtained transformations are provided in this paper. Once most of the data sets were on the same system, final parameters were derived by performing error weighted means. Atmospheric parameters for cluster stars have also been revised and updated according to recent metallicity scales and colour-temperature relations.
  • Publication
    Kinematic properties as probes of the evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster
    (IOP Publishing, 2009-12-10) Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Peletier, R. F.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gadotti, D. A.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Pedraz, S.; Yildiz, U.
    We present new observational results on the kinematical, morphological, and stellar population properties of a sample of 21 dEs located both in the Virgo Cluster and in the field, which show that 52% of the dEs (1) are rotationally supported, (2) exhibit structural signs of typical rotating systems such as disks, bars, or spiral arms, (3) are younger (~3 Gyr) than non-rotating dEs, and (4) are preferentially located either in the outskirts of Virgo or in the field. This evidence is consistent with the idea that rotationally supported dwarfs are late-type spirals or irregulars that recently entered the cluster and lost their gas through a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation and becoming dEs through passive evolution. We also find that all, but one, galaxies without photometric hints for hosting disks are pressure supported and are all situated in the inner regions of the cluster. This suggests a different evolution from the rotationally supported systems. Three different scenarios for these non-rotating galaxies are discussed (in situ formation, harassment, and ram pressure stripping).
  • Publication
    Mg and TiO spectral features at the near-IR: spectrophotometric index definitions and empirical calibrations
    (Wiley, 2009-07-11) Cenarro, A. J.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    Using the near-infrared spectral stellar library of Cenarro et al., the behaviour of the Mg i line at 8807 A and nearby TiO bands is analyzed in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity of the library stars. New spectroscopic indices for both spectral features - namely MgI and sTiO - are defined, and their sensitivities to different signal-to-noise ratios, spectral resolutions, flux calibrations and sky emission-line residuals are characterized. The two new indices exhibit interesting properties. In particular, MgI is a good indicator of the Mg abundance, whereas sTiO is a powerful dwarf-to-giant discriminator for cold spectral types. Empirical fitting polynomials that reproduce the strength of the new indices as a function of the stellar atmospheric parameters are computed, and a fortran routine with the fitting function predictions is made available. A thorough study of several error sources, non-solar [Mg/Fe] ratios and their influence on the fitting function residuals is also presented. From this analysis, an [Mg/Fe] underabundance of similar to -0.04 is derived for the Galactic open cluster M67.
  • Publication
    Using spectroscopic data to disentangle stellar population properties
    (EDP Sciencies, 2003-10) Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Cenarro, A. J.; Pedraz, S.; Bruzual, G.; Klement, J.
    It is well known that, when analyzed in the light of current synthesis model predictions, variations in the physical properties of single stellar populations (e.g. age, metallicity, initial mass function, element abundance ratios) may have a similar effect in their integrated spectral energy distributions. The confusion is even worsened when more realistic scenarios, i.e. composite star formation histories, are considered. This is, in fact, one of the major problems when facing the study of stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies. Typically, the observational efforts have aimed to find the most appropriate spectroscopic indicators in order to avoid, as far as possible, degeneracies in the parameter space. However, from a practical point of view, the most suited observables are not, necessarily, those that provide more orthogonality in that parameter space, but those that give the best balance between parameter degeneracy and sensitivity to signal-to-noise ratio per Angstrom, S/N(Angstrom). In order to achieve the minimum combined total error in the derived physical parameters, this work discusses how the functional dependence of typical line-strength indices and colors on S/N(Angstrom) allows to define a suitability parameter which helps to obtain more realistic combinations of spectroscopic data. As an example, we discuss in more detail the problem of breaking the well known age-metallicity degeneracy in relatively old stellar populations, comparing the suitability of different spectroscopic diagrams for a simple stellar population of solar metallicity and of 12 Gyr in age.
  • Publication
    Empirical calibration of the near-infrared CaII triplet - IV. The stellar population synthesis models
    (Wiley, 2003-04-21) Vazdekis, A.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Peletier, R. F.
    We present a new evolutionary stellar population synthesis model, which predicts spectral energy distributions for single-age single-metallicity stellar populations (SSPs) at resolution 1.5 Angstrom (FWHM) in the spectral region of the near-infrared Ca II triplet feature. The main ingredient of the model is a new extensive empirical stellar spectral library that has been recently presented by Cenarro et al., which is composed of more than 600 stars with an unprecedented coverage of the stellar atmospheric parameters. Two main products of interest for stellar population analysis are presented. The first is a spectral library for SSPs with metallicities -1.7<[Fe/H]<+0.2, a large range of ages (0.1-18 Gyr) and initial mass function (IMF) types. They are well suited to modelling galaxy data, since the SSP spectra, with flux-calibrated response curves, can be smoothed to the resolution of the observational data, taking into account the internal velocity dispersion of the galaxy, allowing the user to analyse the observed spectrum in its own system. We also produce integrated absorption-line indices (namely CaT*, CaT and PaT) for the same SSPs in the form of equivalent widths. We find the following behaviour for the Ca II triplet feature in old-aged SSPs: (i) the strength of the CaT* index does not change much with time for all metallicities for ages larger than similar to3 Gyr; (ii) this index shows a strong dependence on metallicity for values below [M/H]similar to-0.5; and (iii) for larger metallicities this feature does not show a significant dependence either on age or on the metallicity, being more sensitive to changes in the slope of power-like IMF shapes. The SSP spectra have been calibrated with measurements for globular clusters by Armandroff & Zinn, which are well reproduced, probing the validity of using the integrated Ca II triplet feature for determining the metallicities of these systems. Fitting the models to two early-type galaxies of different luminosities (NGC 4478 and 4365), we find that the Ca II triplet measurements cannot be fitted unless a very dwarf-dominated IMF is imposed, or if the Ca abundance is even lower than the Fe abundance. More details can be found in work by Cenarro et al.
  • Publication
    A new stellar library in the region of the CO index at 2.3 mu m - New index definition and empirical fitting functions
    (EDP Sciencies, 2008-10) Mármol Queraltó, E.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Pedraz, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.
    The analysis of unresolved stellar populations demands evolutionary synthesis models with realistic physical ingredients and extended wavelength coverage. Aims. We quantitatively describe the first CO bandhead at 2.3 mu m to allow stellar population models to provide improved predictions in this wavelength range. Methods. We observed a new stellar library with a better coverage of the stellar atmospheric parameter space than in earlier works. We performed a detailed analysis of the robustness of previous CO index definitions with spectral resolution, wavelength calibration, signal-to-noise ratio, and flux calibration. Results. We define a new line-strength index for the first CO bandhead at 2.3 mu m, DCO, better suited for stellar population studies than previous index definitions. We derive empirical fitting functions for the CO feature as a function of the stellar parameters (T(eff), log g and [Fe/H]), showing a detailed quantitative metallicity dependence.
  • Publication
    Empirical calibration of the near-infrared CaII triplet - I. The stellar library and index definition
    (Wiley, 2001-09-21) Cenarro, A. J.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Peletier, R. F.; Vazdekis, A.; Prada, F.
    A new stellar library at the near-IR spectral region developed for the empirical calibration of the Ca II triplet and stellar population synthesis modelling is presented. The library covers the range lambda lambda 8348-9020 at 1.5-Angstrom (FWHM) spectral resolution, and consists of 706 stars spanning a wide range in atmospheric parameters. We have defined a new set of near-IR indices, CaT*, CaT and PaT, which mostly overcome the limitations of previous definitions, the former being specially suited for the measurement of the Ca II triplet strength corrected for the contamination from Paschen lines. We also present a comparative study of the new and the previous Ca indices, as well as the corresponding transformations between the different systems. A thorough analysis of the sources of index errors and the procedure to calculate them is given. Finally, index and error measurements for the whole stellar library are provided together with the final spectra.
  • Publication
    Early-type galaxies in the Coma Cluster: A new piece in the calcium puzzle
    (IOP Publishing, 2004-10-20) Cenarro, A. J.; Sánchez Blázquez, Patricia; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    We present measurements of the Ca II triplet and the Ca4227 Lick index for a sample of early-type galaxies in the Coma Cluster, deriving, for the first time, their corresponding relationships with velocity dispersion. Compared with a similar subsample of elliptical galaxies in the field, Coma galaxies with velocity dispersions in the range approximate to180-270 km s(-1) exhibit significant differences in the strengths of the Ca features, suggesting an influence of the environment on the star formation histories of these galaxies. We argue that the main scenarios previously proposed to explain the relatively low Ca II triplet of galaxies are not able by themselves to simultaneously reconcile the strengths of the two Ca indices in both environments.
  • Publication
    Evidence for intermediate-age stellar populations in early-type galaxies from K-band spectroscopy
    (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2009-11-10) Mármol Queraltó, E.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Kuntschner, H.; Silva, D. R.; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    The study of stellar populations in early-type galaxies in different environments is a powerful tool for constraining their star formation histories. This study has been traditionally restricted to the optical range, where dwarfs around the turn-off and stars at the base of the red giant branch dominate the integrated light at all ages. The near-infrared spectral range is especially interesting since in the presence of an intermediate-age population, asymptotic giant branch stars are the main contributors. In this Letter, we measure the near-infrared indices Na I and D(CO) for a sample of 12 early-type galaxies in low-density environments and compare them with the Fornax galaxy sample presented by Silva et al.. The analysis of these indices in combination with Lick/IDS indices in the optical range reveals that (1) the Na I index is a metallicity indicator as good as C4668 in the optical range, and (2) D(CO) is a tracer of intermediate-age stellar populations. We find that low-mass galaxies in low-density environments show higher Na I and D(CO) than those located in the Fornax cluster, which points toward a late stage of star formation for the galaxies in less dense environments, in agreement with results from other studies using independent methods.