Gorgas García, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
Gorgas García
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
UCM identifierORCIDScopus Author IDWeb of Science ResearcherIDDialnet ID

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • Publication
    Stellar population study in early-type galaxies: an approach from the K band
    (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009-08) Mármol Queraltó, Esther; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Trager, S.C.; Peletier, R. F.; Kuntschner, H.; Silva, D. R.; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    A full understanding of the physical properties of integrated stellar systems demands a multiwavelength approach since each spectral window shows us the contribution of different types of stars. However, most of the observational effort in stellar population studies has been focused on the optical range. Now, the new generation of instruments allow us to explore the K band, where RGB and AGB stars dominate the light of the integrated spectra. Here we present a K-band spectroscopic analysis of early-type galaxies in different environments. Our sample comprises 12 field early-type galaxies observed with ISAAC at VLT with medium resolution, and they are compared with 11 Fornax cluster galaxies previously reported by Silva et al. (2008). The clear differences found in the infrared DCO and NaI indices between field and Fornax galaxies are discussed, trying to solve the puzzle formed by the near-infrared and optical measurements.
  • Publication
    Effect of Environment on the Underlying Stellar Populations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Coma Cluster
    (American Institute of Physics, 2009) Matkovic, A.; Guzmán, R.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    We derive ages, metallicities and [alpha/Fe] ratios for dwarf early-type galaxies (dE/dS0) in the center and a region believed to be infalling into the Coma cluster. We find that a set of metallic indices cannot be described by linear relations with velocity dispersion (sigma), while another group of indices exhibits linear index-sigma relations. dE/dS0 galaxies in the core of the cluster are on average younger, and have lower metallicities and lower alpha-ratios (solar to sub-solar) than the more luminous elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, dEs/dSos in the infall region of Coma form a less homogeneous population. We find an unusually high fraction of dE/dS0s with high [alpha/Fe] ratios, suggesting short time scales for the star formation histories for these galaxies. Furthermore, the dE/dS0s with high alpha-ratios have a range of ages and metallicities implying multiple formation scenarios where some galaxies have experienced their short star formation bursts at more recent epochs.
  • Publication
    Stellar populations of early-type galaxies in different environments - II. Ages and metallicities
    (EDP Sciencies, 2006-10) Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; González, J. J.
    This is the second paper of a series devoted to the study of the stellar content of early-type galaxies. The goal of the series is to set constraints on the evolutionary status of these objects Methods. We use a new set of models that include an improved stellar library (MILES) to derive simple stellar population (SSP)-equivalent parameters in a sample of 98 early-type galaxies. The sample contains galaxies in the field, poor groups, and galaxies in the Virgo and Coma clusters. Results. We find that low-density environment galaxies span a larger range in SSP age and metallicity than their counterparts in high density environments, with a tendency for lower sigma galaxies to be younger. Early-type galaxies in low-density environments appear on average similar to 1.5 Gyr younger and more metal rich than their counterparts in high density environments. The sample of low-density environment galaxies shows an age-metallicity relation in which younger galaxies are found to be more metal rich, but only when metallicity is measured with a Fe-sensitive index. Conversely, there is no age-metallicity relation when the metallicity is measured with a Mg sensitive index. The mass-metallicity relation is only appreciable for the low-density environment galaxies when the metallicity is measured with a Mg-sensitive index, and not when the metallicity is measured with other indicators. On the contrary, this relation exists for the high-density environment galaxies independent of the indicator used to measure the metallicity. Conclusions. This suggests a dependence of the mass-metallicity relation on the environment of the galaxies. Our data favour a scenario in which galaxies in low density environments have suffered a more extended star formation history than the galaxies in the Coma cluster, which appear to host more homogenous stellar populations.
  • Publication
    Using spectroscopic data to disentangle stellar population properties
    (EDP Sciencies, 2003-10) Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Cenarro, A. J.; Pedraz, S.; Bruzual, G.; Klement, J.
    It is well known that, when analyzed in the light of current synthesis model predictions, variations in the physical properties of single stellar populations (e.g. age, metallicity, initial mass function, element abundance ratios) may have a similar effect in their integrated spectral energy distributions. The confusion is even worsened when more realistic scenarios, i.e. composite star formation histories, are considered. This is, in fact, one of the major problems when facing the study of stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies. Typically, the observational efforts have aimed to find the most appropriate spectroscopic indicators in order to avoid, as far as possible, degeneracies in the parameter space. However, from a practical point of view, the most suited observables are not, necessarily, those that provide more orthogonality in that parameter space, but those that give the best balance between parameter degeneracy and sensitivity to signal-to-noise ratio per Angstrom, S/N(Angstrom). In order to achieve the minimum combined total error in the derived physical parameters, this work discusses how the functional dependence of typical line-strength indices and colors on S/N(Angstrom) allows to define a suitability parameter which helps to obtain more realistic combinations of spectroscopic data. As an example, we discuss in more detail the problem of breaking the well known age-metallicity degeneracy in relatively old stellar populations, comparing the suitability of different spectroscopic diagrams for a simple stellar population of solar metallicity and of 12 Gyr in age.
  • Publication
    A new stellar library in the region of the CO index at 2.3 mu m - New index definition and empirical fitting functions
    (EDP Sciencies, 2008-10) Mármol Queraltó, E.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Pedraz, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.
    The analysis of unresolved stellar populations demands evolutionary synthesis models with realistic physical ingredients and extended wavelength coverage. Aims. We quantitatively describe the first CO bandhead at 2.3 mu m to allow stellar population models to provide improved predictions in this wavelength range. Methods. We observed a new stellar library with a better coverage of the stellar atmospheric parameter space than in earlier works. We performed a detailed analysis of the robustness of previous CO index definitions with spectral resolution, wavelength calibration, signal-to-noise ratio, and flux calibration. Results. We define a new line-strength index for the first CO bandhead at 2.3 mu m, DCO, better suited for stellar population studies than previous index definitions. We derive empirical fitting functions for the CO feature as a function of the stellar parameters (T(eff), log g and [Fe/H]), showing a detailed quantitative metallicity dependence.
  • Publication
    Evidence for intermediate-age stellar populations in early-type galaxies from K-band spectroscopy
    (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2009-11-10) Mármol Queraltó, E.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Kuntschner, H.; Silva, D. R.; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier
    The study of stellar populations in early-type galaxies in different environments is a powerful tool for constraining their star formation histories. This study has been traditionally restricted to the optical range, where dwarfs around the turn-off and stars at the base of the red giant branch dominate the integrated light at all ages. The near-infrared spectral range is especially interesting since in the presence of an intermediate-age population, asymptotic giant branch stars are the main contributors. In this Letter, we measure the near-infrared indices Na I and D(CO) for a sample of 12 early-type galaxies in low-density environments and compare them with the Fornax galaxy sample presented by Silva et al.. The analysis of these indices in combination with Lick/IDS indices in the optical range reveals that (1) the Na I index is a metallicity indicator as good as C4668 in the optical range, and (2) D(CO) is a tracer of intermediate-age stellar populations. We find that low-mass galaxies in low-density environments show higher Na I and D(CO) than those located in the Fornax cluster, which points toward a late stage of star formation for the galaxies in less dense environments, in agreement with results from other studies using independent methods.
  • Publication
    Evidence of fast rotation in dwarf elliptical galaxies
    (Wiley, 2002-05) Pedraz, S.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Guzmán, R.
    In this letter we investigate the kinematical properties of early-type dwarfs by significantly enlarging the scarce observational sample so far available. We present rotation curves and mean velocity dispersions for four bright dwarf ellipticals and two dwarf lenticular galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Most of these galaxies exhibit conspicuous rotation curves. In particular, five out of the six new galaxies are found to be close to the predictions for oblate spheroids flattened by rotation. Therefore, and contrary to the previous observational hints, the present data suggest that an important fraction of dwarf early-type galaxies may be rotationally supported.
  • Publication
    Carbon and nitrogen abundances in early-type galaxies
    (IOP Publishing, 2009-02-01) Toloba, E.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Gibson, B. K.
    For the first time, we undertake a systematic examination of the nitrogen abundances using the NH3360 feature for a sample of 35 early-type galaxies spanning a range of masses and local environment. The nitrogen-sensitive molecular feature at 3360Å has been employed in conjunction with a suite of atomic- and molecular-sensitive indices to provide unique and definitive constraints on the chemical content of these systems. By employing NH3360, we are now able to break the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen degeneracies inherent to the use of the cyanogen (CN) index. We demonstrate that the NH3360 feature shows little dependency upon the velocity dispersion (our proxy for mass) of the galaxies, contrary to what is seen for carbon-and magnesium-sensitive indices. At face value, these results are at odds with conclusions drawn previously using indices sensitive to both carbon and nitrogen, such as CN. With the aid of stellar population models, we find that the N/Fe ratios in these galaxies are consistent with being mildly enhanced with respect to the solar ratio. We also explore the dependence of these findings upon environment, by analyzing the co-added spectra of galaxies in the field and the Coma cluster. We confirm the previously found differences in carbon abundances between galaxies in low-and high-density environments, while showing that these differences do not seem to exist for nitrogen. We discuss the implications of these findings for the derivation of the star-formation histories in early-type galaxies, and for the origin of carbon and nitrogen themselves.
  • Publication
    MILES SSP models
    (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009-08) Vazdekis, A.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Falcón Barroso, J.; Cenarro, A. J.; Beasley, M. A.; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Peletier, R.
    We present SEDs for single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations (SSPs) covering the full optical spectral range at resolution (FWHM = 2.3Å). These SEDs can be regarded as our base models, as we combine scaled-solar isochrones with an empirical stellar spectral library (MILES), which follows the chemical evolution pattern of the solar neighbourhood. The models rely as much as possible on empirical ingredients as also employ extensive photometric libraries. Thanks to the unprecedented parameter coverage of the MILES library we synthesize SSP SEDs from intermediate- to very-old age regimes, and the metallicity from super-solar to [M/H] = −2.3, all for a suite of IMF shapes and slopes. We propose a new Line Index System (LIS), based on flux-calibrated spectra, to avoid the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the Lick/IDS system and provide more appropriate, uniform, spectral resolution.
  • Publication
    Kinematic properties and stellar populations of faint early-type galaxies. II. Line-strength measurements of central coma galaxies
    (IOP Publishing, 2009-02-01) Matkovic, A.; Guzmán, R.; Sánchez Blázquez, P.; Gorgas García, Francisco Javier; Cardiel López, Nicolás; Gruel, N.
    We present line-strength measurements for 74 early-type galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster reaching down to velocity dispersions, sigma, of 30 km s(-1). The index-sigma relations for our sample, including galaxies with sigma < 100 km s(-1) (low-sigma), differ in shape depending on which index is used. We note two types of relations for the metallic indices: one showing a break in the slope around similar to 100 km s(-1) and another group with strong linear relations between an index and log s. We find no connection between the behavior of index-sigma relations with either alpha- or Fe-peak elements. However, we find indications that the relations are tighter for indices which do not depend on the microturbulent velocities of stellar atmospheres. We confirm previous results that low-sigma galaxies including dE/dS0s are on average younger, less metal rich, and have lower [alpha/Fe] in comparison with E/S0s. Our data show that these trends derived for high-sigma galaxies extend down to dE/dS0s. This is a factor of similar to 2 lower in sigma than previously published work. We confirm that the observed anticorrelation between age and metallicity for high-sigma galaxies is consistent with the effects of correlated errors. Low-sigma galaxies also show a similar relation between age and metallicity as a result of correlated errors. However, they are offset from this relationship so that, on average, they are less metal rich and younger than their high-sigma counterparts.