De Stefano, Lucia

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First Name
Last Name
De Stefano
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Geodinámica Externa
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
  • Publication
    A machine learning model to assess the ecosystem response to water policy measures in the Tagus River Basin (Spain)
    (Elsevier, 2021-01) Valerio, Carlotta; De Stefano, Lucia; Martínez Muñoz, Gonzalo; Garrido, Alberto
    Anthropogenic activities are seriously endangering the conservation of biodiversity worldwide, calling for urgent actions to mitigate their impact on ecosystems. We applied machine learning techniques to predict the response of freshwater ecosystems to multiple anthropogenic pressures, with the goal of informing the definition of water policy targets and management measures to recover and protect aquatic biodiversity. Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Regression Trees algorithms were used for the modelling of the biological indices of macroinvertebrates and diatoms in the Tagus river basin (Spain). Among the anthropogenic stressors considered as explanatory variables, the categories of land cover in the upstream catchment area and the nutrient concentrations showed the highest impact on biological communities. The model was then used to predict the biological response to different nutrient concentrations in river water, with the goal of exploring the effect of different regulatory thresholds on the ecosystem status. Specifically, we considered the maximum nutrient concentrations set by the Spanish legislation, as well as by the legislation of other European Union Member States. According to our model, the current nutrient thresholds in Spain ensure values of biological indices consistent with the good ecological status in only about 60% of the total number of water bodies. By applying more restrictive nutrient concentrations, the number of water bodies with biological indices in good status could increase by almost 40%. Moreover, coupling more restrictive nutrient thresholds with measures that improve the riparian habitat yields up to 85% of water bodies with biological indices in good status, thus proving to be a key approach to restore the status of the ecosystem.
  • Publication
    Lessons from the 2018–2019 European droughts: a collective need for unifying drought risk management
    (European Geosciences Union, 2022-06-29) Blauhut, Veit; Stoelzle, Michael; Ahopelto, Lauri; Brunner, Manuela I.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Wendt, Doris E.; Akstinas, Vytautas; Bakke, Sigrid J.; Barker, Lucy J.; Bartošová, Lenka; Briede, Agrita; Cammalleri, Carmelo; Kalin, Ksenija Cindrić; De Stefano, Lucia; Fendeková, Miriam; Finger, David C.; Huysmans, Marijke; Ivanov, Mirjana; Jaagus, Jaak; Jakubínský, Jiří; Krakovska, Svitlana; Laaha, Gregor; Lakatos, Monika; Manevsk, Kiril; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Nikolova, Nina; Osuch, Marzena; Oel, Pieter van; Radeva, Kalina; Romanowicz, Renata J.; Toth, Elena; Trnka, Mirek; Trofimova, Iryna; Van Loon, Anne F.; Vliet, Michelle T. H. van; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Wanders, Niko; Werner, Micha; Willems, Patrick; Živković, Nenad
    Drought events and their impacts vary spatially and temporally due to diverse pedo-climatic and hydrologic conditions, as well as variations in exposure and vulnerability, such as demographics and response actions. While hazard severity and frequency of past drought events have been studied in detail, little is known about the effect of drought management strategies on the actual impacts and how the hazard is perceived by relevant stakeholders. In a continental study, we characterised and assessed the impacts and the perceptions of two recent drought events (2018 and 2019) in Europe and examined the relationship between management strategies and drought perception, hazard, and impact. The study was based on a pan-European survey involving national representatives from 28 countries and relevant stakeholders responding to a standard questionnaire. The survey focused on collecting information on stakeholders' perceptions of drought, impacts on water resources and beyond, water availability, and current drought management strategies on national and regional scales. The survey results were compared with the actual drought hazard information registered by the European Drought Observatory (EDO) for 2018 and 2019. The results highlighted high diversity in drought perception across different countries and in values of the implemented drought management strategies to alleviate impacts by increasing national and sub-national awareness and resilience. The study identifies an urgent need to further reduce drought impacts by constructing and implementing a European macro-level drought governance approach, such as a directive, which would strengthen national drought management and mitigate damage to human and natural assets.
  • Publication
    An Assessment Framework to Analyze Drought Management Plans: The Case of Spain
    (MDPI, 2022) Urquijo Reguera, Julia; Gómez Villarino, María Teresa; Pereira, David; De Stefano, Lucia
    Droughts affect all socio-economic sectors and have negative impacts on the environment. Droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to climate change, which makes their effective management a high priority for policy makers and water managers. Drought Management Plans (DMPs) are a key instrument to deal with droughts and help to prepare for them in a proactive way as a framework for coordinated action before and during droughts. The development of DMPs is still incipient worldwide and their assessment remains limited. In Spain, DMPs at a river basin level were first approved in 2007. Following the legal obligation set in Spanish law, those plans were revised after ten years and a new version was approved in 2018. A content analysis was developed for assessing the 2018 DMPs of eight river basins managed by their corresponding River Basin Authorities, which depend on the Spanish central government. The evaluation criteria were set using the extant scientific literature and official guidelines on drought preparedness and management. The analysis showed that some aspects of the DMPs are especially well-developed, e.g., the distinction between drought and water scarcity, the definition of thresholds to trigger different levels of drought and water scarcity alerts and actions for drought management and coordination. Other issues still need further improvement, especially those related to the analysis of drought impacts, the assessment of vulnerability and the ex-post evaluation of DPM performance.
  • Publication
    Water accounting for water management at the river basin scale in India: approaches and gaps
    (World Water Council, 2020-09-16) Bassi, Nitin; Schmidt, Guido; De Stefano, Lucia
    The main objective of this research paper is to assess the extent to which the concept of water accounting has been applied for water management at the river basin scale in India. For this, the study first assesses the importance given to the use of water accounting for water management in India's national water policy. It then analyses the evolution of water accounting approaches in India through a systematic review of the past research studies on the theme. Further, it looks at their contribution to decision-making concerning allocation of water resources and resolving conflicts over water sharing. Finally, it identifies the existing gaps in the methodologies for water accounting so far used in India.
  • Publication
    Shedding light on the decline of Iberian freshwater fish species over the period 1980–2020
    (Wiley, 2022-08-09) Valerio, Carlotta; Baquero, Rocío A.; Gómez Nicola, Graciela; Garrido, Alberto; De Stefano, Lucia
    Freshwater fish biodiversity is experiencing an alarming decline worldwide. Understanding the main factors behind its deterioration is a key step for ecosystem restoration. In this work, large-scale and long-term data were used to identify the causes of the decline of native species richness in Castilla-La Mancha. This region in central Spain covers part of six river basins belonging to four of the 11 biogeographical provinces for freshwater fish in the Iberian Peninsula. Firstly, we built a dataset that associates the presence of several fish species and a wide range of environmental variables (e.g. hydrological and hydromorphological indicators, land use classes, presence of alien fish species) at selected river sites for two different time periods (1980–2000 and 2001–2020). Secondly, we conducted an exploratory data analysis to identify possible temporal trends in the dataset. Finally, we applied the random forest algorithm to predict the response of different ecological guild-based metrics of fish richness to the selected variables. The exploratory data analysis revealed a decrease in native fish species richness in 74% of the area studied. There was no sustained temporal trend for stressor variables, except for the number of alien species, which increased in most river sites (63%). The models of the richness of native rheophilic, native intolerant, alien rheophilic, and alien limnophilic species performed satisfactorily. Magnitude of maximum discharge, presence of alien species, land use in the catchment area and altitude were the most important predictors of richness of native intolerant and rheophilic species. Alien limnophilic species proved to be sensitive to variables related to flow regime alteration, such as the presence of dams and the number of river flow reversals, while a less degraded habitat was found to be favourable to alien rheophilic species. The results suggest that the cumulative effect of persistent altered flow regimes and water pollution, coupled with a strong increase in the number of alien species, have led to the decline of native species in the area studied. The restoration of near-natural magnitudes of high flows when implementing environmental flows emerged as a key measure to restore ecosystem integrity. Starting from a long-term and large-scale dataset, this study provides new, quantitative insights into stressor–ecosystem relationships in rivers and could inform future environmental policy initiatives because it has identified the main factors leading to native fish decline and alien fish proliferation. Our findings emphasise the importance of considering metrics based on fish assemblage composition and ecological functional groups in order to disentangle the effects of stressors on fish communities.
  • Publication
    A comparative analysis of the application of water quality exemptions in the European Union: The case of nitrogen
    (Elsevier, 2020-10-15) Bolinches Quero, Antonio; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Garrido, Alberto; De Stefano, Lucia
    Freshwater ecosystems and water uses may be jeopardized by the degradation of water quality. The Water Framework Directive of the European Union (EU) sets environmental objectives for water bodies but foresees the establishment of exemptions under some circumstances. The criteria used to justify these exemptions, however, are not fully developed, leaving their application open to some arbitrariness. Our study explores the relations between the magnitude of pressures affecting continental surface water bodies and the declared exemptions on the permitted concentration of nitrogen. It identifies different approaches to declare exemptions to nitrogen environmental objectives across six EU Member States and discusses the underlying criteria. A better understanding of the pressures-impact-measures/exemptions relation helps compare water policy decisions across different regions subject to the same legal obligations and set priorities for mitigation measures.
  • Publication
    Too expensive to be worth it? A methodology to identify disproportionate costs of environmental measures as applied to the Middle Tagus River, Spain
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-27) Bolinches Quero, Antonio; De Stefano, Lucia; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier
    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) established in 2000 that EU Member States should achieve good status for all their water bodies by 2027 at the latest. The competent authorities are obliged to commit the necessary resources to achieve this goal. In water bodies where the costs are deemed disproportionate, the Directive foresees the definition of exemptions. Two decades after approval of the WFD, however, there is no common method across the EU to evaluate the disproportionality of costs and define the associated exemptions. We propose a methodology based on WFD indicators of water body status and economic variables that are common to all the EU countries. The method uses data that is already available in Eurostat and European Environment Agency databases, thus minimizing data collection costs. The method is applied to the Middle Tagus (Spain), where currently there are several water bodies with declared exemptions for disproportionate costs.
  • Publication
    Environmental flows and the mitigation of hydrological alteration downstream from dams: The Spanish case
    (Elsevier, 2020) Mezger Lorenzo, Gabriel; González del Tánago, Marta; De Stefano, Lucia
    Dams cause significant alteration in natural flow patterns of rivers throughout the world. As a response, many countries have established environmental flows (e-flows) to reduce hydrological alteration and mitigate ecosystem degradation. This paper assesses hydrological changes downstream from dams in 22 rivers in Spain, 12 of them located in northern wetter regions (Duero and Ebro basins) and the remaining 10 in southern drier regions (Guadalquivir and Júcar basins). First we compared pre-dam and post-dam instream flow patterns, and then we considered a third period starting with the implementation of e-flows. We quantified changes in mean annual flows, monthly flows, and magnitude and timing of extreme flows (1-day maximum, 95th percentile, 1-day minimum and 5th percentile). The analysis aimed at: i) characterizing hydrological alteration in regulated rivers in four river basins in Spain, with a special focus on differences across regions; and (ii) assessing the capacity of the implemented e-flows to mitigate flow regime alteration downstream from dams. All the studied rivers displayed significant changes in magnitude and timing of flows after the dam construction. A quite homogenous trend was observed in the drier basins, where mean annual flows and annual extreme flows decreased significantly. The wetter basins showed no uniform patterns in mean annual flows, while 1-day maximum and 95th percentile flow values decreased. In contrast to drier basins, 1-day minimum and 5th percentile flow values increased markedly. In most cases, the natural Mediterranean annual hydrograph was inverted, with the high-flow period occurring during the low precipitation months (summer) and the low-flow period during the wet season. After e-flows implementation, these patterns of hydrological alteration remained almost unchanged, pointing to a limited capacity of current e-flows to mitigate the hydrological impacts downstream from dams.
  • Publication
    Designing river water quality policy interventions with scarce data: the case of the Middle Tagus Basin, Spain
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020) Bolinches Quero, Antonio; De Stefano, Lucia; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier
    Anthropic pressures deteriorate river water quality, so authorities need to identify their causes and define corrective actions. Physically based water quality models are a useful tool for addressing physicochemical pollutants, but they must be calibrated with an amount of data that is often unavailable. In this study, we explore the characterization of a model to design corrective interventions in a context of sparse data. A calibration indicator that is both simple and flexible is proposed. This approach is applied to the Middle Tagus Basin in central Spain, where the physicochemical concentration of pollutants is above legal standards. We quantify the effects of the main existing pressures (discharge from wastewater treatment plants, agricultural diffuse pollution and a major inter-basin water transfer) on the receiving waters. In particular, the study finds that wastewater treatment plant effluent concentrations should be reduced to up to 0.65 mg/L of ammonium and 0.55 mg/L of phosphate to achieve the environmental goals. We propose and prioritize a set of policy actions that would contribute to the good status of surface water bodies in the region.
  • Publication
    Analysis of the Evolution of Climatic and Hydrological Variables in the Tagus River Basin, Spain
    (MDPI, 2022-03-05) Mezger Lorenzo, Gabriel; De Stefano, Lucia; González del Tánago, Marta
    During the second half of the 20th century, several Spanish rivers experienced a decrease in the availability of water resources which coincided with an increase in human water demands. This situation is expected to be exacerbated by climate change. This study analyses the evolution of annual streamflow in 16 sub-basins of the Tagus River basin (Spain) during the 1950–2010 period and its relationship with selected variables. Our main objective is to characterize changes in in-stream flows and to identify what factors could have contributed to them. First, we used non-parametric tests to detect trends in the hydro-climatic series. Then, we analyzed changes in the runoff coefficient and applied regression-based techniques to detect anthropic drivers that could have influenced the observed trends. The analysis revealed a general decreasing trend in streamflow and an increasing trend in air temperature, while trends in precipitation are less clear. Residuals from regression models indicate that the evolution of several non-climatic factors is likely to have influenced the decline in streamflow. Our results suggest that the combination of the expansion of forested areas (a 60% increase from 1950 to 2010) and irrigated land (a 400% increase since 1950) could have played an important role in the reduction of streamflow in the Tagus basin.