André García, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
André García
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales
Análisis Económico y economía cuantitativa
Fundamentos del Análisis Económico
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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Differentiation strategies in coffee farms: opportunities for Costa Rican growers
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-08-08) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Díaz Porras, Rafael
    This study investigates the determinants of coffee prices received by growers in Costa Rica,paying attention to the impact of environmental, regional, quality, and international aspects in a panel data set for the period 2008–2016. We identify three groups of variables that affect domestic coffee prices. Some of them are external to the control of the coffee growers, such as the international price of green coffee or the power of multinationals; others, such as the altitude where the coffee is harvested or the berries’ yield, are related to coffee quality but difficult to modify by coffee growers. The focus of our study is on the third group, which refers to differentiation strategies related to environmental certifications. More specifically, we consider two particularly relevant certifications, which are Fairtrade mills and organic coffee. We find that organic coffee berries received higher prices, but Fairtrade mills report lower average prices than other, non-certified, buyers.
  • Publication
    Paying for sustainable coffee in a developing country: Consumers’ profile in Costa Rica
    (MDPI, 2021) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Soliño, Mario
    This article analyzes the willingness to pay of Costa Rican consumers for three environmental certifications in the coffee market, namely, Carbon Neutral, Fairtrade, and ISO 14001. A face-to-face survey was applied to 1191 Costa Rican inhabitants. The results show that Costa Rican consumers are willing to pay price premiums around 30% for all the considered environmental certifications. In addition, a Cragg’s hurdle model shows that household income, the level of education, and environmental or community activism increase the likelihood of consumers paying price premiums for environmental certifications, while men are less likely to pay than women. It was also found that the size of the price premiums that respondents are willing to pay are positively related to income, gender (female), and education, and negatively related to age. Once the effect of socioeconomic variables has been controlled for, we conclude that consumers are more willing to pay for the CN certification than for the other two. The results can be useful for participants in the coffee value chain; coffee producers can use environmental certifications both to enhance their participation in green markets, particularly in developing countries, and to improve their environmental performance.
  • Publication
    Societal Awareness of Environmental Certifications in Costa Rica
    (Elsevier, 2021-03-01) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Soliño, Mario
    The effectiveness of voluntary environmental programs and certifications to render social and private benefits depends on how aware consumers are, so that they can consider such initiatives when making their decisions. Consumers’ awareness has been mostly addressed in developed countries, although the benefits of companies’ environmental actions also take place in developing countries. This study is conducted in a developing country, such as Costa Rica. Using a large sample (n = 1191), consumers’ awareness of environmental certifications is studied at a general level (being able to name some environmental certification or program) and at a specific level (ability to name certified firms). The results show that consumers who are younger, with higher household income, with a university or technical degree and those participating in environmental or community groups are more likely to be aware of environmental certifications on both levels. Moreover, aware consumers tend to be more willing to pay for a certified coffee or a coffee produced by a certified company.
  • Publication
    Voluntary carbon neutral programs. Adoption and firms’ strategies
    (Elsevier, 2022-11-17) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier
    Voluntary Carbon Neutral (CN) programs promote the reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions of participants. The main objective of this article is to review the literature about firms' behavior in connection to CN programs, paying particular attention to the adoption decision and the firms' strategies to meet the CN requirements. As an additional aim, we analyze the economic rationale behind the firms' decisions by connecting our literature review to a simple model based on the standard microeconomic theory of the firm. We model the firm's decision as a three-stage problem which includes, first, the adoption (or not) of a voluntary CN program, second, the selection of strategies to become CN (if the program is adopted) and third, the usual price and quantity decisions in the output market. The model helps understand some results found in the literature, such as why some activity sectors are more prone than others to adopt the CN certification. It also provides an explanation for the fact that these voluntary programs tend to be adopted by firms that are large, innovative, and more concerned about intergenerational equity and environmental preservation.