Person:
André García, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
André García
Affiliation
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales
Department
Análisis Económico y economía cuantitativa
Area
Fundamentos del Análisis Económico
Identifiers
UCM identifierORCIDScopus Author IDWeb of Science ResearcherIDDialnet IDGoogle Scholar ID

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Publication
    Market Power in Output and Emissions Trading
    (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2020) André García, Francisco Javier; De Castro Lejarriaga, Luis Miguel
    This article focuses on the strategic behavior of firms in the output and the emissions markets in the presence of market power. We consider the existence of a dominant firm in the permit market and different structures in the output market, including Cournot and two versions of the Stackelberg model, depending on whether the permit dominant firm is a leader or a follower in the output market. In all three models, the firm that dominates the permit market is more sensitive to its initial allocation than its competitor in terms of abatement and less sensitive in terms of output. In all three models, output is decreasing and the permit price is increasing in the permit dominant firm’s initial allocation. In the Cournot model, permit dominance is fruitless in terms of output and profit if the initial allocation is symmetric. Output leadership is more relevant than permit dominance since an output leader always tends to, ceteris paribus, produce more and make more profit whether it also dominates the permit market or not. This leadership can only be overcompensated for by distributing a larger share of permits to the output follower, and only if the total number of permits is large enough. In terms of welfare, Stackelberg is always superior to Cournot. If the initial permit allocation is symmetric, welfare is higher when the same firm dominates the output and the permit market at the same time.
  • Publication
    Differentiation strategies in coffee farms: opportunities for Costa Rican growers
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-08-08) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Díaz Porras, Rafael
    This study investigates the determinants of coffee prices received by growers in Costa Rica,paying attention to the impact of environmental, regional, quality, and international aspects in a panel data set for the period 2008–2016. We identify three groups of variables that affect domestic coffee prices. Some of them are external to the control of the coffee growers, such as the international price of green coffee or the power of multinationals; others, such as the altitude where the coffee is harvested or the berries’ yield, are related to coffee quality but difficult to modify by coffee growers. The focus of our study is on the third group, which refers to differentiation strategies related to environmental certifications. More specifically, we consider two particularly relevant certifications, which are Fairtrade mills and organic coffee. We find that organic coffee berries received higher prices, but Fairtrade mills report lower average prices than other, non-certified, buyers.
  • Publication
    Becoming Carbon Neutral in Costa Rica to Be More Sustainable: An AHP Approach
    (MDPI, 2020) André García, Francisco Javier; Valenciano-Salazar, Jorge A.
    We propose addressing an organization’s adoption of an environmental certification as a multicriteria problem considering environmental sustainability as well as economic and strategic aspects. Our methodological approach uses the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which we use in an empirical application to analyze the adoption decision of several Costa Rican firms and institutions. Firstly, we select a set of economic, strategic, and environmental criteria that seem relevant for the organization’s direction. We select these criteria according to our literature review and a series of face-to-face interviews with scholars and companies’ managers. As an environmental certification, we focus on Carbon Neutral (CN), which is a domestic certification aimed at reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. For the sake of comparison, we also consider ISO 14001, which is a well-known international standard aimed at compliance with environmental norms. We conduct the AHP analysis using the answers given by 24 companies and institutions, which in aggregate terms, give CN a higher score than ISO 14001. This result is mainly due to the fact that CN ranks above ISO 14001 when attending to environmental sustainability, although ISO 14001 tends to be preferred in economic and strategic terms.
  • Publication
    Mejora del SGIC del centro: Análisis de la satisfacción de estudiantes con profesores y asignaturas, de egresados y empleadores
    (2020-02-25) Martín López, Sonia; García Greciano, María Begoña; André García, Francisco Javier; Fossas Olalla, Marta; García Goñi, Manuel; Alonso Guinea, Fernando; Rivero Rodríguez, Carlos; Pérez González, Jesús
    El objetivo del presente proyecto es poner de manifiesto el compromiso de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales con la mejora continua de la calidad concretándose la propuesta de valor en la implementación de nuevas herramientas que permitan en mayor medida controlar, revisar y redefinir sus actuaciones según las necesidades y expectativas manifestadas por sus grupos de interés. En este caso se centra la atención en la recopilación y análisis de la percepción, que de las distintas titulaciones de las que la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales es responsable, tienen los estudiantes, los egresados y los empleadores.
  • Publication
    Paying for sustainable coffee in a developing country: Consumers’ profile in Costa Rica
    (MDPI, 2021) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Soliño, Mario
    This article analyzes the willingness to pay of Costa Rican consumers for three environmental certifications in the coffee market, namely, Carbon Neutral, Fairtrade, and ISO 14001. A face-to-face survey was applied to 1191 Costa Rican inhabitants. The results show that Costa Rican consumers are willing to pay price premiums around 30% for all the considered environmental certifications. In addition, a Cragg’s hurdle model shows that household income, the level of education, and environmental or community activism increase the likelihood of consumers paying price premiums for environmental certifications, while men are less likely to pay than women. It was also found that the size of the price premiums that respondents are willing to pay are positively related to income, gender (female), and education, and negatively related to age. Once the effect of socioeconomic variables has been controlled for, we conclude that consumers are more willing to pay for the CN certification than for the other two. The results can be useful for participants in the coffee value chain; coffee producers can use environmental certifications both to enhance their participation in green markets, particularly in developing countries, and to improve their environmental performance.
  • Publication
    Societal Awareness of Environmental Certifications in Costa Rica
    (Elsevier, 2021-03-01) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Soliño, Mario
    The effectiveness of voluntary environmental programs and certifications to render social and private benefits depends on how aware consumers are, so that they can consider such initiatives when making their decisions. Consumers’ awareness has been mostly addressed in developed countries, although the benefits of companies’ environmental actions also take place in developing countries. This study is conducted in a developing country, such as Costa Rica. Using a large sample (n = 1191), consumers’ awareness of environmental certifications is studied at a general level (being able to name some environmental certification or program) and at a specific level (ability to name certified firms). The results show that consumers who are younger, with higher household income, with a university or technical degree and those participating in environmental or community groups are more likely to be aware of environmental certifications on both levels. Moreover, aware consumers tend to be more willing to pay for a certified coffee or a coffee produced by a certified company.
  • Publication
    Media Coverage of Carbon Neutral Organizations in Costa Rica: Environmental Sustainability Practices and Consumer Recognition
    (2022-12-16) Jorge A. Valenciano-Salazar; Carlos Rivero; André García, Francisco Javier; Rivero Rodríguez, Carlos
    This paper studies the visibility, environmental sustainability practices, and public recognition of Costa Rican organizations participating in the Carbon Neutrality (cn) Program. Through a review of Costa Rican online newspapers, we conclude that the three main actions performed by cn firms are the offsetting of carbon emissions, the replacement of polluting inputs by cleaner substitutes, and employees’ training. The main benefits perceived by these firms include reducing production costs, improving the organizations’ image, and achieving market differentiation. In addition, by using non-parametric statistic procedures, we conclude that “highly cited organizations” tend to achieve the cn certification earlier and have a larger number of environmental certifications than “scarcely cited organizations.” By analyzing newspaper coverage data in conjunction with a consumer recognition survey, we determined that “recognized organizations” tend to be the oldest, the largest, and the most cited in the press. In addition, “recognized entities” also tend to obtain the cn certification sooner than unrecognized entities, which means that there is a reward in terms of public recognition for companies that took the risk of being innovative in reducing their carbon footprint.
  • Publication
    Sustainability and firms’ mission in a developing country: the case of voluntary certifications and programs in Costa Rica
    (Taylor & Francis, 2021-08-25) Valenciano-Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier; Martín De Castro, Gregorio
    Voluntary environmental and social certifications represent a channel by which firms can contribute to sustainable development. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we explore the motivations and obstacles that Costa Rican companies face when adopting Carbon Neutral (CN) and Fairtrade (FT) certifications. CN is a domestic certification aimed at reducing or offsetting carbon emissions and fighting climate change. FT is a well-known international label that guarantees compliance with environmental and social standards. We conclude that ethical and environmental reasons influence the managers’ decision, along with economic and strategic incentives, such as improving the image of the company and the relationship with stakeholders. High investment and certification costs are ranked as the most difficult obstacles to overcome. By exploring the differences between both certifications, we find out that increasing sales, market shares or prices are more important motivations for the FT companies than for CN ones.
  • Publication
    Paying for Sustainable Coffee in a Developing Country: Consumers’ Profile in Costa Rica
    (MDPI, 2021-08-20) Valenciano-Salazar, Jorge A.; Soliño, Mario; André García, Francisco Javier
    This article analyzes the willingness to pay of Costa Rican consumers for three environmental certifications in the coffee market, namely, Carbon Neutral, Fairtrade, and ISO 14001. A face-to-face survey was applied to 1191 Costa Rican inhabitants. The results show that Costa Rican consumers are willing to pay price premiums around 30% for all the considered environmental certifications. In addition, a Cragg’s hurdle model shows that household income, the level of education, and environmental or community activism increase the likelihood of consumers paying price premiums for environmental certifications, while men are less likely to pay than women. It was also found that the size of the price premiums that respondents are willing to pay are positively related to income, gender (female), and education, and negatively related to age. Once the effect of socioeconomic variables has been controlled for, we conclude that consumers are more willing to pay for the CN certification than for the other two. The results can be useful for participants in the coffee value chain; coffee producers can use environmental certifications both to enhance their participation in green markets, particularly in developing countries, and to improve their environmental performance.
  • Publication
    Voluntary carbon neutral programs. Adoption and firms’ strategies
    (Elsevier, 2022-11-17) Valenciano Salazar, Jorge A.; André García, Francisco Javier
    Voluntary Carbon Neutral (CN) programs promote the reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions of participants. The main objective of this article is to review the literature about firms' behavior in connection to CN programs, paying particular attention to the adoption decision and the firms' strategies to meet the CN requirements. As an additional aim, we analyze the economic rationale behind the firms' decisions by connecting our literature review to a simple model based on the standard microeconomic theory of the firm. We model the firm's decision as a three-stage problem which includes, first, the adoption (or not) of a voluntary CN program, second, the selection of strategies to become CN (if the program is adopted) and third, the usual price and quantity decisions in the output market. The model helps understand some results found in the literature, such as why some activity sectors are more prone than others to adopt the CN certification. It also provides an explanation for the fact that these voluntary programs tend to be adopted by firms that are large, innovative, and more concerned about intergenerational equity and environmental preservation.