Publication: Tracing magma sources of three different S-type peraluminous granitoid series by in situ U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotope zircon composition: The Variscan Montes de Toledo batholith (central Spain)
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Three distinct S-type peraluminous granitoid types have been identified within the Variscan Montes de Toledo batholith, located in the Central Iberian Zone (SW European Variscides): type-1, extremely high peraluminous restite-rich granitoids; type-2, highly peraluminous restite-bearing granitoids; and type-3, moderately peraluminous granitoids with mafic microgranular enclaves. Type-1 and type-2 granitoids are restricted to the western part of the batholith, whereas type-3 granites are mostly restricted to the eastern segment. There is a sequential youngering of emplacement age from type-1 (late-tectonic) to type-2 and type-3 granitoids (post-tectonic), extending the timing of the batholith formation for about 19 Ma between 316 and 297 Ma. Although the degree of peraluminousity of the different series could be related to different partial melting conditions or to the variable entrainment of restitic components (including the peritectic mineral assemblage of the melting reactions), whole-rock geochemical signatures and isotope zircon composition of the peraluminous granitoid types suggest contribution of different crustal sources. There is no evidence for the direct mantle-derived material contribution in the genesis of these peraluminous melts. Type-1 and type-2 granitoids contain mostly Archean to Neoproterozoic inherited zircons, whereas type-3 granites show preferentially Neoproterozoic (up to late Cryogenian) and Ordovician inheritance. The wide range of initial Hf isotope composition, ranging to highly radiogenic values (ƐHf up to + 10), of Neoproterozoic zircon inheritances in type-1 and type-2 granitoids suggests derivation from heterogeneous Neoproterozoic metasedimentary sources composed of both juveline and recycled crustal materials, similar in composition to the host Schist–Greywacke Complex metasediments. Trace-element modelling clearly suggests the involvement of metasediments similar to those mentioned from the southern part of the Central Iberian Zone. Nevertheless, the highly negative initial Nd isotopic signature measured in some type-1 granitoids (ƐNd300 up to − 9.4) also suggests a contribution of more mature metasedimentary sequences, such as those described in the northern Central Iberian Zone. On the contrary, the high Ca, Na and Sr bulk-rock contents in type-3 granitoids, together with the presence of Ordovician magmatic inherited zircons, and the absence of inheritances older than Cryogenian ages, suggest the involvement of a metaigneous protolith. This conclusion is also supported by the similar mean whole-rock ƐNd300 isotopic values, TDM ages, ƐHf isotope zircon composition and trace-element modelling of type-3 granitoids when compared to data from outcropping augen orthogneisses from Central Spain. The estimated crystallisation temperatures for the granitoids from the Montes de Toledo batholith (750°–880 °C) suggest that the partial melting of the crustal protoliths could be induced by the own heat generated by the thickening of a highly radiogenic crust, such is that from central Spain. Our results not only indicate that the implication of metasedimentary and/or metaigneous sources contributes to enhance geochemical and isotopic differences in S-type peraluminous granitoid series in intracontinental orogenic settings, but also fractional crystallisation processes are responsible for the geochemical variability through the evolution of these felsic magmas.