Holocene palaeotsunami catalogue of SW Iberia

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Many on-shore studies focused on high energy marine events occurred in the Gulf of Cadiz have been published since the 1990s. Most of the findings came from sedimentary, palaeontological and geomorphological records on estuaries, marshes, beach-barriers (spit-bars), and some coastal lowlands. Recent off-shore investigations in SW Iberia considered turbidite deposits as a proxy to recognise palaeoearthquakes in this zone. The comparison of datasets from both on-shore and off-shore records indicate that at least five tsunami events generated by strong earthquakes affected this area during the last 7000 years, previous to the more recent and well-documented 1755 AD Lisbon earthquake tsunami event. The catalogue of Holocene palaeotsunami presented here is supported by geological and geomorphological evidences, but also for archaeoseismic and palaeoseismic evidence and written reports for the more recent events occurred during historical times. The recurrence interval for these catastrophic events can be bracketed between 1200 and 1500 years.