Effective Actions of Ion Release from Mesoporous Bioactive Glass and Macrophage Mediators on the Differentiation of Osteoprogenitor and Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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Due to their specific mesoporous structure and large surface area, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) possess both drug-delivery ability and effective ionic release to promote bone regeneration by stimulating osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Macrophages secrete mediators that can affect both processes, depending on their phenotype. In this work, the action of ion release from MBG-75S, with a molar composition of 75SiO2-20CaO-5P2O5, on osteogenesis and angiogenesis and the modulatory role of macrophages have been assessed in vitro with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in monoculture and in coculture with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ca2+, phosphorous, and silicon ions released from MBG-75S were measured in the culture medium during both differentiation processes. Alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization were quantified as the key markers of osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of CD31, CD34, VEGFR2, eNOS, and vWF was evaluated to characterize the EPC differentiation into mature endothelial cells. Other cellular parameters analyzed included the cell size and complexity, intracellular calcium, and intracellular content of the reactive oxygen species. The results obtained indicate that the ions released by MBG-75S promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro, evidencing a macrophage inhibitory role in these processes and demonstrating the high potential of MBG-75S for the preparation of implants for bone regeneration.