Empowering Electrochemical Biosensing through Nanostructured or Multifunctional Nucleic Acid or Peptide Biomaterials

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Electrochemical biosensors continue to evolve at an astonishing pace, consolidating as competitive tools for determining a wide range of targets and relentlessly strengthening their attributes in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, response time, and antifouling ability, making them suitable for getting a foothold in real-world applications. The design and exploitation of nanostructured or multifunctional nucleic acid or peptide biomaterials is playing a determinant role in these achievements. With the aim of highlighting the potential and opportunities of these biomaterials, this perspective article critically discusses and overviews the electrochemical biosensors reported since 2019 involving nanostructured and multifunctional DNA biomaterials, multifunctional aptamers, modern peptides, and CRISPR/Cas systems. The use of these biomaterials as recognition elements, electrode modifiers (acting as linkers or creating scaffolds with antifouling properties), enzyme substrates, and labeling/carrier agents for signal amplification is discussed through rationally and strategically selected examples, concluding with a personal perspective about the challenges to be faced and future lines of action.
CRUE-CSIC (Acuerdos Transformativos 2022)