Publication: Novel Rivastigmine Derivatives as Promising Multi-Target Compounds for Potential Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most serious and prevalent neurodegenerative disorder still without cure. Since its aetiology is diverse, recent research on anti-AD drugs has been focused on multi-target compounds. In this work, seven novel hybrids (RIV–BIM) conjugating the active moiety of the drug rivastigmine (RIV) with 2 isomeric hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole (BIM) units were developed and studied. While RIV assures the inhibition of cholinesterases, BIM provides further appropriate properties, such as inhibition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation, antioxidation and metal chelation. The evaluated biological properties of these hybrids included antioxidant activity; inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and Aβ42 aggregation; as well as promotion of cell viability and neuroprotection. All the compounds are better inhibitors of AChE than rivastigmine (IC50 = 32.1 µM), but compounds of series 5 are better inhibitors of BChE (IC50 = 0.9−1.7 µM) than those of series 4. Series 5 also showed good capacity to inhibit self- (42.1−58.7%) and Cu(II)-induced (40.3−60.8%) Aβ aggregation and also to narrow (22.4−42.6%) amyloid fibrils, the relevant compounds being 5b and 5d. Some of these compounds can also prevent the toxicity induced in SH-SY5Y cells by Aβ42 and oxidative stress. Therefore, RIV–BIM hybrids seem to be potential drug candidates for AD with multi-target abilities.