Oxidative Stress in the Anterior Ocular Diseases: Diagnostic and Treatment

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The eye is a metabolically active structure, constantly exposed to solar radiations making its structure vulnerable to the high burden of reactive oxygen species (ROS), presenting many molecular interactions. The biomolecular cascade modification is caused especially in diseases of the ocular surface, cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, and lens. In fact, the injury in the anterior segment of the eye takes its origin from the perturbation of the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance and leads to increased oxidative damage, especially when the first line of antioxidant defence weakens with age. Furthermore, oxidative stress is related to mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, apoptosis, and inflammation, which are involved in anterior ocular disease progression such as dry eye, keratoconus, uveitis, and cataract. The different pathologies are interconnected through various mechanisms such as inflammation, oxidative stress making the diagnostics more relevant in early stages. The end point of the molecular pathway is the release of different antioxidant biomarkers offering the potential of predictive diagnostics of the pathology. In this review, we have analysed the oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in the front of the eye to provide a better understanding of the pathomechanism, the importance of biomarkers for the diagnosis of eye diseases, and the recent treatment of anterior ocular diseases.
Received: 29 December 2022; Revised: 16 January 2023; Accepted: 17 January 2023; Published: 20 January 2023