Montes Gutiérrez, David

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First Name
Last Name
Montes Gutiérrez
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Físicas
Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica
Astronomía y Astrofísica
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
  • Publication
    Herschel discovery of a new class of cold, faint debris discs
    (EDP Sciencies, 2011-12) Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    We present Herschel PACS 100 and 160 μm observations of the solar-type stars α Men, HD 88230 and HD 210277, which form part of the FGK stars sample of the Herschel open time key programme (OTKP) DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Our observations show small infrared excesses at 160 μm for all three stars. HD 210277 also shows a small excess at 100 μm, while the 100 μm fluxes of α Men and HD 88230 agree with the stellar photospheric predictions. We attribute these infrared excesses to a new class of cold, faint debris discs. Both α Men and HD 88230 are spatially resolved in the PACS 160 μm images, while HD 210277 is point-like at that wavelength. The projected linear sizes of the extended emission lie in the range from ~115 to ≤ 250 AU. The estimated black body temperatures from the 100 and 160 μm fluxes are ≲22 K, and the fractional luminosity of the cold dust is L_dust/L_⋆ ~ 10^-6, close to the luminosity of the solar-system’s Kuiper belt. These debris discs are the coldest and faintest discs discovered so far around mature stars, so they cannot be explained easily invoking “classical” debris disc models.
  • Publication
    DUst around NEarby Stars. The survey observational results
    (EDP Sciencies, 2013-07) Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. Methods. We used Herschel/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 μm were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 μm, and at 250, 350 and 500 μm using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 μm to detect the stellar photosphere. Results. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of ~12.1% ± 5% before Herschel to ~20.2% ± 2%. A significant fraction (~52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70–160 μm range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age.
  • Publication
    Cold DUst around NEarby Stars (DUNES). First results. A resolved exo-Kuiper belt around the solar-like star ζ2 Ret
    (EDP Sciencies, 2010-07) Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    We present the first far-IR observations of the solar-type stars δ Pav, HR 8501, 51 Peg and ζ^2 Ret, taken within the context of the DUNES Herschel open time key programme (OTKP). This project uses the PACS and SPIRE instruments with the objective of studying infrared excesses due to exo-Kuiper belts around nearby solar-type stars. The observed 100 μm fluxes from δ Pav, HR 8501, and 51 Peg agree with the predicted photospheric fluxes, excluding debris disks brighter than L_dust/L_* ~ 5 x 10^-7 (1σ level) around those stars. A flattened, disk-like structure with a semi-major axis of ~100 AU in size is detected around ζ2 Ret. The resolved structure suggests the presence of an eccentric dust ring, which we interpret as an exo-Kuiper belt with L_dust/L_* ≈ 10^-5.
  • Publication
    Gaia FGK benchmark stars: abundances of α and iron-peak elements
    (EDP Sciencies, 2015-10) González Hernández, J. I.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Tabernero, H. M.; otros, ...
    Context. In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance. Aims. We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars. Methods. By analysing high-resolution spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determine abundances on a line-by-line basis. We performed a detailed homogeneous analysis of the systematic uncertainties, such as differential versus absolute abundance analysis. We also assessed errors that are due to non-local thermal equilibrium and the stellar parameters in our final abundances. Results. Our results are provided by listing final abundances and the different sources of uncertainties, as well as line-by-line and method-by-method abundances. Conclusions. The atmospheric parameters of the Gaia FGK benchmark stars are already being widely used for calibration of several pipelines that are applied to different surveys. With the added reference abundances of ten elements, this set is very suitable for calibrating the chemical abundances obtained by these pipelines.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Photospheric parameters of target stars from high-resolution spectroscopy
    (EDP Sciences S A, 2018-07-03) Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    Context. The new CARMENES instrument comprises two high-resolution and high-stability spectrographs that are used to search for habitable planets around M dwarfs in the visible and near-infrared regime via the Doppler technique. Aims. Characterising our target sample is important for constraining the physical properties of any planetary systems that are detected. The aim of this paper is to determine the fundamental stellar parameters of the CARMENES M-dwarf target sample from high-resolution spectra observed with CARMENES. We also include several M-dwarf spectra observed with other high-resolution spectrographs, that is CAFE, FEROS, and HRS, for completeness. Methods. We used a chi(2) method to derive the stellar parameters effective temperature T-eff, surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] of the target stars by fitting the most recent version of the PHOENIX-ACES models to high-resolution spectroscopic data. These stellar atmosphere models incorporate a new equation of state to describe spectral features of low-temperature stellar atmospheres. Since Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] show degeneracies, the surface gravity is determined independently using stellar evolutionary models. Results. We derive the stellar parameters for a total of 300 stars. The fits achieve very good agreement between the PHOENIX models and observed spectra. We estimate that our method provides parameters with uncertainties of sigma(Teff) = 51 K, sigma(logg) = 0 : 07, and sigma[(Fe/H)] = 0.16, and show that atmosphere models for low-mass stars have significantly improved in the last years. Our work also provides an independent test of the new PHOENIX-ACES models, and a comparison for other methods using low-resolution spectra. In particular, our effective temperatures agree well with literature values, while metallicities determined with our method exhibit a larger spread when compared to literature results.
  • Publication
    CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs III. Rotation and activity from high-resolution spectroscopic observations
    (EDP Sciences S A, 2018-06-18) Montes Gutiérrez, David; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; otros, ...
    CARMENES is a spectrograph for radial velocity surveys of M dwarfs with the aim of detecting Earth-mass planets orbiting in the habitable zones of their host stars. To ensure an optimal use of the CARMENES guaranteed time observations, in this paper we investigate the correlation of activity and rotation for approximately 2200 M dwarfs, ranging in spectral type from M0.0V to M9.0V. We present new high-resolution spectroscopic observations with FEROS, CAFE, and HRS of approximately 500 M dwarfs. For each new observation, we determined its radial velocity and measured its H alpha activity index and its rotation velocity. Additionally, we have multiple observations of many stars to investigate if there are any radial velocity variations due to multiplicity. The results of our survey confirm that early-M dwarfs are H alpha inactive with low rotational velocities and that late-M dwarfs are H alpha active with very high rotational velocities. The results of this high-resolution analysis comprise the most extensive catalogue of rotation and activity in M dwarfs currently available.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf
    (EDP Sciencies, 2018-02-08) Montes Gutiérrez, David; Cortés Contreras, Miriam; otros, ...
    We report on the first star discovered to host a planet detected by radial velocity (RV) observations obtained within the CARMENES survey for exoplanets around M dwarfs. HD 147379 (V = 8.9 mag, M = 0.58 +/- 0.08 M-circle dot), a bright M0.0 V star at a distance of 10.7 pc, is found to undergo periodic RV variations with a semi-amplitude of K = 5.1 +/- 0.4 m s(-1) and a period of P = 86.54 +/- 0.06 d. The RV signal is found in our CARMENES data, which were taken between 2016 and 2017, and is supported by HIRES/Keck observations that were obtained since 2000. The RV variations are interpreted as resulting from a planet of minimum mass m(P) sin i = 25 +/- 2 M-circle plus, 1.5 times the mass of Neptune, with an orbital semi-major axis a = 0.32 au and low eccentricity (e < 0.13). HD 147379 b is orbiting inside the temperate zone around the star, where water could exist in liquid form. The RV time-series and various spectroscopic indicators show additional hints of variations at an approximate period of 21.1 d (and its first harmonic), which we attribute to the rotation period of the star.
  • Publication
    The CARMENES Search for Exoplanets around M Dwarfs: A Low-mass Planet in the Temperate Zone of the Nearby K2-18
    (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2018-06) Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    K2-18 is a nearby M2.5 dwarf, located at 34 pc and hosting a transiting planet that was first discovered by the K2 mission and later confirmed with Spitzer Space Telescope observations. With a radius of similar to 2 R-circle plus and an orbital period of similar to 33 days, the planet lies in the temperate zone of its host star and receives stellar irradiation similar to that of Earth. Here we perform radial velocity follow-up observations with the visual channel of CARMENES with the goal of determining the mass and density of the planet. We measure a planetary semi-amplitude of K-b similar to 3.5 m s(-1). and a mass of M-b similar to 9 M-circle plus, yielding a bulk density around rho(b) similar to 4 g cm(-3). This indicates a low-mass planet with a composition consistent with a solid core and a volatile-rich envelope. A signal at 9 days was recently reported using radial velocity measurements taken with the HARPS spectrograph. This was interpreted as being due to a second planet. We see a weaker, time-and wavelength-dependent signal in the CARMENES data set and thus favor stellar activity for its origin. K2-18 b joins the growing group of low-mass planets detected in the temperate zone of M dwarfs. The brightness of the host star in the near-infrared makes the system a good target for detailed atmospheric studies with the James Webb Space Telescope.
  • Publication
    Exoplanets around Low-mass Stars Unveiled by K2
    (IOP Publishing ltd, 2018-03) Montes Gutiérrez, David; otros, ...
    We present the detection and follow-up observations of planetary candidates around low-mass stars observed by the K2 mission. Based on light-curve analysis, adaptive-optics imaging, and optical spectroscopy at low and high resolution (including radial velocity measurements), we validate 16 planets around 12 low-mass stars observed during K2 campaigns 5-10. Among the 16 planets, 12 are newly validated, with orbital periods ranging from 0.96 to 33 days. For one of the planets (K2-151b), we present ground-based transit photometry, allowing us to refine the ephemerides. Combining our K2 M-dwarf planets together with the validated or confirmed planets found previously, we investigate the dependence of planet radius R-p on stellar insolation and metallicity [Fe/H]. We confirm that for periods P less than or similar to 2 days, planets with a radius R-p greater than or similar to 2 R-circle plus are less common than planets with a radius between 1-2 R-circle plus. We also see a hint of the "radius valley" between 1.5 and 2 R-circle plus, which has been seen for close-in planets around FGK stars. These features in the radius/period distribution could be attributed to photoevaporation of planetary envelopes by high-energy photons from the host star, as they have for FGK stars. For the M dwarfs, though, the features are not as well defined, and we cannot rule out other explanations such as atmospheric loss from internal planetary heat sources or truncation of the protoplanetary disk. There also appears to be a relation between planet size and metallicity: the few planets larger than about 3 R-circle plus are found around the most metal-rich M dwarfs.
  • Publication
    CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs II. High-resolution imaging with FastCam
    (EDP Sciencies, 2017-01) Cortés Contreras, Miriam; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; otros, ...
    Aims. We search for low-mass companions of M dwarfs and characterize their multiplicity fraction with the purpose of helping in the selection of the most appropriate targets for the CARMENES exoplanet survey. Methods. We obtained high-resolution images in the I band with the lucky imaging instrument FastCam at the 1.5m Telescopio Carlos Sanchez for 490 mid-to late-M dwarfs. For all the detected binaries, we measured angular separations, position angles, and magnitude differences in the I band. We also calculated the masses of each individual component and estimated orbital periods, using the available magnitude and colour relations for M dwarfs and our own M-J-spectral type and mass-M-I relations. To avoid biases in our sample selection, we built a volume-limited sample of M0.0-M5.0 dwarfs that is complete up to 86% within 14 pc. Results. From the 490 observed stars, we detected 80 companions in 76 systems, of which 30 are new discoveries. Another six companion candidates require additional astrometry to confirm physical binding. The multiplicity fraction in our observed sample is 16.7 +/- 2.0%. The bias-corrected multiplicity fraction in our volume-limited sample is 19.5 +/- 2.3% for angular separations of 0.2 to 5.0 arcsec (1.4-65.6 au), with a peak in the distribution of the projected physical separations at 2.5-7.5 au. For M0.0-M3.5V primaries, our search is sensitive to mass ratios higher than 0.3 and there is a higher density of pairs with mass ratios over 0.8 compared to those at lower mass ratios. Binaries with projected physical separations shorter than 50 au also tend to be of equal mass. For 26 of our systems, we estimated orbital periods shorter than 50 a, 10 of which are presented here for the first time. We measured variations in angular separation and position angle that are due to orbital motions in 17 of these systems. The contribution of binaries and multiples with angular separations shorter than 0.2 arcsec, longer than 5.0 arcsec, and of spectroscopic binaries identified from previous searches, although not complete, may increase the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs in our volume-limited sample to at least 36%.