Person: Barandica Fernández, Jesús María
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución
Now showing 1 - 10 of 13
- PublicationEnseñar Ecología hoy: abandonando la tarima para jugar con el mundo real(2020-02-04) López-Pintor Alcón, Antonio; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Calatayud Estrada, María Luisa; Heras Puñal, María Paloma de las; Morcillo Alonso, Felipe; Serrano Talavera, José Manuel; Bourqqia, Marwane
- PublicationConceptual basis for an integrated system for the management of a protected area. Examples from its application in a mediterranean area(Elsevier, 2016-01) Cornejo Montoro, Enrique; García Fungairiño, Sara; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Serrano Talavera, José Manuel; Martín Zorrila, Juan Vicente; Gómez, T.; Zapata, F.J.; Acosta Salmerón, Francisco JavierImproving the efficiency of management in protected areas is imperative in a generalized context of limited conservation budgets. However, this is overlooked due to flaws in problem definition, general disregard for cost information, and a lack of suitable tools for measuring costs and management quality. This study describes an innovative methodological framework, implemented in the web application SIGEIN, focused on maximizing the quality of management against its costs, establishing an explicit justification for any decision. The tool integrates, with this aim, a procedure for prioritizing management objects according to a conservation value, modified by a functional criterion; a project management module; and a module for management of continuous assessment. This appraisal associates the relevance of the conservation targets, the efficacy of the methods employed, both resource and personnel investments, and the resulting costs. Preliminary results of a prototypical SIGEIN application on the Site of Community Importance Chafarinas Islands are included.
- PublicationExamining potential environmental consequences of climate change and other driving forces on the sustainability of spanish olive groves under a socio-ecological approach(MDPI, 2020-10-29) Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio Alberto; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Aguilera, Pedro A.; Rescia Perazzo, Alejandro JavierOlive groves form characteristic Mediterranean socio-ecological landscapes, occupying more than 5 M ha; 2.5 M ha in Spain. In recent decades, traditional extensive management of olive groves has shifted to an intensive regime, with some cases of abandonment. These situations triggered negative environmental and economic externalities that led farmers to adopt increasingly multifunctional management models. From a transdisciplinary perspective, the current state of Spanish olive groves was analyzed, assessing their vulnerability to climate change as one of the main threats to their sustainability. Based on our findings and assuming that by 2050, in the Mediterranean, there will be an increase in temperature of 0.8–2.3 ◦C and a decrease in rainfall of up to 200 mm per year, a displacement of the distribution area of olive groves is expected towards zones of lower temperature and higher moisture. The predicted climatic conditions would increase evapotranspiration of vegetation and atmospheric CO2 emissions. Moreover, climate change will reduce the chill accumulation in olive groves, altering its flowering, fructification and crop yields. Thus, it is necessary to adopt management models that promote olive grove resilience in face of climate change, ensuring their socio-ecological sustainability.
- PublicationOpportunities for GHG emissions reduction in road projects: a comparative evaluation of emissions scenarios using CO2NSTRUCT(Elsevier, 2015-10) Fernández-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Berzosa, Álvaro; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Cornejo Montoro, Enrique; Serrano Talavera, José ManuelIn the road construction sector, a number of measures and alternatives have been proposed to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). While these measures can result in a notable abatement of this impact, when analyzed independently and in absolute terms, they are not equally relevant within a common context, such as a complete road transport infrastructure project. In this work, we analyze a broad range of scenarios for emission reduction combining plausible options given the current state of technology and involving those elements of road construction and maintenance with major contributions to the total balance of emissions. The selection of scenarios goes beyond the usual perspectives focused on pavements and materials, and includes other factors dealing with machinery, transport distance, energy sources, land-use change, as well as combined scenarios intended to find optimal alternatives. This has been achieved using the tool CO2NSTRUCT, which considers a life-cycle assessment approach for road transport infrastructure in evaluating GHG emission, thus providing an adequately comprehensive context for comparing relative contributions. This common reference enables to accomplish the ranking of the possible solutions. Results indicate that strategies involving the use of construction materials with lower emissions in their production process and recycled materials are the most effective, followed by those using lower-pollutant sources of energy in both off-road and transport machinery and lighting. This research also shows that the process of selection of suitable options should consider not only the construction stage but also the maintenance stage spanning road service life. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the importance of performing these analyses within a reference framework, enabling the identification of more efficient strategies amongst the universe of alternative solutions to mitigate GHG emissions.
- PublicationA multifunctional assessment of integrated and ecological farming in olive agroecosystems in southwestern Spain using the Analytic Hierarchy Process(Elsevier, 2020-03-24) Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio Alberto; Parra López, G.; Sayadi-Gmada, Samir; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Rescia Perazzo, Alejandro JavierOlive agroecosystems have for several decades undergone management changes aimed to meet the demands of new agricultural policy trends and of consumers and society. While the main role of olive groves is the production of olives and oil, its multifunctional performance is supported through the European and regional legislative framework, promoting the recognition of non-productive ecosystem services provided by agriculture to society. The objective of this work is to compare two types of olive grove management (integrated and ecological) under the multifunctionality of agriculture (MFA) approach, in Estepa (Andalusia, Spain). To this end, environmental, economic and social indicators were considered. Subsequently, the multifunctional behaviour of olive groves under different management schemes was evaluated using the multicriteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology. Ecological farming presented greater valuation in the satisfaction of social demands, with better weightings in all the indicators evaluated, except for farm income and Lepidoptera richness. Thus, the implementation of practices related to ecological management leads to a greater multifunctionality of olive groves. It is thus fundamental that multi-scale policies consider the value of the environmental externalities of this type of management, favouring its implementation to contribute positively to the multifunctionality and sustainability of olive groves in Andalusia.
- PublicationEstimation of Soil Loss Tolerance in Olive Groves as an Indicator of Sustainability: The Case of the Estepa Region (Andalusia, Spain)(MDPI, 2019-11-21) Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio Alberto; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Rescia Perazzo, Alejandro JavierSpain is the world’s leading producer of olive oil, with the largest number of olive agro-systems in the Andalusia region. However, rural migration, low profitability, and biophysical limitations to production have compromised their sustainability. Soil erosion is the main cause of declining production and must be controlled to sustain production and keep soil loss below a threshold (soil loss tolerance, SLT). In this paper, the Soil Loss Tolerance Index (SLTI) for non-specific crops was calculated, theoretically, in different Andalusian olive-growing areas. A new Soil Loss Tolerance Index specifically for olive groves was developed (SLTIog) using soil variables related to erosion corresponding to the Estepa region. This index and the Soil Productive Index (SPI) were estimated. Andalusian olive groves with severe erosion were unsustainable for a 150-year period according to SLTI. However, applying the SLTIog in olive groves of Estepa, soil loss was not unsustainable. Although no statistically significant differences were detected between the two SLT indices, the consideration of specific soil variables in the SLTIog made it more accurate and reliable for the assessment of potential long-term sustainability. The use of specific indices for olive groves can inform the adoption of management measures to maintain productivity and support conservation.
- PublicationEcological and economic sustainability in olivegroves with different irrigation management and levels of erosion: a case study(MDPI, 2019-08-28) Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio Alberto; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Rescia Perazzo, Alejandro JavierIn the last 50 years, both the agricultural labour force and irrigated land area have increased almost eightfold in Spain. The main objective of irrigation, in the short term, is to increase agricultural production. However, in the long term, the environmental externalities of irrigation and its direct relationship with soil erosion processes are more uncertain and still poorly studied. In this study, in an olive-growing region of Andalusia, Spain, the variation of several soil parameters related to irrigation and erosion levels was analysed. The results showed that irrigation, while increasing the productive level of the olive groves, entails a progressive alteration of the soil, modifying physical aspects (greater compaction and humidity of the soil together with lower gravel content, porosity and soil weight) and chemical aspects (reduction of the organic matter of the soil and the content of nitrates) that can aggravate the consequences of the erosive processes. In the long term, the productive benefit attributed to irrigation could be unsustainable from an ecological and, consequently, economic point of view. In addition, the lack of sustainability of olive irrigation agroecosystems could be exacerbated by the future restrictive impacts of climate change on water resources in Mediterranean environments. This situation demands spatial planning and alternative management based on soil conservation and rational and efficient forms of irrigation to ensure the sustainability of olive groves and their economic viability.
- PublicationImpacts of erosion on the sustainability of organic olive groves: a case study (Estepa Region, Southwestern Spain)(MDPI, 2021-07-16) Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio Alberto; Parra López, Carlos; Sayadi Gmada, Samir; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Rescia Perazzo, Alejandro JavierSpain has more than 2.5 M ha of olive groves, with 60% of this area (i.e., 1.5 M ha) concentrated in the region of Andalusia (Southern Spain). Assuming the socio-ecological characteristics of these crops, of which their contribution to ecosystemic services (ES) is fundamental for society, it is highly relevant to direct their management towards practices that guarantee their durability. Organic management of olive groves constitutes a multifunctional model that contributes to ensuring its sustainability and represents 2.4–3.5% of the olive grove area in Spain. Taking the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Estepa (Southwestern Spain) as a study model, where organic olive groves are novel, a study of the impacts of erosion on the economic, social, and environmental factors associated with this management was carried out in addition to estimating its impacts. The results showed how organic management promotes edaphic fertility, keeping the levels of diffuse pollution under the legislative limits. Although the increase in erosion has negative effects on the sustainability/durability of agricultural holdings, organic management consolidates a sustainable model that satisfies farmers’ demands. Therefore, organic farming is a model that focuses on the correct use of natural resources associated with the geographical region of study, and contributes to increasing the sustainability of olive groves.
- PublicationApplication of a dynamic model using agronomic and economic data to evaluate the sustainability of the olive grove landscape of Estepa (Andalusia, Spain)(Springer, 2019-07) Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio Alberto; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Sanz-Cañada, Javier; Rescia Perazzo, Alejandro JavierContext In the Andalusia region (Spain), olive grove agro-systems cover a wide area, forming social-ecological landscapes. Recent socioeconomic changes have increased the vulnerability of these landscapes, resulting in the abandonment and intensification of farms. The provision of the main ecosystem services of these landscapes have thus been degraded. Objectives To analyse the sustainability of an olive grove social-ecological landscape in Andalusia. Specifically, to develop a quantitative model proposing land planning and management scenarios, considering abandonment, production and economic benefits of olive crops in different conditions of erosion and management. Methods We applied a dynamic model using agronomic and economic data, to evaluate different types of olive management. We considered different levels of erosion, the loss of production related to this erosion, and useful life spans for each type of management. We simulated scenarios for the long-term assessment of dynamics of crops, abandonment rate, production and benefits. Results (a) There was a loss of productive lands and benefits in the medium term in the more intensive crops. (b) Scenarios that partially incorporated ecological management proved to be more sustainable without economic subsidies. (c) The spatial combination of integrated, intensive and ecological plots was sustainable, and was well balanced from an economic, productive and ecological point of view. Conclusions Scenarios that partially incorporate ecological management allowed the best economic and environmental balance. However, to ensure the sustainability of olive landscapes, farmers should be financially rewarded for their role in the conservation of ecosystem services through landscape stewardship and direct environmental payments.
- PublicationA New Proposal for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Responsibility Allocation: Best Available Technologies Approach(Wiley, 2014-01) Berzosa, Álvaro; Barandica Fernández, Jesús María; Fernández-Sánchez, GonzaloIn recent years, several methodologies have been developed for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, determining who is responsible for these emissions is also quite challenging. The most common approach is to assign emissions to the producer (based on the Kyoto Protocol), but proposals also exist for its allocation to the consumer (based on an ecological footprint perspective) and for a hybrid approach called shared responsibility. In this study, the existing proposals and standards regarding the allocation of GHG emissions responsibilities are analyzed, focusing on their main advantages and problems. A new model of shared responsibility that overcomes some of the existing problems is also proposed. This model is based on applying the best available technologies (BATs). This new approach allocates the responsibility between the producers and the final consumers based on the real capacity of each agent to reduce emissions. The proposed approach is demonstrated using a simple case study of a 4‐step life cycle of ammonia nitrate (AN) fertilizer production. The proposed model has the characteristics that the standards and publications for assignment of GHG emissions responsibilities demand. This study presents a new way to assign responsibilities that pushes all the actors in the production chain, including consumers, to reduce pollution.