Person: Rojas López, María Blanca
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Inmunología, Oftalmología y ORL
Now showing 1 - 10 of 13
- PublicationMicroglia in mouse retina contralateral to experimental glaucoma exhibit multiple signs of activation in all retinal layers(BioMed Central Ltd., 2014-07-26) Rojas López, María Blanca; Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Valiente Soriano, Francisco Javier; Avilés Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas Pérez, María Paz; Vidal Sanz, Manuel; Triviño Casado, AlbertoBackground: Glaucomatous optic neuropathy, a leading cause of blindness, can progress despite control of intraocular pressure - currently the main risk factor and target for treatment. Glaucoma progression shares mechanisms with neurodegenerative disease, including microglia activation. In the present model of ocular hypertension (OHT), we have recently described morphological signs of retinal microglia activation and MHC-II upregulation in both the untreated contralateral eyes and OHT eyes. By using immunostaining, we sought to analyze and quantify additional signs of microglia activation and differences depending on the retinal layer. Methods: Two groups of adult Swiss mice were used: age-matched control (nai¨ve, n = 12), and lasered (n = 12). In the lasered animals, both OHT eyes and contralateral eyes were analyzed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against Iba-1, MHC-II, CD68, CD86, and Ym1. The Iba-1+ cell number in the plexiform layers (PL) and the photoreceptor outer segment (OS), Iba-1+ arbor area in the PL, and area of the retina occupied by Iba-1+ cells in the nerve fiber layer-ganglion cell layer (NFL-GCL) were quantified. Results: The main findings in contralateral eyes and OHT eyes were: i) ameboid microglia in the NFL-GCL and OS; ii) the retraction of processes in all retinal layers; iii) a higher level of branching in PL and in the OS; iv) soma displacement to the nearest cell layers in the PL and OS; v) the reorientation of processes in the OS; vi) MHC-II upregulation in all retinal layers; vii) increased CD68 immunostaining; and viii) CD86 immunolabeling in ameboid cells. In comparison with the control group, a significant increase in the microglial number in the PL, OS, and in the area occupied by Iba-1+ cells in the NFL-GCL, and significant reduction of the arbor area in the PL. In addition, rounded Iba-1+ CD86+ cells in the NFL-GCL, OS and Ym1+ cells, and rod-like microglia in the NFL-GCL were restricted to OHT eyes. Conclusions: Several quantitative and qualitative signs of microglia activation are detected both in the contralateral and OHT eyes. Such activation extended beyond the GCL, involving all retinal layers. Differences between the two eyes could help to elucidate glaucoma pathophysiology.
- PublicationAutomatic Counting of Microglial Cells in Healthy and Glaucomatous Mouse Retinas(Public Library of Science, 2015-11-18) Gracia Pacheco, Pablo de; Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Triviño Casado, Alberto; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelProliferation of microglial cells has been considered a sign of glial activation and a hallmark of ongoing neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia activation is analyzed in animal models of different eye diseases. Numerous retinal samples are required for each of these studies to obtain relevant data of statistical significance. Because manual quantification of microglial cells is time consuming, the aim of this study was develop an algorithm for automatic identification of retinal microglia. Two groups of adult male Swiss mice were used: age-matched controls (naïve, n = 6) and mice subjected to unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (lasered; n = 9). In the latter group, both hypertensive eyes and contralateral untreated retinas were analyzed. Retinal whole mounts were immunostained with anti Iba-1 for detecting microglial cell populations. A new algorithm was developed in MATLAB for microglial quantification; it enabled the quantification of microglial cells in the inner and outer plexiform layers and evaluates the area of the retina occupied by Iba-1+ microglia in the nerve fiber-ganglion cell layer. The automatic method was applied to a set of 6,000 images. To validate the algorithm, mouse retinas were evaluated both manually and computationally; the program correctly assessed the number of cells (Pearson correlation R = 0.94 and R = 0.98 for the inner and outer plexiform layers respectively). Statistically significant differences in glial cell number were found between naïve, lasered eyes and contralateral eyes (P<0.05, naïve versus contralateral eyes; P<0.001, naïve versus lasered eyes and contralateral versus lasered eyes). The algorithm developed is a reliable and fast tool that can evaluate the number of microglial cells in naïve mouse retinas and in retinas exhibiting proliferation. The implementation of this new automatic method can enable faster quantification of microglial cells in retinal pathologies.
- PublicationRod-Like Microglia Are Restricted to Eyes with Laser-Induced Ocular Hypertension but Absent from the Microglial Changes in the Contralateral Untreated Eye(Public Library Science, 2013-12-18) Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Rojas López, María Blanca; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Valiente Soriano, Francisco Javier; Avilés Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas Pérez, María Paz; Vidal Sanz, Manuel; Triviño Casado, Alberto; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelIn the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naive. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i) microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii) the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naive, n=15); and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15); and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3). In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure) no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naive eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+ RGCs). Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+ RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.
- PublicationIOP induces upregulation of GFAP and MHC-II and microglia reactivity in mice retina contralateral to experimental glaucoma(BioMed Central Ltd, 2012-05-12) Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salinas Navarro, Manuel Ángel; Ortín Martínez, Arturo; Valiente Soriano, Francisco Javier; Avilés Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas Pérez, María Paz; Vidal Sanz, Manuel; Triviño Casado, Alberto; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelBackground Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by an irreversible decrease in ganglion cells and their axons. Macroglial and microglial cells appear to play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Here, we study the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) in the macroglia, microglia and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of eyes with OHT (OHT-eyes) and contralateral eyes two weeks after lasering. Methods Two groups of adult Swiss mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n = 9); and lasered (n = 9). In the lasered animals, both OHT-eyes and contralateral eyes were analyzed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), neurofilament of 200kD (NF-200), ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1) and major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC-II). The GFAP-labeled retinal area (GFAP-RA), the intensity of GFAP immunoreaction (GFAP-IR), and the number of astrocytes and NF-200 + RGCs were quantified. Results In comparison with naïve: i) astrocytes were more robust in contralateral eyes. In OHT-eyes, the astrocyte population was not homogeneous, given that astrocytes displaying only primary processes coexisted with astrocytes in which primary and secondary processes could be recognized, the former having less intense GFAP-IR (P < 0.001); ii) GFAP-RA was increased in contralateral (P <0.05) and decreased in OHT-eyes (P <0.001); iii) the mean intensity of GFAP-IR was higher in OHT-eyes (P < 0.01), and the percentage of the retinal area occupied by GFAP+ cells with higher intensity levels was increased in contralateral (P = 0.05) and in OHT-eyes (P < 0.01); iv) both in contralateral and in OHT-eyes, GFAP was upregulated in Müller cells and microglia was activated; v) MHC-II was upregulated on macroglia and microglia. In microglia, it was similarly expressed in contralateral and OHT-eyes. By contrast, in macroglia, MHC-II upregulation was observed mainly in astrocytes in contralateral eyes and in Müller cells in OHT-eyes; vi) NF-200+RGCs (degenerated cells) appeared in OHT-eyes with a trend for the GFAP-RA to decrease and for the NF-200+RGC number to increase from the center to the periphery (r = −0.45). Conclusion The use of the contralateral eye as an internal control in experimental induction of unilateral IOP should be reconsidered. The gliotic behavior in contralateral eyes could be related to the immune response. The absence of NF-200+RGCs (sign of RGC degeneration) leads us to postulate that the MHC-II upregulation in contralateral eyes could favor neuroprotection.
- PublicationRetinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016-04-14) Hoz Montañana, Rosa de; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel; Triviño Casado, Alberto; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelDue to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes andM¨uller cells (retinal macroglia) provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors.Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases.The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.
- PublicationAnalysis of Retinal Peripapillary Segmentation in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Patients(Hindawi Publising Corp., 2015-06-08) García Martín, Elena Salobrar; Hoyas, Irene; Leal, Mercedes; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Yubero Pancorbo, Raquel; Gil, Pedro; Triviño Casado, Alberto; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelDecreased thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may reflect retinal neuronal-ganglion cell death. A decrease in the RNFL has been demonstrated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in addition to aging by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twenty-three mild-AD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini-Mental State Examination 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision, were considered for study. OCT peripapillary and macular segmentation thickness were examined in the right eye of each patient. Compared to controls, eyes of patients with mild-AD patients showed no statistical difference in peripapillary RNFL thickness (P>0.05); however, sectors 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 of the papilla showed thinning, while in sectors 1, 5, 6, 7, and 10 there was thickening. Total macular volume and RNFL thickness of the fovea in all four inner quadrants and in the outer temporal quadrants proved to be significantly decreased (P<0.01). Despite the fact that peripapillary RNFL thickness did not statistically differ in comparison to control eyes, the increase in peripapillary thickness in our mild-AD patients could correspond to an early neurodegeneration stage and may entail the existence of an inflammatory process that could lead to progressive peripapillary fiber damage.
- Publication“Super p53” Mice Display Retinal Astroglial Changes(Public Library Science, 2013-06-07) Salazar Corral, Juan José; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Pinazo-Durán, María Dolores; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Serrano Espinosa, Manuel; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelTumour-suppressor genes, such as the p53 gene, produce proteins that inhibit cell division under adverse conditions, as in the case of DNA damage, radiation, hypoxia, or oxidative stress (OS). The p53 gene can arrest proliferation and trigger death by apoptosis subsequent to several factors. In astrocytes, p53 promotes cell-cycle arrest and is involved in oxidative stress-mediated astrocyte cell death. Increasingly, astrocytic p53 is proving fundamental in orchestrating neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. In terms of ocular disease, p53 may play a role in hypoxia due to ischaemia and may be involved in the retinal response to oxidative stress (OS). We studied the influence of the p53 gene in the structural and quantitative characteristics of astrocytes in the retina. Adult mice of the C57BL/6 strain (12 months old) were distributed into two groups: 1) mice with two extra copies of p53 (“super p53”; n = 6) and 2) wild-type p53 age-matched control, as the control group (WT; n = 6). Retinas from each group were immunohistochemically processed to locate the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP+ astrocytes were manually counted and the mean area occupied for one astrocyte was quantified. Retinal-astrocyte distribution followed established patterns; however, morphological changes were seen through the retinas in relation to p53 availability. The mean GFAP+ area occupied by one astrocyte in “super p53” eyes was significantly higher (p<0.05; Student’s t-test) than in the WT. In addition, astroglial density was significantly higher in the “super p53” retinas than in the WT ones, both in the whole-retina (p<0,01 Student’s t-test) and in the intermediate and peripheral concentric areas of the retina (p<0.05 Student’s t-test). This fact might improve the resistance of the retinal cells against OS and its downstream signalling pathways.
- PublicationMacroglial and retinal changes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits after normalization of cholesterol levels(Elsevier, 2006-09-26) Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ruiz, Emilio; Tejerina Sánchez, Teresa; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose Manuel; Triviño Casado, AlbertoThis study evaluates hypercholesterolemic rabbits, examining the retinal changes in Müller cells and astrocytes as well as their variations after a period of normal blood-cholesterol values induced by a standard diet. New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: G0, fed a standard diet; G1A, fed a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 months; and G1B, fed as G1A followed by standard diet for 6 months. Eyes were processed for transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (GFAP). While G1B resembled G0 more than did G1A, they shared alterations with G1A: a) as in G1A, Müller cells were GFAP+, filled spaces left by axonal degeneration, formed glial scars and their nuclei were displaced to the nerve-fibre layer. The area occupied by the astrocytes associated with the nerve-fibre bundles (AANFB) and by perivascular astrocytes (PVA) in G1A and G1B was significantly lower than in controls. However, no significant differences in PVA were found between G1A and G1B. In G1B, type I PVA was absent and replaced by hypertrophic type II cells; b) Bruch's membrane (BM) was thinner in G1B than in G1A; c) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cytoplasm contained fewer lipids in G1B than in G1A; d) in G1A and G1B choriocapillaris and retinal vessel showed alterations with respect to G0; e) cell death and axonal degeneration in the retina were similar in G1A and G1B. The substitution of a hyperlipemic diet by a standard one normalizes blood-lipid levels. However, the persistence of damage at retinal vessels and BM-RPE could trigger chronic ischemia.
- PublicationOphthalmologic Psychophysical Tests Support OCT Findings in Mild Alzheimer's Disease(HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION, 2015-05-20) García Martín, Elena Salobrar; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Yubero Pancorbo, Raquel; Gil Gregorio, Pedro; Triviño Casado, Alberto; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose ManuelPurpose. To analyze in mild Alzheimer's disease (MAD) patients, GDS-4 (Reisberg Scale), whether or not some psychophysical tests (PTs) support OCT macular findings in the same group of MAD patients reported previously. Methods. Twenty-three MAD patients and 28 age-matched control subjects with mean Mini Mental State Examination of 23.3 and 28.2, respectively, with no ocular disease or systemic disorders affecting vision were included. Best-corrected visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) (3, 6, 12, and 18 cpds), color perception (CP), and perception digital test (PDT) were tested in one eye of each patient. Results. In comparison with the controls, MAD patients presented (i) a significant decrease in VA, PDT, and CS for all spatial frequencies analyzed, especially the higher ones, and (ii) a significant increase in unspecific errors on the blue axis (P < 0.05 in all instances). In MAD patients, a wide a ROC curve was plotted in all PTs. Conclusions. In MAD, CS, VA, and the tritan axis in CP were impaired. The PTs with the greatest predictive value are the higher spatial frequencies in CS and tritan unspecific errors in CP. PT abnormalities are consistent with the structural findings reported in the same MAD patients using OCT.
- PublicationEffects of Hypercholesterolaemia in the Retina(Adedayo Adio, editor, 2012-09-19) Triviño Casado, Alberto; Rojas López, María Blanca; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose Manuel; Hoz Montañana, María Rosa de; Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel; Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel; Salazar Corral, Juan José; InTech, Open Access Publisher