Person: Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Psicología Social, Trabajo y Diferencial
Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológico
Now showing 1 - 10 of 19
- PublicationMatutinidad-vespertinidad y ansiedad rasgo en adolescentes(Universidad de Murcia, 2013) Collado Mateo, María José; Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, Cristina; Delgado Prieto, PedroEl objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la relación entre la matutinidad-vespertinidad y la ansiedad rasgo en adolescentes. La muestra estaba formada por 638 adolescentes de 12 a 14 años. Se midió la matutinidadvespertinidad mediante la Escala de Matutinidad-Vespertinidad para Niños, MESC (Carskadon, Vieira y Acebo, 1993) y la ansiedad rasgo mediante el Inventario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo para niños, STAIC (Spielberger, Edwards, Lushene, Montuori y Platzek, 1973; Spielberger, Edwards y Lushene, 1990). Los resultados indicaron que las chicas eran más vespertinas, que la vespertinidad aumentaba con la edad y una relación negativa entre matutinidad y ansiedad rasgo. Aquellos adolescentes más vespertinos obtuvieron una mayor ansiedad rasgo, posiblemente debido a un mayor desajusteentre los ritmos biológicos y sociales (horarios escolares matutinos
- PublicationChronotype and time-of-day effects on mood during school day(Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. New York, 2015-07) Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, Cristina; Jankowski, Konrad SExisting evidence suggests an association between mood, time-of-day and Morningness-Eveningness (M-E). Since few studies have been carried out among adolescents, in this study daily mood fluctuations were analyzed in the naturalistic school context during two days in order to test how chronotype and time-of-day are related to mood during the school schedule period and check if sleep length is involved in the above relation. A sample of 655 adolescents (12-16 years) reported mood levels (current level of pleasantness) three times during school day (8:10-8:30 h, 10:20-11:40 h, 13:50-14:10 h). They also reported M-E preference and time in bed. Neither age nor sex was related to mood. However, the results indicated that regardless of chronotype mood increased throughout the school day from the lowest morning levels. Moreover, morning types showed better mood compared to other chronotypes, while evening types exhibited the lowest mood. Evening oriented students slept less than other chronotypes, but time in bed was not involved in the relationship between chronotype and mood. These results suggest that it is not shortened sleep duration responsible for decreased mood in evening oriented students.
- PublicationVoluntariado y satisfacción vital(Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid, 2005) Dávila de León, María Celeste; Díaz Morales, Juan FranciscoCon el objetivo de analizar la relación existente entre el voluntariado y la satisfacción vital, 401 voluntarios cumplimentaron un cuestionario donde se les solicitaba información sobre su satisfacción vital, el tiempo previo que llevaban como voluntarios y la probabilidad de que siguiesen como tales en el futuro. Los resultados encontrados muestran que existen diferencias significativas en los niveles de satisfacción experimentada en función del tipo de voluntariado estudiado: los voluntarios socioasistenciales manifiestan una mayor satisfacción vital que los voluntarios ambientales. La satisfacción vital está asociada al tiempo previo como voluntario y únicamente en el caso de los voluntarios socioasistenciales se relaciona con la probabilidad de continuar a los dos años.
- PublicationChronotype, gender, and time for sex(Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. New York, 2014) Jankowski, Konrad S; Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Randler, ChristophThe study aimed at testing chronotype and gender differences in the time of day when humans feel the greatest need for sex and the time of day they actually undertake sexual activity. A Polish sample of 565 participants aged between 18 and 57 was tested. In females, regardless of chronotype, the greatest need for sex occurred between 18:00 and 24:00, but a secondary peak appeared in morning types at 6:00-9:00. In males, the greatest need for sex occurred either in the morning or evening: in evening types at 9:00-12:00 and 18:00-3:00; in neither types at 6:00-9:00 and 18:00-24:00; in morning types at 6:00-12:00 and 18:00-24:00. Considering time of day when subjects were undertaking sexual activity most frequently, this appeared between 18:00-24:00 for all the participants, and prolonged until 3:00 at night in evening type males. Morningness preference was more strongly related to the timing of need for sex than to the timing of actual sexual activity (r = -.275 vs. r = -.174), while the timing of desire and the timing of sexual activity were positively, but moderately related (r = .320).
- PublicationChronotype, Time of Day, and Performance on Intelligence Tests in the School Setting(MPDI, 2023-01-11) Jankowski, Konrad S.; Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Vollmer, ChristianResearch suggests the existence of an association between chronotype and intellectual performance, but the nature of this link remains unclear. Studies conducted in a laboratory setting point to the synchrony effect (better performance at a person’s preferred time of day) for fluid intelligence, but not for crystallized intelligence, whereas studies that have analyzed students’ grades suggest that the effect exists for both. In the present study, we aimed to verify the synchrony effect by applying direct measures of crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, and subjective sleepiness–alertness in a sample of high school students during their morning or afternoon class. The results revealed a synchrony effect for crystallized, but not for fluid intelligence. During morning class, students with a morning chronotype performed better than evening chronotypes on a test of crystallized intelligence, whereas during afternoon class there was no difference between chronotypes. The association resulted from decreased performance during morning class in evening chronotypes that improved during afternoon class and constant performance in morning chronotypes. These effects were independent of sleepiness–alertness levels. The results suggest that individual differences between chronotypes may be important for tasks performed during morning classes, but not during afternoon ones, and that performance across school days may depend on time of day in evening chronotypes.
- PublicationMorningness-eveningness and sleep habits among adolescents: age and gender differences(2012) Collado Mateo, María José; Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, Cristina; Delgado Prieto, Pedro; Randler, ChristophPrevious research has indicated the need to use large samples in different cultural contexts in order to clarify age and gender differences on morningness-eveningness and sleep habits. The goal of our research was to study the relationship between morningness-eveningness and sleep habits in a large sample of 2,649 adolescents between 12 and 16 years. The Morningness- Eveningness Scale for Children and an adaptation of the School Sleep Habits Survey measures were used. Results indicated a greater tendency toward eveningness with age and higher eveningness in 13- and 14-year-old girls. Older adolescents claimed later rising time on weekends, later bedtime and shorter sleep length, and greater social jetlag, weekend rise time delay, and weekend bedtime delay. Girls reported earlier rising time on weekdays, later rising time on weekends, longer sleep length on weekends, and greater social jetlag and weekend rising time delay. Lastly, evening oriented adolescents claimed later rising time and bedtime, shorter sleep length on weekdays but longer sleep duration on weekends, and greater social jetlag, weekend rising time delay, and weekend bedtime delay.
- PublicationConsequences of adolescent's evening preference on psychological functioning: a review(Universidad de Murcia, 2014) Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, CristinaThis review provides an overview of the role of circadian preference in psychological functioning of adolescents taking into account their shift to eveningness during this stage of life. After a brief explanation about morningness/eveningness and other terms related, an overview of the changes that occur on three of the most important areas in the adolescent‟s life is presented: school performance, personality styles, and health. Consequences of evening preference on school achievement are considered from the analysis of the relevance of sleep debt and time-of-day in cognition and mood aspects. In general, students who are able to choose activity times coinciding with their preferred times may have a greater opportunity to optimize their performance. The personality styles and health of morning and evening types are also important factors related to school and family adaptation. At last, some recommendations and conclusions in order to promote a healthy psychological functioning are described.
- PublicationRelaciones de pareja: grado de semejanza y bienestar(2021-01-21) Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Parra Robledo, ZaidaEl presente trabajo incluye parte del material de enseñanza utilizado en las actividades prácticas de la asignatura Psicología Diferencial (Grado en Psicología, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid). La práctica “Grado de sincronía en tiempos y semejanza de género en parejas” se enmarca en el bloque de trabajo relacionado con la evaluación e investigación en estilos de personalidad y temperamento del programa de la asignatura Psicología Diferencial, en donde se considera como unidad de análisis la diada para el estudio de las diferencias interindividuales e intergrupales. En este material de enseñanza se describen los principales procedimientos y técnicas para calcular el grado de semejanza en parejas. Tras una breve introducción (1), se describe brevemente la relevancia del estudio de las relaciones de parejas como unidad de análisis (2), las teorías sobre emparejamiento selectivo (3), para posteriormente describir con ejemplos las principales técnicas estadísticas para calcular el grado de semejanza en parejas: puntuaciones diferenciales (4), correlaciones (5), parejas reales vs. aleatorias (6), perfil de semejanza (7), patrón de semejanza (8), modelo de precisión social (9), semejanza en perfiles intercambiables (10), el modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja (11), y un ejemplo extraído de una publicación en la que se usó en modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja (12). Finalmente, unas conclusiones (13) y la bibliografía (14).
- PublicationComposite scales of morningness and preferences: preliminary validity data in Peruvian undergraduates(Taylor & Francis, 2005-03-15) Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Sánchez López, María PilarThe aim of this study is to offer preliminary results about the validity of the composite morningness scale (CS) and the early/late preferences scale (PS) in a Peruvian sample. The relationship of both scales with the preferred rising and retiring times was analysed, along with the level of self-reported alertness. In Bohle et al.'s (2001) work, the relationship between morningness and preferred rising and retiring times was higher over the weekend than on weekdays. This difference explained the dispositional nature of morningness, due to the possible lesser influence of time schedules over the weekend in individuals' preferences. This result is replicated in a group of 139 Peruvian undergraduates, aged between 18 and 29 years (M = 21.73), of whom 78.4% were women. The relationship between morningness and (actual) normal rising and retiring times on weekdays and over the weekend is considered. The results partially confirm Bohle et al.'s (2001) hypothesis about preferred rising and retiring times and their relationship with the PS, and actual rising time and its relationship with the CS and PS. The differences in the level of self-reported alertness between morning, intermediate and evening-oriented groups provide support for the validity of both scales. Finally, the scores of CS and PS in Peruvian undergraduates are similar to those found by Smith et al. (2002) in university students from six countries.
- PublicationMorningness-eveningness and anxiety among adults: a matter of sex/gender?(Elsevier, 2008) Díaz Morales, Juan Francisco; Sánchez López, María PilarPeople’s health and well-being may be determined by the interaction of endogenous and external rhythms. Late chronotypes should become anxious because of the demand to perform tasks in a society oriented preferentially to morning work. In this study, we examined the relationship between morningness and anxiety in 559 adults (age range 40–63 years) from rural environments who completed morningness–eveningness and anxiety measures. Results indicated a negative correlation between morningness and anxiety in women, but not in men, suggesting the relevance of gender-related variables. When demographic characteristics were considered, women’s anxiety was predicted by low educational level and eveningness, whereas men’s anxiety was predicted by being single, having children, being unemployed, and eveningness. Some hypotheses of gender-related social roles are postulated as a possible explanation of the results.