Person:
Herrero Barbero, Paula

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First Name
Paula
Last Name
Herrero Barbero
Affiliation
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ciencias Geológicas
Department
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Active faults of El Salvador
    (Elsevier, 2021-01) Martínez Díaz, José J.; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Staller, Alejandra; Alonso Henar, Jorge; Canora Catalán, Carolina; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Tsige Beyene, Meaza; Villamor Pérez, María Pilar; Herrero Barbero, Paula; Hernández Moreno, Catalina; Hernández, Walter; Hernández, Douglas; Marroquín, Griselda; Mixco, Luis
    In this work we present a review of the current state of knowledge of the active faults in El Salvador and its seismo-tectonic implications. An updated map of active fault traces is combined with the spatial analysis of shallow seismicity, focal mechanisms, recent geodetic GPS velocities, local strain estimations and morpho-tectonic features to provide a synoptic view of the active tectonics of the El Salvador. The major faults selected as potential seismic sources bound tectonic blocks or regions that include GPS sites with consistent relative velocity vectors. We propose several active tectonic domains along El Salvador controlled by three current deformation regimes: a crustal block in the forearc sliver dominated by rigid westward translation with the faster and more homogeneous GPS velocities; three zones dominated by E-W distributed extensional coaxial deformation; and two bands with a deformation compatible with transtensional regime. In the Western sector of the ESFZ, GPS velocities and local structure suggest that E-W extension concentrates along the NNW-SSE oriented Santa Ana volcanic axis and it could connect to the north with the extensional region of the Ipala Graben. This is consistent with to the eastward shift of the North America-Cocos-Caribbean triple junction and “the closing of the zipper” proposed in recent models that progressively slows down the strike-slip movement along the northern limit of the forearc sliver. In the central sector large GPS velocity gradient parallel to the volcanic arc may be associated to complex and discontinuous structure of the ESFZ driving slowdown of the westward movement of local tectonic blocks. The southeaster sector of the ESFZ is an incipient large pull-apart structure affecting a pre-existing extensional N-S oriented fabric that induces two tectonic subdomains, the eastern one undergo E-W coaxial extension and the western one characterized by transtensional strain regime. We propose a new structural segmentation of the ESFZ considering that this fault zone includes all those structures that accommodate the relative velocity between the forearc sliver and the Chortís block. The 38 active faults with surface traces that are mapped for more than 5 km long proposed in this work, with maximum potential magnitude Mw ranging from 5.98 to 7.94, will contribute to improve regional and local seismic sources databases and seismic hazard assessment.
  • Publication
    Adaptación de la docencia práctica en Geología Estructural al uso de herramientas digitales
    (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2022-06-27) Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Alonso Henar, Jorge; Fernández Rodríguez, Carlos; Herrero Barbero, Paula; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Jiménez Molina, David; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Perea Manera, Hector; Pro Diáz, Yolanda de; Romeo Briones, Ignacio; Ruiz Pérez, Javier; Sánchez Roldán, Jose Luis; Herrero Gil, Andrea
  • Publication
    Modelización 3D de la estructura, la cinemática y el comportamiento sismogénico del sistema de fallas de las Béticas Orientales : aplicación a la amenaza sísmica
    (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2022-05-20) Herrero Barbero, Paula; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Martínez Díaz, José Jesús
    Caracterizar la relación entre la ocurrencia de terremotos y la geometría tridimensional, cinemática y tasas de deformación de las fallas de una región activa es esencial para la valoración de la peligrosidad sísmica. En regiones con deformación lenta, el estudio de las fallas activas se complica debido a la baja disponibilidad de evidencias de actividad tectónica reciente, a menudo difusas o camufladas por los intensos procesos externos, y a un registro de sismicidad histórica escaso y poco preciso. El sistema de fallas de las Béticas Orientales (al que también nos referiremos como Zona de Cizalla de las Béticas Orientales), situado al sureste de la Península Ibérica y que forma parte de la Zona de Cizalla de Trans-Alborán, es un buen ejemplo de un sistema activo formado por fallas con bajas tasas de de formación (la mayoría inferiores a 1 mm/a). La falta de estimaciones de tasas de deslizamiento y otros parámetros sísmicos en algunas de sus secciones de falla, así como su moderada a baja sismicidad, han hecho que, a menudo, se infraestimara el potencial de estas fallas de generar terremotos importantes. El terremoto de MW 5.1 ocurrido en Lorca en Mayo del 2011, asociado a este sistema de fallas y causante de víctimas y cuantiosos daños materiales, puso de manifiesto la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento del comportamiento sismogénico de estas fallas. Esta Tesis Doctoral aborda el estudio del sistema de fallas de las Béticas Orientales a diferentes escalas, centrándose en su estructura tridimensional, la estimación de tasas de deformación y la interacción de las estructuras, evaluando como afectaran a la distribución espacio-temporal de la sismicidad regional a largo plazo...
  • Publication
    Análisis estructural en el segmento Alhama de Murcia – Alcantarilla (Falla de Alhama de Murcia) y sus implicaciones en la peligrosidad sísmica
    (Sociedad Geológica de España, 2017) Herrero Barbero, Paula; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Martínez Díaz, José J.
    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del análisis geométrico de una estructura asociada a la reactivación del extremo NE de la Falla de Alhama de Murcia (Zona de Cizalla de las Béticas Orientales) por la convergencia NO-SE iniciada en el Mioceno Superior. A partir de técnicas de análisis estructural convencionales se ha estimado una tasa de deslizamiento neto de entre 0,13 y 0,18 mm/año en el segmento Alhama de Murcia – Alcantarilla. La magnitud máxima de un terremoto cuya fuente fuese este segmento se encuentra entre MW 6,5 - 6,6, estimada mediante correlaciones empíricas, con un periodo de recurrencia comprendido entre 7300 y 14100 años para la tasa de deslizamiento obtenida. La menor expresión geomorfológica observada en este sector de la Falla de Alhama de Murcia en comparación con otros segmentos de la misma evidencia un menor grado de actividad, al mismo tiempo que los resultados obtenidos sugieren la contribución de la Falla de Carrascoy en la repartición de la tasa de acortamiento regional entre ambas estructuras
  • Publication
    Complete Strain Record of a Highly Asymmetric Shear Zone: From Fault Core Gouges to Surface Rupture of Historical Earthquakes in the Alhama de Murcia Fault (SE Iberian Peninsula)
    (Geological Society of America, 2021-04-28) Alonso Henar, Jorge; Rodríguez Escudero, Emilio; Herrero Barbero, Paula; Tsige Beyene, Meaza; Martínez Díaz, José J.
    Classical models of fault rock architecture point to a relatively simple and symmetric architecture of a fault zone, where the fault core is a narrow foliated cataclasite (few centimeters) bounded by a thick damage zone developed cutting through host rocks. Those models are far from the studied fault rocks developed in the Alhama de Murcia Fault (AMF), SE Spain, where fault core is in contact with an almost no deformed hosting rock at one side and to a wide damage zone towards the opposite boundary. The AMF is an active shear zone and the source of destructive recent and historical earthquakes. It has more than 10 km accumulated slip, and it develops a more than 100 meters wide shear zone with fault rocks that have been continuously sampled and analyzed combining a drill core from a 174 m deep vertical borehole, six trenches excavation, and outcrop surfaces cleaning. Hand specimen and microanalyses were used to classify the fault rock in deformation domains in a strongly heterogeneous shear zone according to its lithologies and structural features. It ranges from 10 to 30 meters wide fault core, where steady strain occurs, to an intensely deformed damage zone where strain is concentrated along discrete gouge bands. Trenching also showed a surface rupture that offsets Arabic archaeological remains related to the 1674 catastrophic event occurred in Lorca (Murcia). Steady homogeneous deformation was found in the areas closest to the hanging wall, in the fault core, where Lower Paleozoic Schists are the potolith of ultrafault gouges. As deformation increased, the shear zone involved Permian-Triasic basement rocks and Miocene sedimentary rocks in heterogeneous deformation domains. In the lower domains, strain is located in anastomosing shear bands which are spatially related with a surface seismic rupture of the 1674 destructive earthquake.
  • Publication
    Seismogenic potential and tsunami threat of the strike-slip Carboneras fault in the western Mediterranean from physics-based earthquake simulations
    (European Geosciences Union, 2023-06-06) Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Herrero Barbero, Paula; Martínez Díaz, José Jesús
    Strike-slip fault ruptures have a limited capacity to generate vertical deformation, and for this reason they are usually dismissed as potential destructive tsunami sources. At the western tip of the western Mediterranean, in the Alboran Sea, tectonics is characterized by the presence of large transcurrent fault systems and minor reverse and normal faults in a zone of diffuse deformation. The strike-slip Carboneras fault is one of the largest sources in the Alboran Sea and therefore with the greatest seismogenic capacity. It is also one of the active structures with higher slip rates in the eastern Betic fault zone and has been proposed as the source of the damaging 1522 (M 6.5; Int. VIII–IX) Almeria earthquake. The dimensions and location of the Carboneras fault imply a high seismic and tsunami threat. In this paper we present tsunami simulations from seismic sources generated with physics-based earthquake simulators. We have generated a 1 Myr synthetic seismic catalogue consistent on 773 893 events, with magnitudes ranging between Mw 3.3 and 7.6. From these events we have selected those sources producing a potential energy capable of generating a noticeable tsunami, those sources being earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 6.71 to 7.62. The Carboneras fault has the capacity to generate locally damaging tsunamis; however, on a regional scale its tsunami threat is limited. The frequency–magnitude distribution of the generated seismic catalogue reflects the variability of magnitudes associated with the rupture of the entire fault, departing the upper limit from the classical Gutenberg–Richter potential relation. The inter-event time for the maximum earthquake magnitudes is usually between 2000 and 6000 years. The use of physics-based earthquake simulations for tsunamigenic sources allows an in-depth characterization of the scenarios, allowing a qualitative leap in their parametrization.
  • Publication
    Physics-Based Earthquake Simulations in Slow-Moving Faults: A Case Study From the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (SE Iberian Peninsula)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-05) Herrero Barbero, Paula; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Williams, Charles; Villamor Pérez, María Pilar; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Alonso Henar, Jorge; Martínez Díaz, José J.
    In regions with slow-moving faults, the incompleteness of earthquake and fault data complicates the study of seismic hazard. The instrumental and historical seismic catalogs cover a short period compared with the long-time interval between major events. Paleoseismic evidence allows us to increase the time frame of actual observations, but data is still scarce and imprecise. Physics-based earthquake simulations overcome the limitations of actual earthquake catalogs and generate long-term synthetic seismicity. The RSQSim earthquake simulator used in our study reproduces the earthquake physical processes based on a 3D fault model that contains the kinematics, the long-term slip rates and the rate-and-state friction properties of the main seismogenic sources of a region. The application of earthquake simulations to the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, a slow fault system at southeastern Spain, allows the compilation of 100 kyr-synthetic catalogs of MW > 4.0 events. Multisection earthquakes and complete ruptures of some faults in this region, preferentially on strike-slip dominant ruptures, are possible according to our simulations. The largest MW > 6.5 events are likely as a result of jumping ruptures between the Carboneras and the Palomares faults, with recurrence times of < 20,000 years; and less frequently between the Alhama de Murcia and the Los Tollos faults. A great variability of interevent times is observed between successive synthetic seismic cycles, in addition to the occurrence of complex co-ruptures between faults. Consequently, the occurrence of larger earthquakes, even MW ≥ 7.0, cannot be ruled out, contrasting with the low to moderate magnitudes recorded in the instrumental and historical earthquake catalog.
  • Publication
    Deterministic seismic hazard analysis from physics-based earthquake simulations in the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia)
    (Elsevier, 2023-12-20) Herrero Barbero, Paula; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Tsige Beyene, Meaza; Martínez Díaz, José Jesús
    The low frequency of large destructive earthquakes in the Eastern Betics (SE Iberian Peninsula), not recorded in the instrumental seismic catalog, complicate the estimation of the maximum ground motion that could be reached. Knowing the characteristics and behavior of these large seismic ruptures is crucial for the study of seismic hazard. In this work, we have used a physics-based earthquake simulator to generate a 100 kyr catalog of seismic ruptures associated with seismogenic faults bordering the quaternary Guadalentin and Bajo Segura basins. From these ruptures, we have selected maximum earthquake scenarios, and those associated with certain probabilities of exceeding a severe magnitude from the synthetic catalog. The estimation of maximum peak accelerations (PGA) by means of ground motion prediction equations include a possible site amplification that we have calculated from a detailed geotechnical classification of soils. According to the simulations, the modeled faults have the capacity to generate maximum earthquakes with magnitudes ranging MW 6.7–7.4. Densely populated urban areas located along the Guadalentin valley, such as Lorca, could be subject to site-dependent PGA values close to 0.6 g on the Alhama de Murcia fault trace. Similar ground motion would affect the coastline of SE Alicante province when evaluating the maximum simulated event in the Bajo Segura offshore fault. But already from magnitudes around MW ∼ 6, PGA estimations exceed critical values of 0.5 g at the south side of the Bajo Segura basin and the city of Murcia, highly dependent of ground-motion amplification induced by thick deposits of very soft and saturated soils. Our scenarios reflect that other factors such as fault geometry, kinematics and the capability observed in the simulations to generate multi-fault ruptures also affect the spatial distribution of maximum ground motion in this region. We expect that this evaluation could contribute as an improvement guideline for future strong motion prediction studies prior to the settlement of new urban infrastructures in the Eastern Betics.