Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa

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First Name
María Teresa
Last Name
Gómez Muñoz
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Sanidad Animal
Sanidad Animal
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
  • Publication
    Respuesta inmunitaria de algunas razas ovinas españolas a Haemonchus contortus : Purificación y evaluación de un antígeno diagnóstico
    (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Servicio de Publicaciones, 2002) Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Alunda Rodríguez, José María; Cuquerella Ayensa, Montserrat
    Hemos analizado la diferente receptividad a haemonchus contortus por parte de 4 razas ovinas de nuestro pais: castellana, churra, merina y manchega, siendo los animales merinos mas resistentes de forma natural a la parasitosis y los de raza churra, los mas receptivos. La respuesta inmunitaria frente a las reinfestaciones fue adecuada en todos los animales, implicando diferentes mecanismos efectores. La respuesta serica (igg e iga fundamentalmente) resulto dosis dependiente, excepto en la raza castellana que desarrollo una respuesta igg secundaria. Hemos caracterizado y purificado parcialmente un antígeno de 26 kda con capacidad diagnostica de la hemoncosis ovina, así como una gst de adultos de h. Contortus. El valor diagnostico se demostró en animales jóvenes (2- 6 meses de edad) y en diferentes razas ovinas (castellana, churra, merina, manchega y texel) durante los periodos prepatentes y patentes de las infestaciones experimentales. Se evidencio su especificidad y sensibilidad en infestaciones naturales
  • Publication
    Anti-Trypanosomatidae Activity of Essential Oils and Their Main Components from Selected Medicinal Plants
    (MPDI, 2023-02-02) Bailén, María; Illescas, Cristina; Quijada, Mónica; Martínez Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ochoa, Eneko; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Navarro Rocha, Juliana; González Coloma, Azucena
    Kinetoplastida is a group of flagellated protozoa characterized by the presence of a kinetoplast, a structure which is part of a large mitochondria and contains DNA. Parasites of this group include genera such as Leishmania, that cause disease in humans and animals, and Phytomonas, that are capable of infecting plants. Due to the lack of treatments, the low efficacy, or the high toxicity of the employed therapeutic agents there is a need to seek potential alternative treatments. In the present work, the antiparasitic activity on Leishmania infantum and Phytomonas davidi of 23 essential oils (EOs) from plants of the Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families, extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) at laboratory scale and steam distillation (SD) in a pilot plant, were evaluated. The chemical compositions of the EOs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity on mammalian cells of the major components from the most active EOs was evaluated, and their anti-Phytomonas and anti-Leishmania effects analyzed. L. infantum was more sensitive to the EOs than P. davidi. The EOs with the best anti-kinetoplastid activity were S. montana, T. vulgaris, M. suaveolens, and L. luisieri. Steam distillation increased the linalyl acetate, β-caryophyllene, and trans-α-necrodyl acetate contents of the EOs, and decreased the amount of borneol and 1,8 cineol. The major active components of the EOs were tested, with thymol being the strongest anti-Phytomonas compound followed by carvacrol. Our study identified potential treatments against kinetoplastids.
  • Publication
    Invasive Species as Hosts of Zoonotic Infections: The Case of American Mink (Neovison vison) and Leishmania infantum
    (MPDI, 2021-07-18) Azami Conesa, Iris; Sansano Maestre, José; Martínez Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa
    Leishmania infantum produces an endemic disease in the Mediterranean Basin that affects humans and domestic and wild mammals, which can act as reservoir or minor host. In this study, we analyzed the presence of the parasite in wild American minks, an invasive species in Spain. We screened for L. infantum DNA by PCR using five primer pairs: Two targeting kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), and the rest targeting the ITS1 region, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU) and a repetitive sequence (Repeat region). The detection limit was determined for each method using a strain of L. infantum and a bone marrow sample from an infected dog. PCR approaches employing the Repeat region and kDNA (RV1/RV2 primers) showed higher sensitivity than the other PCR methods when control samples were employed. However, only PCR of the Repeat region and nested PCR of SSU (LnSSU) detected the parasite in the samples, while the other three were unable to do so. The majority of the analyzed animals (90.1%) tested positive. American mink may act as an incidental host of the disease for other mammals and should be further investigated, not only for their negative impact on the local fauna, but also as carriers of zoonotic diseases.
  • Publication
    Captive Breeding and Trichomonas gallinae Alter the Oral Microbiome of Bonelli’s Eagle Chicks
    (Springer, 2022-04-07) Alba Rubio, Claudio; Sansano Maestre, José; Cid Vázquez, María Dolores; Martínez Herrero, María del Carmen; Garijo Toledo, María Magdalena; Azami Conesa, Iris; Moraleda Fernández, Virginia; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Rodríguez Gómez, Juan Miguel
    Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata) is an endangered raptor species in Europe, and trichomonosis is one of the menaces affecting chicks at nest. In this paper, we attempt to describe the oral microbiome of Bonelli’s eagle nestlings and evaluate the influence of several factors, such as captivity breeding, Trichomonas gallinae infection, and the presence of lesions at the oropharynx. The core oral microbiome of Bonelli’s eagle is composed of Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria as the most abundant phyla, and Megamonas and Bacteroides as the most abundant genera. None of the factors analysed showed a significant influence on alfa diversity, but beta diversity was affected for some of them. Captivity breeding exerted a high influence on the composition of the oral microbiome, with significant differences in the four most abundant phyla, with a relative increase of Proteobacteria and a decrease of the other three phyla in comparison with chicks bred at nest. Some genera were more abundant in captivity bred chicks, such as Escherichia-Shigella, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Clostridium and Staphylococcus, while Bacteroides, Oceanivirga, Peptostreptococcus, Gemella, Veillonella, Mycoplasma, Suttonella, Alloscardovia, Varibaculum and Campylobacter were more abundant in nest raised chicks. T. gallinae infection slightly influenced the composition of the microbiome, but chicks displaying trichomonosis lesions had a higher relative abundance of Bacteroides and Gemella, being the last one an opportunistic pathogen of abscess complications in humans. Raptor’s microbiomes are scarcely studied. This is the first study on the factors that influence the oral microbiome of Bonelli’s eagle.
  • Publication
    Antiparasitic Effects of Potentially Toxic Beetles (Tenebrionidae and Meloidae) from Steppe Zones
    (MPDI, 2021-07-14) Díaz Navarro, Marta; Bolívar, Paula; Andrés, María Fe; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Martínez Díaz, Rafael A.; Valcárcel, Félix; García París, Mario; Bautista, Luis M.; González Coloma, Azucena
    Arthropods and specifically beetles can synthesize and/or sequester metabolites from dietary sources. In beetle families such as Tenebrionidae and Meloidae, a few studies have reported species with toxic defensive substances and antiparasitic properties that are consumed by birds. Here we have studied the antiparasitic activity of extracts from beetle species present in the habitat of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) against four pathogen models (Aspergillus niger, Meloidogyne javanica, Hyalomma lusitanicum, and Trichomonas gallinae). The insect species extracted were Tentyria peiroleri, Scaurus uncinus, Blaps lethifera (Tenebrionidae), and Mylabris quadripunctata (Meloidae). M. quadripunctata exhibited potent activity against M. javanica and T. gallinae, while T. peiroleri exhibited moderate antiprotozoal activity. The chemical composition of the insect extracts was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The most abundant compounds in the four beetle extracts were hydrocarbons and fatty acids such as palmitic acid, myristic acid and methyl linoleate, which are characteristic of insect cuticles. The presence of cantharidin (CTD) in the M. quadripunctata meloid and ethyl oleate (EO) in T. peiroleri accounted for the bioactivity of their extracts.
  • Publication
    Anti-Trichomonas gallinae activity of essential oils and main compounds from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae plants
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-09-09) Bailén, María; Díaz Castellanos, Irene; Azami Conesa, Iris; Alonso Fernández, Sara; Martínez Díaz, Rafael A.; Navarro Rocha, Juliana; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; González Coloma, Azucena
    Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoan that parasitizes the upper digestive tract of various bird species and causes avian trichomonosis. The emergence of resistant strains to the standard treatment, based on nitroimidazoles, increases the need to find alternative therapies. In this study, 36 essential oils (EOs) from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae plant families were tested against T. gallinae trophozoites using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-)-2,5-dipheniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Among them, EOs from distinct species of Lamiaceae, including the genera Lavandula, Salvia, Thymus, Origanum, and Satureja were the ones reporting better anti-trichomonal activity, and were selected for further analysis, including chemical composition and in vitro assays. The chemical composition of the selected EOs was determined by gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry and 19 pure compounds were tested against the protozoa, according to their higher abundance in the active EOs. Pure compounds which displayed the highest activity against T. gallinae trophozoites, ordered by highest to lowest activity, were α and β-thujones, camphene, β-pinene, linalyl acetate, thymol, 4-terpineol, γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, D-fenchone and β-caryophyllene. A dose dependent effect was observed in most of the EOs and pure compounds tested. The toxicity test conducted in eukaryotic cell cultures with the anti-trichomonal active pure compounds showed that β-caryophyllene, camphene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were slightly toxic for Vero cells, and the selectivity index was calculated. Based on the anti-trichomonal activity and the absence of cytotoxicity results, natural products from Lamiaceae plants could be useful as alternative therapy against avian trichomonosis, mainly those containing linalyl acetate, thymol, 4-terpinenol, γ-terpinene, p-cymene and D-fenchone.
  • Publication
    Avian Oropharyngeal Trichomonosis: Treatment, Failures and Alternatives, a Systematic Review
    (MPDI, 2022-11-19) Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Gómez Molinero, Miguel Ángel; González, Fernando; Azami Conesa, Iris; Bailén, María; García Piqueras, Marina; Sansano Maestre, José
    Oropharyngeal avian trichomonosis is a potentially lethal parasitic disease that affects several avian orders. This review is focused on the disease treatments since prophylactic treatment is prohibited in most countries and resistant strains are circulating. A systematic review following the PRISMA procedure was conducted and included 60 articles. Successful and non-toxic treatments of avian oropharyngeal trichomonosis started with enheptin, a drug replaced by dimetridazole, metronidazole, ornidazole, carnidazole and ronidazole. Administration in drinking water was the most employed and recommended method, although hierarchy of the avian flocks and palatability of the medicated water can interfere with the treatments. Besides pigeons, treatments with nitroimidazoles were reported in budgerigars, canaries, finches, bald eagles, a cinereous vulture and several falcon species, but resistant strains were reported mainly in domestic pigeons and budgerigars. Novel treatments include new delivery systems proved with traditional drugs and some plant extracts and its main components. Ethanolic extracts from ginger, curry leaf tree and Dennettia tripetala, alkaloid extracts of Peganum harmala and essential oils of Pelargonium roseum and some Lamiaceae were highly active. Pure active compounds from the above extracts displayed good anti-trichomonal activity, although most studies lack a cytotoxicity or in vivo test.
  • Publication
    Adaptation of the classical end-point ITS-PCR for the diagnosis of avian trichomonosis to a real-time PCR reveals Bonelli’s eagle as a new host for Trichomonas gypaetinii
    (Springer, 2022-10-11) Alejandro Mateo, Sandra; Azami Conesa, Iris; Martín Maldonado, Bárbara; Pastor Tiburón, Natalia; Martín Hernández, Raquel; González González, Fernando; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa
    Avian trichomonosis is a parasitic disease caused mainly by Trichomonas gallinae and other Trichomonas species. It can be asymptomatic, or it can produce a necrotic lesion in the upper digestive tract and spread to other organs, causing the death of the infected birds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate an adapted real-time PCR method for the diagnosis of different genotypes and species of avian oropharyngeal trichomonads. Fifty-six samples from the oropharynx of Bonelli’s eagles (Aquila fasciata) obtained between 2018 and 2019 were analyzed using the real-time PCR and the end-point PCR, both targeting trichomonads ITS, and the results were compared by a coefficient of agreement. All positive samples were sequenced. The analysis showed a higher percentage of detection of real-time PCR ITS compared with end-point PCR ITS (64.3 vs 55.4%), and good agreement value (Kappa = 0.816). Melting temperature value for resulting amplicons of real-time PCR for avian trichomonads was 83.45 ± 0.72 °C. Genotypes A, D, and III were found among the sequences. Moreover, Trichomonas gypaetinii, a common species in scavenger birds, is reported for the first time in Bonelli’s eagles.
  • Publication
    A Systematic Review (1990–2021) of Wild Animals Infected with Zoonotic Leishmania
    (MPDI, 2021-05-20) Azami Conesa, Iris; Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Martínez Díaz, Rafael Alberto
    Leishmaniasis are neglected diseases caused by several species of Leishmania that affect humans and many domestic and wild animals with a worldwide distribution. The objectives of this review are to identify wild animals naturally infected with zoonotic Leishmania species as well as the organs infected, methods employed for detection and percentage of infection. A literature search starting from 1990 was performed following the PRISMA methodology and 161 reports were included. One hundred and eighty‐nine species from ten orders (i.e., Carnivora, Chiroptera, Cingulata, Didelphimorphia, Diprotodontia, Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla, Pilosa, Primates and Rodentia) were reported to be infected, and a few animals were classified only at the genus level. An exhaustive list of species; diagnostic techniques, including PCR targets; infected organs; number of animals explored and percentage of positives are presented. L. infantum infection was described in 98 wild species and L. (Viania) spp. in 52 wild animals, while L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. major and L. tropica were described in fewer than 32 animals each. During the last decade, intense research revealed new hosts within Chiroptera and Lagomorpha. Carnivores and rodents were the most relevant hosts for L. infantum and L. (Viannia) spp., with some species showing lesions, although in most of the studies clinical signs were not reported.
  • Publication
    Parásitos en movimiento: Videoteca docente
    (2023-07-12) Gómez Muñoz, María Teresa; Montoya Matute, Ana; Olmeda García, Ángeles Sonia; Juan Ferré, Lucía De; Azami Conesa, Iris; Barrera Martín, Juan Pedro; Carbonell Bonelo, Juan David; Hurtado Corral, Izaskum; Valcárcel Sancho, Félix; Meana Mañes, María Aranzazu