Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José

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Sánchez-Prieto Borja
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
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Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
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Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Altered Synaptic Membrane Retrieval after Strong Stimulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurons in Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase II (cGKII) Knockout Mice
    (MDPI, 2017-10-30) Collado Alsina, Andrea; Hofmann, Franz; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José; Torres Molina, Magdalena Isabel
    The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) signaling pathway regulates the clustering and the recruitment of proteins and vesicles to the synapse, thereby adjusting the exoendocytic cycle to the intensity of activity. Accordingly, this pathway can accelerate endocytosis following large-scale exocytosis, and pre-synaptic cGK type II (cGKII) plays a major role in this process, controlling the homeostatic balance of vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis. We have studied synaptic vesicle recycling in cerebellar granule cells from mice lacking cGKII under strong and sustained stimulation, combining imaging techniques and ultrastructural analyses. The ultrastructure of synapses in the adult mouse cerebellar cortex was also examined in these animals. The lack of cGKII provokes structural changes to synapses in cultured cells and in the cerebellar cortex. Moreover, endocytosis is slowed down in a subset of boutons in these cells when they are stimulated strongly. In addition, from the results obtained with the selective inhibitor of cGKs, KT5823, it can be concluded that cGKI also regulates some aspects of vesicle cycling. Overall, these results confirm the importance of the cGMP pathway in the regulation of vesicle cycling following strong stimulation of cerebellar granule cells.
  • Publication
    The human gallbladder microbiome is related to the physiological state and the biliary metabolic profile
    (Springer Nature/BioMed Central, 2019-07-04) Molinero, Natalia; Ruiz, Lorena; Milani, Christian; Gutiérrez-Díaz, Isabel; Mangifesta, Marta; Segura, José; Campelo, Ana Belén; García-Bernardo, Carmen María; Cabrera, Ana; Rodríguez, José Ignacio; González, Sonia; Ventura, Marco; Delgado, Susana; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José; Cambero Rodríguez, María Isabel; Rodríguez Gómez, Juan Miguel
    Background: The microbial populations of the human intestinal tract and their relationship to specific diseases have been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the characterization of the human bile microbiota as a whole has been hampered by difficulties in accessing biological samples and the lack of adequate methodologies to assess molecular studies. Although a few reports have described the biliary microbiota in some hepatobiliary diseases, the bile microbiota of healthy individuals has not been described. With this in mind, the goal of the present study was to generate fundamental knowledge on the composition and activity of the human bile microbiota, as well as establishing its potential relationship with human bile-related disorders. Results: Human bile samples from the gallbladder of individuals from a control group, without any record of hepatobiliary disorder, were obtained from liver donors during liver transplantation surgery. A bile DNA extraction method was optimized together with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for determining the bacterial load. This allows the selection of samples to perform functional metagenomic analysis. Bile samples from the gallbladder of individuals suffering from lithiasis were collected during gallbladder resection and the microbial profiles assessed, using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing analysis, and compared with those of the control group. Additionally, the metabolic profile of the samples was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We detected, for the first time, bacterial communities in gallbladder samples of individuals without any hepatobiliary pathology. In the biliary microecosystem, the main bacterial phyla were represented by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Significant differences in the relative abundance of different taxa of both groups were found. Sequences belonging to the family Propionibacteriaceae were more abundant in bile samples from control subjects; meanwhile, in patients with cholelithiasis members of the families Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Veillonellaceae were more frequently detected. Furthermore, the metabolomics analysis showed that the two study groups have different metabolic profiles. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the gallbladder of human individuals, without diagnosed hepatobiliary pathology, harbors a microbial ecosystem that is described for the first time in this study. Its bacterial representatives and metabolites are different from those detected in people suffering from cholelithiasis. In this regard, since liver donors have been subjected to the specific conditions of the hospital's intensive care unit, including an antibiotic treatment, we must be cautious in stating that their bile samples contain a physiologically normal biliary microbiome. In any case, our results open up new possibilities to discover bacterial functions in a microbial ecosystem that has not previously been explored.
  • Publication
    Partial compensation for N-type Ca2+ channel loss by P/Q-type Ca2+ channels underlines the differential release properties supported by these channels at cerebrocortical nerve terminals
    (Wiley, 2009-03) Ladera, Carolina; Martín, Ricardo; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Torres Molina, Magdalena Isabel; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José
    N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels support glutamate release at central synapses. To determine whether the glutamate release mediated by these channels exhibits distinct properties, we have isolated each release component in cerebrocortical nerve terminals from wild-type mice by specifically blocking N-type Ca2+ channels with ω-conotoxin-GVIA and P/Q-type Ca 2+ channels with ω-agatoxin-IVA. In addition, we have determined the release properties at terminals from mice lacking the α1B subunit of N-type channels (Cav 2.2) to test the possibility that P/Q-type channels can compensate for the loss of N-type Ca2+ channels. We recently demonstrated that, while evoked glutamate release depends on P/Q- and N-type channels in wild-type nerve terminals, only P/Q-type channels participate in these knockout mice. Moreover, in nerve terminals expressing solely P/Q-type channels, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) fails to inhibit the evoked Ca2+ influx and glutamate release. Here, we show that the failure of mGluR7 to modulate evoked glutamate release is not due to a lack of receptors, as nerve terminals from mice lacking N-type Ca2+ channels express mGluR7. Indeed, we show that other receptor responses, such as the inhibition of forskolin-induced release, are preserved in these knockout mice. N-type channels are more loosely coupled to release than P/Q-type channels in nerve terminals from wild-type mice, as reflected by the tighter coupling of release in knockout nerve terminals. We conclude that the glutamate release supported by N- and P/Q-type channels exhibits distinct properties, and that P/Q-type channels cannot fully compensate for the loss of N-type channels. © 2009 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell.
  • Publication
    The coexistence of multiple receptors in a single nerve terminal provides evidence for pre-synaptic integration
    (Wiley, 2007-12) Carolina Ladera; María del Carmen Godino; Rafael Luján; Ryuichi Shigemoto; Francisco Ciruela; Martín Herranz, Ricardo; Torres Molina, Magdalena Isabel; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José
    Excitatory synaptic transmission is inhibited by G protein coupled receptors, including the adenosine A(1), GABA(B), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 7. These receptors are present in nerve terminals where they reduce the release of glutamate through activating signaling pathways negatively coupled to Ca(2+) channels and adenylyl cyclase. However, it is not clear whether these receptors operate in distinct subpopulations of nerve terminals or if they are co-expressed in the same nerve terminals, despite the functional consequences that such distributions may have on synaptic transmission. Applying Ca(2+) imaging and immunocytochemistry, we show that these three G protein coupled receptors coexist in a subpopulation of cerebrocortical nerve terminals. The three receptors share an intracellular signaling pathway through which their inhibitory responses are integrated and coactivation of these receptors produced an integrated response. Indeed, this response was highly variable, from a synergistic response at subthreshold agonist concentrations to an occluded response at high agonist concentrations. The presence of multiple receptors in a nerve terminal could be responsible for the physiological effects of neurotransmitter spillover from neighboring synapses or alternatively, the co-release of transmitters by the same nerve terminal
  • Publication
    b-Adrenergic Receptors/Epac Signaling Increases the Size of the Readily Releasable Pool of Synaptic Vesicles Required for Parallel Fiber LTP
    (Society for Neuroscience, 2020-11-04) García-Font, Nuria; Suárez-Pinilla, Alberto Samuel; Bartolomé Martín, David; Ferrero, José Javier; Luján, Rafael; Torres, Magdalena; Martín Herranz, Ricardo; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José
    The second messenger cAMP is an important determinant of synaptic plasticity that is associated with enhanced neurotransmitter release. Long-term potentiation (LTP) at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses depends on a Ca2+-induced increase in presynaptic cAMP that is mediated by Ca2+-sensitive adenylyl cyclases. However, the upstream signaling and the downstream targets of cAMP involved in these events remain poorly understood. It is unclear whether cAMP generated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) is required for PF-PC LTP, although noradrenergic varicosities are apposed in PF-PC contacts. Guanine nucleotide exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP [Epac proteins (Epac 1-2)] are alternative cAMP targets to protein kinase A (PKA) and Epac2 is abundant in the cerebellum. However, whether Epac proteins participate in PF-PC LTP is not known. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that βARs are expressed in PF boutons. Moreover, activation of these receptors through their agonist isoproterenol potentiated synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices from mice of either sex, an effect that was insensitive to the PKA inhibitors (H-89, KT270) but that was blocked by the Epac inhibitor ESI 05. Interestingly, prior activation of these βARs occluded PF-PC LTP, while the β1AR antagonist metoprolol blocked PF-PC LTP, which was also absent in Epac2-/- mice. PF-PC LTP is associated with an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of synaptic vesicles, consistent with the isoproterenol-induced increase in vesicle docking in cerebellar slices. Thus, the βAR-mediated modulation of the release machinery and the subsequent increase in the size of the RRP contributes to PF-PC LTP.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT G-protein-coupled receptors modulate the release machinery, causing long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission that influence synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying synaptic responses to β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation remain poorly understood. An increase in the number of synaptic vesicles primed for exocytosis accounts for the potentiation of neurotransmitter release driven by βARs. This effect is not mediated by the canonical protein kinase A pathway but rather, through direct activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange protein Epac by cAMP. Interestingly, this βAR signaling via Epac is involved in long term potentiation at cerebellar granule cell-to-Purkinje cell synapses. Thus, the pharmacological activation of βARs modulates synaptic plasticity and opens therapeutic opportunities to control this phenomenon.
  • Publication
    mGluR7 inhibits glutamate release through a PKC-independent decrease in the activity of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels and by diminishing cAMP in hippocampal nerve terminals
    (Wiley, 2007-07-23) Martín, Ricardo; Torres Molina, Magdalena Isabel; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José
    The modulation of calcium channels by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is a key event in the fine-tuning of neurotransmitter release. Here we report that, in hippocampal nerve terminals from adult rats, the inhibition of glutamate release by the group III mGluR agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) is largely mediated by mGluR7. In this preparation, P/Q-type Ca2+ channels support the major component of glutamate release while the remaining release is supported by N-type Ca2+ channels. The release associated with P/Q channels was modulated by mGluR7, either in the presence of ω-conotoxin-GVIA or after decreasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]o to abolish the contribution of N-type Ca2+ channels. Under these conditions, L-AP4 (1 mm) reduced the evoked glutamate release by 35 ± 2%. This inhibition was largely prevented by pertussis toxin, but it was insensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C (bisindolylmaleimide) and protein kinase A (H-89). Furthermore, this inhibition was associated with a reduction in the Ca2+ influx mediated by P/Q channels in the absence of any detectable change in cAMP levels. However, L-AP4 decreased the levels of cAMP in the presence of forskolin. The activation of this additional signalling pathway was very efficient in counteracting the facilitation of glutamate release induced by forskolin. Thus, mGluR7 mediates the inhibition of glutamate release at hippocampal nerve terminals primarily by inhibiting P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, although augmenting the levels of cAMP reveals the ability of the receptor to decrease cAMP.
  • Publication
    AhR Deletion Promotes Aberrant Morphogenesis and Synaptic Activity of Adult-Generated Granule Neurons and Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory
    (Society for Neuroscience, 2018-07-30) Parra Gonzalo, Juan De La; Cuartero Desviat, María Isabel; Pérez Ruiz, Alberto; García Culebras, Alicia; Martín Herranz, Ricardo; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José; García Segura, Juan Manuel; Lizasoaín Hernández, Ignacio; Moro Sánchez, María Ángeles
    Newborn granule cells are continuously produced in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus throughout life. Once these cells mature, they integrate into pre-existing circuits modulating hippocampus-dependent memory. Subsequently, mechanisms controlling generation and maturation of newborn cells are essential for proper hippocampal function. Therefore, we have studied the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated bHLH-PAS transcription factor, in hippocampus-dependent memory and granule neuronal morphology and function using genetic loss-of-function approaches based on constitutive and inducible-nestin AhR–/– mice. The results presented here show that the impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in AhR absence is not due to its effects on neurogenesis but to aberrant dendritic arborization and an increased spine density, albeit with a lower number of mature mushrooms spines in newborn granule cells, a finding that is associated with an immature electrophysiological phenotype. Together, our data strongly suggest that AhR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hippocampal function, by controlling hippocampal granule neuron morphology and synaptic maturation.
  • Publication
    Bidirectional modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission by metabotropic glutamate type 7 receptors at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-03) José Javier Ferrero; Andrea Collado-Alsina; Carolina Aguado; Rafael Luján; José Sánchez-Prieto; Martín Herranz, Ricardo; Torres Molina, Magdalena Isabel; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José
    Neurotransmitter release is driven by Ca2+ influx at synaptic boutons that acts on synaptic vesicles ready to undergo exocytosis. Neurotransmitter release is inhibited when metabotropic glutamate type 7 (mGlu7) receptors provoke a reduction in Ca2+ influx, although the reduced release from synapses lacking this receptor suggests that they may also prime synaptic vesicles for release. These mGlu7 receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC) and generate inositol trisphosphate, which in turn releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores and produces diacylglycerol (DAG), an activator of proteins containing DAG‐binding domains such as Munc13 and protein kinase C (PKC). However, the full effects of mGlu7 receptor signalling on synaptic transmission are unclear. We found that prolonged activation of mGlu7 receptors with the agonist L‐AP4 first reduces and then enhances the amplitude of EPSCs, a presynaptic effect that changes the frequency but not the amplitude of the mEPSCs and the paired pulse ratio. Pertussis toxin blocks the inhibitory response, while the PLC inhibitor U73122, and the inhibitor of DAG binding calphostin C, prevent receptor mediated potentiation. Moreover, this DAG‐dependent potentiation of the release machinery brings more synaptic vesicles closer to the active zone plasma membrane in a Munc13‐2‐ and RIM1α‐dependent manner. Electrically evoked release of glutamate that activates mGlu7 receptors also bidirectionally modulates synaptic transmission. In these conditions, potentiation now occurs rapidly and it overcomes any inhibition, such that potentiation prevails unless it is suppressed with the PLC inhibitor U73122.
  • Publication
    Cross-talk between metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 and beta adrenergic receptor signaling at cerebrocortical nerve terminals
    (Elsevier, 2015-07-23) Torres Molina, Magdalena Isabel; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José; Ferrero, José Javier; Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Martín, Ricardo; Bartolomé-Martín, David
    The co-existence of presynaptic G protein coupled receptors, GPCRs, has received little attention, despite the fact that interplay between the signaling pathways activated by such receptors may affect the neurotransmitter release. Using immunocytochemistry and immuhistochemistry we show that mGlu7 and β-adrenergic receptors are co-expressed in a sub-population of cerebrocortical nerve terminals. mGlu7 receptors readily couple to pathways that inhibit glutamate release. We found that when mGlu7 receptors are also coupled to pathways that enhance glutamate release by prolonged exposure to agonist, and β-adrenergic receptors are also activated, a cross-talk between their signaling pathways occurs that affect the overall release response. This interaction is the result of mGlu7 receptors inhibiting the adenylyl cyclase activated by β adrenergic receptors. Thus, blocking Gi/o proteins with pertussis toxin provokes a further increase in release after receptor co-activation which is also observed after activating β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways downstream of adenylyl cyclase with the cAMP analog Sp8Br or 8pCPT-2-OMe-cAMP (a specific activator of the guanine nucleotide exchange protein directly activated by cAMP, EPAC). Co-activation of mGlu7 and β-adrenergic receptors also enhances PLC-dependent accumulation of IP1 and the translocation of the active zone protein Munc13-1 to the membrane, indicating that release potentiation by these receptors involves the modulation of the release machinery.
  • Publication
    Endocannabinoid signalling in stem cells and cerebral organoids drives differentiation to deep layer projection neurons via CB1 receptors
    (The company of biologists, 2020-12-23) Paraíso Luna, Juan; Aguareles Gorines, José; Martín Herranz, Ricardo; Ayo-Martín, A; Simón-Sánchez, Samuel; García Rincón, Daniel; Costas Insúa, Carlos; García-Taboada, Elena; de salas-quiroga, adan; díaz-alonso, javier; liste, isabel; Sánchez-Prieto Borja, José; Cappello, Silvia; Guzmán Pastor, Manuel; Galve Roperh, Ismael
    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, via the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, regulates neurodevelopment by controlling neural progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis. CB1 receptor signalling in vivo drives corticofugal deep layer projection neuron development through the regulation of BCL11B and SATB2 transcription factors. Here, we investigated the role of eCB signalling in mouse pluripotent embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal differentiation. Characterization of the eCB system revealed increased expression of eCB-metabolizing enzymes, eCB ligands and CB1 receptors during neuronal differentiation. CB1 receptor knockdown inhibited neuronal differentiation of deep layer neurons and increased upper layer neuron generation, and this phenotype was rescued by CB1 re-expression. Pharmacological regulation with CB1 receptor agonists or elevation of eCB tone with a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor promoted neuronal differentiation of deep layer neurons at the expense of upper layer neurons. Patch-clamp analyses revealed that enhancing cannabinoid signalling facilitated neuronal differentiation and functionality. Noteworthy, incubation with CB1 receptor agonists during human iPSC-derived cerebral organoid formation also promoted the expansion of BCL11B+ neurons. These findings unveil a cell-autonomous role of eCB signalling that, via the CB1 receptor, promotes mouse and human deep layer cortical neuron development.