Person: Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución
Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
PublicationTerritorial and foraging behaviour of juvenile Mediterranean trout under changing conditions of food and competitors(NRC Research Press, 2016-06) Nicola, Graciela G.; Ayllón, Daniel; Elvira Payán, Benigno; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana MaríaTerritoriality is probably the most important ecological mechanism regulating densities in stream-living salmonids. Body size is typically regarded as the best predictor of territory size, but food abundance and competitor density may be key driving factors. However, a global analysis of literature data showed no clear patterns on the relative causal role of those factors on determining territory size in juvenile salmonids. Thus, in a factorial experiment, we estimated to what extent simultaneous variations of fish size, competitor density, and food abundance affected the size of foraging and defended areas of Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta). In contrast with former studies, we found that foraging areas were larger than defended territories. Foraging and territorial behaviour changed significantly under varying density and feeding regimes. Foraging areas decreased with increasing competitor density and food availability, and there was a strong interaction between these two factors. Defended territories decreased with increasing density, irrespective of food abundance. Although our findings showed a significant allometric relationship between fish length and territory size, the data contained much unexplained variability. Our findings suggest that defended areas are relatively fixed for a given trout length. However, at extremely high population densities, defended areas decreased. Thus, under extreme competition, such as during critical periods right after emergence, trout may subdivide available habitat and thereby moderate density declines. PublicationOptimal harvest regulations under conflicting tradeoffs between conservation and recreational fishery objectives(Elsevier, 2019-04-01) Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Elvira Payán, Benigno; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana MaríaLength-based harvest regulations alter the fishing-induced demographic and evolutionary trajectories of exploited stocks and thus shape the existing tradeoffs among fishery and conservation objectives. We used a structurally realistic eco-genetic individual-based harvest model that implements dynamic angling mortality and cryptic mortality sources (illegal harvest and hooking mortality). We (1) analyzed the effects of alternative length-based harvest regulations under scenarios involving different combinations of exploitation intensity and hooking mortality on a suite of indicators of fishery performance and conservation status of a freshwater fish stock, and (2) determined the regulations that optimize the tradeoff among selected indicators under different management strategies, and fishery and conservation objectives. Fishing scenarios under a maximum-length limit regulation maximized harvest yield but led always to recruitment overfishing, irrespective of the exploitation and hooking mortality rates simulated. Fishing scenarios under a harvest slot limits regulation (HS) were best at maintaining a high status of old, large, fecund fish and a more natural age-structure with higher biomass and reproductive potential, performing increasingly better than minimum-length limit (MLL) regulations with decreasing hooking mortality. Both regulation types were effective at preventing overexploitation and only under scenarios with low restrictiveness and high exploitation intensity and hooking mortality was the stock at risk of recruitment overfishing. MLLs outperformed HS regulations in terms of fishery performance, consistently presenting greater harvest yield and efficiency, and size of harvested fish. High rates of hooking mortality rendered HS regulations less effective than assumed, so they were always outperformed by MLLs irrespective of the management strategy and objectives. When hooking mortality was low, HSs constituted the optimal regulation type in most cases except when high fishery performance was favoured over conservation objectives or harvest of large fish was regarded as critically important. PublicationDesarrollo de metodologías activas y trabajo no presencial en las asignaturas Biogeografía y Biología Evolutiva(2021-06) Elvira Payán, Benigno; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María; Gómez Nicola, Graciela; Ayllón Fernández, Daniel; Olmedo Salinas, Cristina; Alonso Sánchez, Jenifer; Jiménez Corbacho, CarlosLos objetivos del proyecto fueron la discusión, preparación, puesta en práctica y valoración de metodologías activas en la enseñanza de aspectos concretos seleccionados del temario oficial de las asignaturas Biogeografía y Biología Evolutiva del segundo y tercer cursos del Grado en Biología. PublicationClimate change will render size-selective harvest of cold-water fish species unsustainable in Mediterranean freshwaters(Wiley, 2021-03) Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Elvira Payán, Benigno; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María1.Climate change is impacting the composition and functioning of virtually every ecosystem on Earth, and disrupting the productivity of exploited ones. Species are rapidly adjusting to their changing environments through evolutionary and/or plastic phenotypic changes in behavioural, physiological, phenological and life-history traits. Size-selective harvest produces severe demographic impacts on exploited populations and induces individual phenotypic changes in many of the same fitness-related traits as climate change and thus can impair local adaptation and acclimation. We addressed in the context of inland recreational fisheries two interrelated questions: (1) Will fisheries-induced phenotypic changes operate at different rates and direction than those induced by climate change, and thus hinder local adaptation and acclimation, threatening population persistence?; (2) which harvest regulations most likely lead to overexploitation of populations under the new environmental conditions? 2.We used an eco-genetic individual-based model to simulate the consequences of size-selective fishing for a cold-water fish species brown trout Salmo trutta across a range of regulatory (defined by exploitation rate and size-based limits) and environmental scenarios (warming vs. concurrent warming and streamflow reduction) in a Mediterranean system. We ran 1,620 combinations of fishing and environmental scenarios and analysed results using artificial neural networks. 3.In our simulations, (a) climate change and size-selective fishing both led to a reduced, truncated population, with increased juvenile but decreased adult growth and earlier maturation at smaller size, but fisheries-induced changes were stronger than those produced by climate change; (b) their effects were additive or dampened but rarely synergistic and (c) phenotypic changes in fitness-related traits resulted from both evolutionary and plastic processes. 4.Synthesis and applications. Our model-based analyses highlight that any size-selective fishing regime would lead to the overexploitation of cold-water freshwater fish populations if climate warming is accompanied by streamflow reduction—as projected in Mediterranean fisheries. Even if we assumed no future streamflow regime changes, only a limited range of size-based harvest regulations may provide an acceptable balance between conservation and fishery objectives. Thus, recreational fisheries of cold-water fish in Mediterranean climates might be more sustainably managed under climate change if conservation-oriented strategies based on harvest bans (e.g. catch-and-release fishing) were implemented. PublicationEffective monitoring of freshwater fish(Wiley, 2019) Radinger, Johannes; Britton, J. Robert; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Magurran, Anne E.; Alcaraz‐Hernández, Juan Diego; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María; Benejam, Lluís; Fernández‐Delgado, Carlos; Nicola, Graciela G.; Oliva‐Paterna, Francisco J.; Torralva, Mar; García‐Berthou, EmiliFreshwater ecosystems constitute only a small fraction of the planet's water re‐ sources, yet support much of its diversity, with freshwater fish accounting for more species than birds, mammals, amphibians or reptiles. Fresh waters are, however, par‐ ticularly vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts, including habitat loss, climate and land use change, pollution and biological invasions. This environmental degradation, com‐ bined with unprecedented rates of biodiversity change, highlights the importance of robust and replicable programmes to monitor freshwater fish. Such monitoring programmes can have diverse aims, including confirming the presence of a single species (e.g., early detection of alien species), tracking changes in the abundance of threatened species, or documenting long‐term temporal changes in entire communi‐ ties. Irrespective of their motivation, monitoring programmes are only fit for purpose if they have clearly articulated aims and collect data that can meet those aims. This review, therefore, highlights the importance of identifying the key aims in monitor‐ ing programmes and outlines the different methods of sampling freshwater fish that can be used to meet these aims. We emphasize that investigators must address is‐ sues around sampling design, statistical power, species’ detectability, taxonomy and ethics in their monitoring programmes. Additionally, programmes must ensure that high‐quality monitoring data are properly curated and deposited in repositories that will endure. Through fostering improved practice in freshwater fish monitoring, this review aims to help programmes improve understanding of the processes that shape the Earth's freshwater ecosystems and help protect these systems in face of rapid environmental change. PublicationInSTREAM-Gen: Modelling eco-evolutionary dynamics of trout populations under anthropogenic environmental change(Elsevier, 2016-04) Ayllón, Daniel; Railsback, Steven F.; Vincenzi, Simone; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María; Grimm, VolkerCurrent rates of environmental change are exceeding the capacity of many populations to adapt to new conditions and thus avoid demographic collapse and ultimate extinction. In particular, cold-water freshwater fish species are predicted to experience strong selective pressure from climate change and a wide range of interacting anthropogenic stressors in the near future. To implement effective management and conservation measures, it is crucial to quantify the maximum rate of change that cold-water freshwater fish populations can withstand. Here, we present a spatially explicit eco-genetic individual-based model, inSTREAM-Gen, to predict the eco-evolutionary dynamics of stream-dwelling trout under anthropogenic environmental change. The model builds on a well-tested demographic model, which includes submodels of river dynamics, bioenergetics, and adaptive habitat selection, with a new genetic module that allows exploration of genetic and life-history adaptations to new environments. The genetic module models the transmission of two key traits, size at emergence and maturity size threshold. We parameterized the model for a brown trout(Salmo trutta L.) population atthe warmest edge ofits range to validate it and analyze its sensitivity to parameters under contrasting thermal profiles. To illustrate potential applications of the model, we analyzed the population’s demographic and evolutionary dynamics under scenarios of (1) climate change-induced warming, and (2) warming plus flow reduction resulting from climate and land use change, compared to (3) a baseline of no environmental change. The model predicted severe declines in density and biomass under climate warming. These declines were lower than expected at range margins because of evolution towards smaller size at both emergence and maturation compared to the natural evolution under the baseline conditions. Despite stronger evolutionary responses, declining rates were substantially larger under the combined warming and flow reduction scenario, leading to a high probability of population extinction over contemporary time frames. Therefore, adaptive responses could not prevent extinction under high rates of environmental change. Our model demonstrates critical elements of next generation ecological modelling aiming at predictions in a changing world as it accounts for spatial and temporal resource heterogeneity, while merging individual behaviour and bioenergetics with microevolutionary adaptation. PublicationPuesta en práctica de metodologías activas en la enseñanza de la asignatura Biología Evolutiva(2020-07-01) Elvira Payán, Benigno; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María; Ayllón Fernández, Daniel; Leal García, María Sheila; Olmedo Salinas, Cristina; Alonso Sánchez, Jenifer; Exposito Martín, Leyre; Rosas Salvador, Cristina; Tenaguillo Arriola, Ignacio PublicationSeasonal patterns of microhabitat selection in the Southern Iberian spined-loach Cobitis paludica(Springer Nature, 2022-05-12) Elvira Payán, Benigno; Nicola, Graciela G.; Ayllón, Daniel; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana MaríaThe Southern Iberian spined-loach Cobitis paludica is an Iberian endemism threatened by human activities, including habitat destruction. For this reason, the development of conservation and the recovery plans for the species calls for a precise knowledge of its habitat requirements. Here, microhabitat use and selection patterns were investigated to determine the limiting factors for the species in diferent seasons, corresponding to a gradient in fow conditions. The microhabitat of the loach was analysed in the River Jarama (Tagus River basin, central Spain) in the period of maximum activity between March and September 2013. No signifcant diferences in microhabitat use were found between males and females, and only very weak ontogenetic changes were detected. The microhabitat used by the loach varied signifcantly throughout the study period, generally adapting to the fow-mediated dynamics of available habitat. The most stable pattern throughout the year was the use of very low water velocities. Additionally, the loach made selective use of certain microhabitat features, with slight adjustments to the seasonally changing habitat conditions. The loach signifcantly selected positions with abundant silt substrate and aquatic vegetation, and avoided coarser substrates. The availability of fne substrates and abundant vegetation is therefore a critical habitat requirement for the loach, which needs instream structures that provide foraging substrate, refuge and safe positions for spawning. Selection of refuge elements (deep habitats, aquatic vegetation) was especially apparent under low-fow conditions. Human activities leading to the loss of these critical microhabitats may threaten the survival of already scarce loach populations. PublicationAplicación de metodología activa y aprendizaje inverso en asignaturas del Grado en Biología en el contexto de un modelo de enseñanza no presencial(2022-06-30) Elvira Payán, Benigno; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana María; Gómez Nicola, Graciela; Ayllón Fernández, Daniel; Olmedo Salinas, Cristina; Bravo Sánchez, David; Novillo Ducajú, Rocío; Pardo Martín-Lunas, JaimeDesarrollo de metodologías activas y aprendizaje inverso en asignaturas del Grado en Biología, mediante contenidos elaborados por los alumnos de manera independiente y no presencial a partir de materiales docentes propuestos por el profesor. PublicationBless this phylogeographic mess e Comparative study of Eiseniella tetraedra (Annelida, Oligochaeta) between an Atlantic area and a continental Mediterranean area in Spain(Elsevier, 2017-01) Sosa, Irene de; Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Almodóvar Pérez, Ana MaríaDue to the influence of Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, Spain has different climates, from desert to Atlantic. We sampled the parthenogenetic earthworm Eiseniella tetraedra in two different biogeographical zones in Spain, in order to study their genetic diversity and test their potential distinctiveness. Moreover, we evaluated the presence or absence of two different lineages (Eurosiberian and Mediterranean) found in other parthenogenetic earthworms such as Aporrectodea trapezoides and A. rosea. We studied the molecular markers COI, 16S and 28S. E. tetraedra presents a high diversity in Spain (one COI haplotype every two individuals were found) and no clear geographical patterns except for diffuse patterns along the Guadarrama River basin. In contrast, worldwide localities were more homogeneous with low diversity, to be confirmed with further samples. After morphological study, no correlation was found between phylogenetic relationships and the diagnostic characters for the previously described subspecies in E. tetraedra.