Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier

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First Name
Francisco Javier
Last Name
Arroyo Nombela
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Microbiología y Parasitología
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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Distinct Human Gut Microbial Taxonomic Signatures Uncovered With Different Sample Processing and Microbial Cell Disruption Methods for Metaproteomic Analysis
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-07-05) García Durán, Carmen; Martínez López, Raquel; Zapico Megido, Inés; Pérez, Enrique; Romeu Gracia, Eduardo; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier; Hernáez Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Pitarch Velasco, Aida; Monteoliva Díaz, Lucía; Gil, Concha
    The use of metaproteomics for studying the human gut microbiota can shed light on the taxonomic profile and the functional role of the microbial community. Nevertheless, methods for extracting proteins from stool samples continue to evolve, in the pursuit of optimal protocols for moistening and dispersing the stool sample and for disrupting microbial cells, which are two critical steps for ensuring good protein recovery. Here, we evaluated different stool sample processing (SSP) and microbial cell disruption methods (CDMs). The combination of a longer disintegration period of the stool sample in a tube rotator with sonication increased the overall number of identified peptides and proteins. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Euryarchaeota identification was favored by mechanical cell disruption with glass beads. In contrast, the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria was improved when sonication was performed before bead beating. Tenericutes and Apicomplexa identification was enhanced by moistening the stool samples during processing and by disrupting cells with medium-sized glass beads combined with or without sonication. Human protein identifications were affected by sonication. To test the reproducibility of these gut metaproteomic analyses, we examined samples from six healthy individuals using a protocol that had shown a good taxonomic diversity and identification of proteins from Proteobacteria and humans. We also detected proteins involved in microbial functions relevant to the host and related mostly to specific taxa, such as B12 biosynthesis and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production carried out mainly by members in the Prevotella genus and the Firmicutes phylum, respectively. The taxonomic and functional profiles obtained with the different protocols described in this work provides the researcher with valuable information when choosing the most adequate protocol for the study of certain pathologies under suspicion of being related to a specific taxon from the gut microbiota.
  • Publication
    Strengthening the fungal cell wall through chitin–glucan cross-links: effects on morphogenesis and cell integrity
    (Wiley, 2016-06-16) Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier; Farkas, Vladimir; Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; Cabib, Enrico
    The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires transglycosylation mechanisms by which preexisting glycosidic linkages are broken and new linkages are created between the polysaccharides. The molecular mechanisms for these processes, which are essential for fungal cell biology, are only now beginning to be elucidated. Recent development of in vivo and in vitro biochemical approaches has allowed characterization of important aspects about the formation of chitin-glucan covalent cell wall cross-links by cell wall transglycosylases of the CRH family and their biological function. Covalent linkages between chitin and glucan mediated by Crh proteins control morphogenesis and also play important roles in the remodeling of the fungal cell wall as part of the compensatory responses necessary to counterbalance cell wall stress. These enzymes are encoded by multigene families of redundant proteins very well conserved in fungal genomes but absent in mammalian cells. Understanding the molecular basis of fungal adaptation to cell wall stress through these and other cell wall remodeling enzymatic activities offers an opportunity to explore novel antifungal treatments and to identify potential fungal virulence factors.
  • Publication
    Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2
    (Oxford Academic, 2016-09-06) Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; García Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez Peña, José Manuel; Nombela Cano, César; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier
    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway.
  • Publication
    Systematic Identification of Essential Genes Required for Yeast Cell Wall Integrity: Involvement of the RSC Remodelling Complex
    (MDPI, 2022-07-08) Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier; Díez Muñiz, Sonia; Moya, Jennifer; Petryk, Yuliya; Nombela Cano, César; Rodríguez Peña, José Manuel
    Conditions altering the yeast cell wall lead to the activation of an adaptive transcriptional response mainly governed by the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Two high-throughput screenings were developed using the yTHC collection of yeast conditional mutant strains to systematically identify essential genes related to cell wall integrity, and those required for the transcriptional program elicited by cell wall stress. Depleted expression of 52 essential genes resulted in hypersensitivity to the dye Calcofluor white, with chromatin organization, Golgi vesicle transport, rRNA processing, and protein glycosylation processes, as the most highly representative functional groups. Via a flow cytometry-based quantitative assay using a CWI reporter plasmid, 97 strains exhibiting reduced gene-reporter expression levels upon stress were uncovered, highlighting genes associated with RNA metabolism, transcription/translation, protein degradation, and chromatin organization. This screening also led to the discovery of 41 strains displaying a basal increase in CWI-associated gene expression, including mainly putative cell wall-related genes. Interestingly, several members of the RSC chromatin remodelling complex were uncovered in both screenings. Notably, Rsc9 was necessary to regulate the gene expression of CWI-related genes both under stress and non-stress conditions, suggesting distinct requirements of the RSC complex for remodelling particular genes.
  • Publication
    Chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for transcription mediated by the yeast cell wall integrity MAPK pathway.
    (2012-05-23) Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; García Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez Peña, José Manuel; Díez Muñiz, Sonia; Nombela Cano, César; Peterson, Craig L.; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional program triggered by cell wall stress is coordinated by Slt2/Mpk1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, and is mostly mediated by the transcription factor Rlm1. Here we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex plays a critical role in orchestrating the transcriptional response regulated by Rlm1. swi/snf mutants show drastically reduced expression of cell wall stress-responsive genes and hypersensitivity to cell wall-interfering compounds. On stress, binding of RNA Pol II to the promoters of these genes depends on Rlm1, Slt2, and SWI/SNF. Rlm1 physically interacts with SWI/SNF to direct its association to target promoters. Finally, we observe nucleosome displacement at the CWI-responsive gene MLP1/KDX1, which relies on the SWI/SNF complex. Taken together, our results identify the SWI/SNF complex as a key element of the CWI MAPK pathway that mediates the chromatin remodeling necessary for adequate transcriptional response to cell wall stress.
  • Publication
    Rlm1 mediates positive autoregulatory transcriptional feedback that is essential for Slt2-dependent gene expression
    (The Company of Biologists, 2016-04-15) García Sánchez, Raúl; Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; Nombela Cano, César; Rodríguez Peña, José Manuel; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier
    Activation of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway induces an adaptive transcriptional programme that is largely dependent on the transcription factor Rlm1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Slt2. Upon cell wall stress, the transcription factor Rlm1 is recruited to the promoters of RLM1 and SLT2, and exerts positive-feedback mechanisms on the expression of both genes. Activation of the MAPK Slt2 by cell wall stress is not impaired in strains with individual blockade of any of the two feedback pathways. Abrogation of the autoregulatory feedback mechanism on RLM1 severely affects the transcriptional response elicited by activation of the CWI pathway. In contrast, a positive trans-acting feedback mechanism exerted by Rlm1 on SLT2 also regulates CWI output responses but to a lesser extent. Therefore, a complete CWI transcriptional response requires not only phosphorylation of Rlm1 by Slt2 but also concurrent SLT2- and RLM1-mediated positive-feedback mechanisms; sustained patterns of gene expression are mainly achieved by positive autoregulatory circuits based on the transcriptional activation of Rlm1.
  • Publication
    The Botrytis cinerea Crh1 transglycosylase is a cytoplasmic effector triggering plant cell death and defense response
    (Nature, 2021-04-12) Bi, Kai; Scalschi, Loredana; Jaiswal, Namrata; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Fried, Renana; Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier; Zhu, Wenjun; Masrati, Gal; Sharon, Amir
    Crh proteins catalyze crosslinking of chitin and glucan polymers in fungal cell walls. Here, we show that the BcCrh1 protein from the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea acts as a cytoplasmic effector and elicitor of plant defense. BcCrh1 is localized in vacuoles and the endoplasmic reticulum during saprophytic growth. However, upon plant infection, the protein accumulates in infection cushions; it is then secreted to the apoplast and translocated into plant cells, where it induces cell death and defense responses. Two regions of 53 and 35 amino acids are sufficient for protein uptake and cell death induction, respectively. BcCrh1 mutant variants that are unable to dimerize lack transglycosylation activity, but are still able to induce plant cell death. Furthermore, Arabidopsis lines expressing the bccrh1 gene exhibit reduced sensitivity to B. cinerea, suggesting a potential use of the BcCrh1 protein in plant immunization against this necrotrophic pathogen.
  • Publication
    Structural and functional analysis of yeast Crh1 and Crh2 transglycosylases
    (Wiley, 2015-02-18) Blanco, Noelia; Sanz Santamaría, Ana Belén; Rodríguez Peña, José Manuel; Nombela Cano, César; Vladimir, Farkas; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Arroyo Nombela, Francisco Javier
    Covalent cross-links between chitin and glucan at the yeast cell wall are created by the transglycosylase activity of redundant proteins Crh1 and Crh2, with cleavage of β-1,4 linkages of the chitin backbone and transfer of the generated molecule containing newly created reducing end onto the glucan acceptor. A three-dimensional structure of Crh1 was generated by homology modeling based on the crystal structure of bacterial 1,3-1,4-β-d-glucanase, followed by site-directed mutagenesis to obtain molecular insights into how these enzymes achieve catalysis. The residues of both proteins that are involved in their catalytic and binding activities have been characterized by measuring the ability of yeast cells expressing different versions of these proteins to transglycosylate oligosaccharides derived from β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan and chitin to the chitin at the cell wall. Within the catalytic site, residues E134 and E138 of Crh1, as well as E166 and E170 of Crh2, corresponding to the nucleophile and general acid/base, and also the auxiliary D136 and D168 of Crh1 and Crh2, respectively, are shown to be essential for catalysis. Mutations of aromatic residues F152, Y160 and W219, located within the carbohydrate-binding cleft of the Crh1 model, also affect the transglycosylase activity. Unlike Crh1, Crh2 contains a putative carbohydrate-binding module (CBM18) of unknown function. Modeling and functional analysis of site-directed mutant residues of this CBM identified essential amino acids for protein folding and stability, as well as residues that tune the catalytic activity of Crh2.