Person: Ladero Galán, Miguel
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Ingeniería Química y de Materiales
Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
PublicationProduction of Fumaric Acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 1526: A Simple Production Medium and the Kinetic Modelling of the Bioprocess(MDPI, 2022) Martin-Dominguez, Victor; Aleman Cabrera, Paula I; Eidt, Laslo; Pruesse, Ulf; Kuenz, Anja; Ladero Galán, Miguel; Santos Mazorra, Victoria EugeniaFumaric acid is a promising monomer to obtain biomass-based polyesters and polyamides, and it is mainly produced by fungi of the Rhizopus genus in medium to high titters. The use of glucose, a main component of starchy and cellulosic food waste, as carbon source, together with a low-nitrogen source concentration, is a promising route to reduce process costs. In this work, the effects of nitrogen and carbonate sources on Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 1526 morphology and fumaric acid productivity were analysed, simplifying the traditional production broth composition. Moreover, a non-structured, non-segregated kinetic model was proposed and fitted to concentration data of all relevant components obtained in batches performed in triplicate with the selected production broth at 34 °C and 200 rpm in an orbital shaker. PublicationPresentación del prototipo final a la Competición "Chem-E-Car" en el 10º Congreso Mundial de Ingeniería Química(2019-01-15) Negro Álvarez, Carlos Manuel; Monte Lara, M. Concepción; Fuente González, Elena de la; Blanco Suárez, M. Ángeles; Miranda Carreño, Rubén; Tijero Cruz, Antonio; Balea Martín, Ana; Merayo Cuevas, Noemí; Campano Tiedra, Cristina; López Expósito, Patricio Roberto; Plaza Rodríguez, Jesús; García-Ochoa Soria, Félix; Ladero Galán, Miguel; Senit Velasco, Juan José; Velasco Conde, Daniel; Pérez Trujillo, Francisco Javier; Alcalá Penadés, Germán; Mato Díaz, M. Sonia; Santos Barahona, Héctor; Lasanta Carrasco, M. Isabel; Miguel Gamo, M. Teresa de; García Martín, Gustavo; Illana Sánchez, Andrea; Bolívar Tejedo, Pilar; Carlucci, Maurizio Antonio; Morona Murillo, Lorena; Amo Salgado, Pablo del; Márquez Negro, Alejandro; Ara Jimeno, Pablo; Resino Guirao, Jesús; Alberola Sánchez, Raúl; Galán Galán, Alicia; Espinosa García, Lucía; Pedregal Sáez, Antonio; Fernández Rodríguez, Gemma; Arsuaga Cao, Pablo; Martín Jiménez, Diego; Arriba Gutiérrez, Héctor; Navarro Torres, Jorge; Sancho González, LuisEl proyecto consistió en la presentación del prototipo Chem-E-Car desarrollado en la UCM en la competición mundial que se celebró durante el transcurso del Congreso Mundial de Ingeniería Química (Barcelona, 30 septiembre-2 de octubre de 2017). PublicationHidrólisis de lactosa con [beta]-galactosidasas de "Kluyveromyces fragilis" y de "Escherichia coli"(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Servicio de Publicaciones, 2003) Ladero Galán, Miguel; García-Ochoa Soria, Félix; Santos López, AuroraEn este trabajo se estudian fenómenos existentes en las reacciones enzimáticas, tanto cuando la enzima actúa como catalizador homogéneo como cuando está inmovilizada y, por tanto, actúa como catalizador hetepogéneo. Los fenómenos abordados han sido: las reacciones de hidrólisis de lactosa y de ONPG con las dos enzimas, en disolución e inmovilizadas; la difusión de los sustratos en el interior del soporte donde se encuentra inmovilizada la enzima y la desactivación de la enzima, en disolución e inmovilizada. Se ha elegido como reacción a estudiar la hidrólisis de galactósidos con enzimas beta-Galactosidasas, utilizando las dos enzimas y los dos sustratos mencionados. Se han determinado las condiciones adecuadas para llevar a cabo las distintas reacciones y se ha discriminado un modelo cinético representativo de cada sistema reaccionante. En el estudio de la difusión de los sustratos en el soporte, se ha determinado la distribución de la enzima de K. fragilis en dicho soporte y el coeficiente de difusión efectivo en presencia y ausencia de reacción.# PublicationSynthesis of Ibuprofen Monoglyceride Using Novozym®435: Biocatalyst Activation and Stabilization in Multiphasic Systems(MDPI, 2022) Ravelo Velasquez, Marianela; Gallardo, M.Esther; Ladero Galán, Miguel; García Ochoa, FélixThis work was focused on the enzymatic esterification of glycerol and ibuprofen at high concentrations in two triphasic systems composed of toluene+ibuprofene (apolar) and glycerol or glycerol–water (polar) liquid phases, and a solid phase with the industrial immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica named Novozym®435 (N435) acting as the biocatalyst. Based on a preliminary study, the concentration of the enzyme was set at 30 g·L−1 and the stirring speed at 720 r.p.m to reduce external mass transfer limitations. To obtain more information on the reaction system, it was conducted at a wide range of temperatures (50 to 80 °C) and initial concentrations of ibuprofen (20–100 g·L−1, that is, 97 to 483 mM). Under these experimental conditions, the external mass transfer, according to the Mears criterion (Me = 1.47–3.33·10−4 << 0.15), was fast, presenting no limitation to the system productivity, regardless of the presence of water and from 50 to 80 °C. Considering that the enzyme is immobilized in a porous ion-exchange resin, limitations due to internal mass transfer can exist, depending on the values of the effectiveness factor (η). It varied from 0.14 to 0.23 at 50 to 80 °C and 0.32–1 mm particle diameter range in the absence of water, and in the same ranges, from 0.40 to 0.66 in the presence of 7.4% w/w water in the glycerol phase. Thus, it is evident that some limitation occurs due to mass transfer inside the pores, while the presence of water in the polar phase increases the productivity 3–4 fold. During the kinetic study, several kinetic models were proposed for both triphasic reacting systems, with and without first-order biocatalyst deactivation, and their fit to all relevant experimental data led to the observation that the best kinetic model was a reversible hyperbolic model with first-order deactivation in the anhydrous reaction system and a similar model, but without deactivation, for the system with added water at zero time. This fact is in sharp contrast to the use of N435 in a water-glycerol monophasic system, where progressive dissolution of ibuprofen in the reacting media, together with a notable enzyme deactivation, is observed. PublicationProduction of MCM-41 nanoparticles with control of particle size and structural properties: optimizing operationalconditions during scale-up.(MDPI, 2020-10-24) Castillo Romero, Rafael; Torre, Lorena de la; García Ochoa, Félix; Ladero Galán, Miguel; Vallet Regí, MaríaThe synthesis of MCM-41mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of controlled sizes and porous structure has been performed at laboratory and pilot plant scales. Firstly, the effects of the main operating conditions (TEOS addition rate, nanoparticle maturation time, temperature, and CTAB concentration) on the synthesis at laboratory scale (1 L round-bottom flask) were studied via a Taguchi experimental design. Subsequently, a profound one-by-one study of the effects of temperature and CTAB to TEOS molar ratio allowed to set these variables in 60 ºC and 8, avoiding particle enlargement and deformation of the internal structure. The final runs were performed at pilot plant scale (5 L cylindrical thermostated reactor) to analyze stirring speed, type of impeller, TEOS addition rate and nanoparticle maturation time effects, confirming results at laboratory scale. Despite slight variations on the morphology of the nanoparticles, this methodology provided MSNs with adequate sizes and porosities for biomedical applications regardless of the reactor/scale. The process showed to be robust and reproducible using mild synthesis conditions (2 mLmin-1 TEOS addition rate, 400 rpm stirred by a Rushton turbine, 60 minutes maturation time, 60 ºC, 2 gL-1 CTAB, molar ratio TEOS/CTAB=8), providing prismatic short mesoporous 100-200 nm nanorods with non-connected 3 nm parallel mesopores. PublicationIntensification of oxygen-dependent biotransformations catalyzed by immobilized enzymes(Elsevier, 2021-12) Lorente Arévalo, Alvaro; Ladero Galán, Miguel; Bolívar Bolívar, Juan ManuelOxidative biotransformations find a prominent role in the fine chemical industry and the valorization of renewable feedstocks. Implementation of oxygen-dependent reactions faces some challenges across scales and at different levels of development. First, the fruitful development of enzyme candidates and identification of reaction possibilities is not in consonance with the implementation in process engineering. Second, reaction engineering faces a complex interplay of reaction kinetic, oxygen transfer and process stability. Third, given the advances in synergic fields such as molecular biology, chemistry, material sciences, and (micro)process engineering, an interdisciplinary assembly from a consistent discipline around heterogeneous biocatalyst engineering would be of strategic value. We show advances in design of active and robust immobilized enzyme catalysts to be applied in (continuous) intensified processes. A framework based on the joint design of a catalyst and reactor will be discussed for the design and optimization of the catalysts and biotransformations involved. PublicationProduction of Oligosaccharides from Agrofood Wastes(MDPI, 2020-03-08) Cano, María Emilia; García Martin, Alberto; Comendador Morales, Pablo; Wojtusik, Mateusz; Santos Mazorra, Victoria Eugenia; Kovensky, José; Ladero Galán, MiguelThe development of biorefinery processes to platform chemicals for most lignocellulosic substrates, results in side processes to intermediates such as oligosaccharides. Agrofood wastes are most amenable to produce such intermediates, in particular, cellooligo-saccharides (COS), pectooligosaccharides (POS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and other less abundant oligomers containing mannose, arabinose, galactose and several sugar acids. These compounds show a remarkable bioactivity as prebiotics, elicitors in plants, food complements, healthy coadyuvants in certain therapies and more. They are medium to high added-value compounds with an increasing impact in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and food industries. This review is focused on the main production processes: autohydrolysis, acid and basic catalysis and enzymatic saccharification. Autohydrolysis of food residues at 160–190 °C leads to oligomer yields in the 0.06–0.3 g/g dry solid range, while acid hydrolysis of pectin (80–120 °C) or cellulose (45–180 °C) yields up to 0.7 g/g dry polymer. Enzymatic hydrolysis at 40–50 °C of pure polysaccharides results in 0.06–0.35 g/g dry solid (DS), with values in the range 0.08–0.2 g/g DS for original food residues. PublicationInnovación docente para sentar las bases docentes de la competición Chem-E-Car en España(2015-02-05) Negro Alvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; de la Fuente, Helena; Monte Lara, Concepción; Hermosilla Redondo, Daphne; Tijero Cruz, Antonio; Merayo Cuevas, Noemi; Cortijo Garrido, Luis; Latour Romero, Isabel; López Expósito, Patricio; Barndok, Helen; Blanco Jaen, Laura; Balea Martín, Ana; Plaza Rodriguez, Jesus; García Ochoa, Félix; Ladero Galán, Miguel; Guijarro Gil, Isabel; Esteban Serrano, Jesús; Ravelo Velasquez, Marianela; Ripoll Morales, Vanessa; Rodríguez Martín, Alberto; Wojtusik, Mateuzs; Pérez Trujillo, Francisco Javier; Mato Díaz, Sonia; Alcalá Penadés, German; Morena López, Susana de la; Santos Barahona, Héctor; Lasanta Carrasco, M. Isabel; García Martin, Gustavo; de Miguel Gamo, TeresaDesarrollo de herramientas docentes para la adquisición de la capacidad de controlar de forma segura una reacción química, concibiendo, diseñando y ejecutando un sistema cumpliendo los estándares de seguridad y medioambientales. Las herramientas desarrolladas son de aplicación a un posible implantación de la competición desarrollada por AIChE: "Chem-E-Car". PublicationModeling the Succinic Acid Bioprocess: A Review(MDPI, 2022) Escanciano, Itziar A.; Wojtusik, Mateusz; Esteban, Jesus; Ladero Galán, Miguel; Santos Mazorra, Victoria EugeniaSuccinic acid has attracted much interest as a key platform chemical that can be obtained in high titers from biomass through sustainable fermentation processes, thus boosting the bioeconomy as a critical production strategy for the future. After several years of development of the production of succinic acid, many studies on lab or pilot scale production have been reported. The relevant experimental data reveal underlying physical and chemical dynamic phenomena. To take advantage of this vast, but disperse, kinetic information, a number of mathematical kinetic models of the unstructured non-segregated type have been proposed in the first place. These relatively simple models feature critical aspects of interest for the design, control, optimization and operation of this key bioprocess. This review includes a detailed description of the phenomena involved in the bioprocesses and how they reflect on the most important and recent models based on macroscopic and metabolic chemical kinetics, and in some cases even coupling mass transport. PublicationKinetic Modelling of the Coproduction Process of Fumaric and Malic Acids by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 1526(MDPI, 2020-02-05) Martín Domínguez, Víctor; Bouzas Santiso, Laura; Martínez Peinado, Nieves; Santos Mazorra, Victoria Eugenia; Ladero Galán, MiguelThe production of organic acids by biotechnological processes has experienced a notable impulse with the advent of first and second generation biorefineries and the need of searching for renewable and sustainable feedstock, such as biomass. Fumaric acid is a promising biomonomer for polyamide production and a well-known acidulant and preservative in food and feed industries. Malic acid is a well-known food acidulant with a high market share. The biotechnological Fumaric and Malic acid production via fungi of the Rhizopus genus is being explored nowadays as a process for the valorization of food and food-related waste to obtain food ingredients and key platform chemicals of the so-called biochemical biorefinery. In this work, a preliminary study is performed to find reproducible conditions for the production of the acids by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 1526 by controlling fungi morphology and inoculum conditions. Afterwards, several production runs are performed to obtain biomass, glucose, and acid concentration data at different processing time values. Finally, an unstructured, unsegregated model including a logistic-type equation for biomass and potential-type equations for the substrate and the products is fitted to experimental data. We find that the production of the organic acids is mainly non-associated with fungal growth.