Person: Benito Moreno, María Isabel
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Now showing 1 - 10 of 59
PublicationEvolution of an intra-plate rift basin: the Latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Cameros Basin (Northwest Iberian Ranges, North Spain)(Sociedad Geológica de España, 2011) Mas Mayoral, José Ramón; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Arribas Mocoroa, José; Alonso Millán, Ángela; Arribas Mocoroa, María Eugenia; Lohmann, K.C.; González Acebrón, Laura; Hernán, J.; Quijada, Isabel Emma; Suárez González, Pablo; Omodeo Salé, S.; Arenas, Concha; Pomar, Luis; Colombo, Ferrán PublicationBelemnite taphonomy (Upper Jurassic, Western Tethys) part II: Fossil–diagenetic analysis including combined petrographic and geochemical techniques(Elsevier, 2012-11) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Reolid, MatíasFossil–diagenetic features were analyzed on 56 belemnite rostra from the Pozo Cañada section (External Prebetic), as well as 31 belemnite rostra from the Río Segura (Internal Prebetic), both from the Upper Oxfordian–Lower Kimmeridgian. They mainly correspond to Hibolithes and, secondarily to Belemnopsis. Fossil–diagenetic processes were analyzed in each specimen, using petrographic (conventional, cathodoluminescence, epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy) and geochemical (elemental and stable isotopes) techniques. The most common fossil–diagenetic processes are dissolution, calcite cementation, and recrystallization of the apical zone and outer growth rings of belemnite rostra. These processes may appear enhanced by fracturing and stylolite formation. Petrographic study also reveals that the alternation of cloudy and clear concentric growth areas displayed by many belemnite rostra corresponds to an early diagenetic feature in origin. However, an original concentric growth pattern is also observed under epifluorescent microscopy and BSEM. This growth pattern fits with changes in the Mg and S content of the rostra. Although fossil–diagenetic processes typically make specimens non-suitable for paleoenvironmental interpretations, microsampling of petrographically altered and non-altered areas from the same specimens, performed directly from thin sections after petrographic study, allowed us to obtain excellent geochemical results suitable for paleoenvironmental interpretations. These geochemical analyses moreover demonstrates that caution should be taken if elemental analyses are used as the most significant criteria for discriminating diagenetically altered and non-altered belemnite samples. PublicationComparison of the Calcareous Shells of Belemnitida and Sepiida: Is the Cuttlebone Prong an Analogue of the Belemnite Rostrum Solidum?(MDPI, 2020-08-12) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Reolid, MatíasThe microstructure of the rostrum solidum of Jurassic belemnites is compared with that of Sepia cuttlebones, in order to examine possible convergences in their style of growth. For this study, transmitted and polarized light, cathodoluminescence, epifluorescence, scanning electron and backscattered electron microscopy have been employed. Despite differences in the primary mineralogy of the studied belemnites and sepiids, calcite and aragonite, respectively, many similarities have been observed between the microstructure of the belemnite rostra and the prong of Sepia cuttlebone: (1) In both, crystals start growing from successive spherulites, from which crystals emerge radially towards the apex and the external walls, displaying internally micro-fibrous texture. (2) Both display concentric growth layering, comprising an alternation of organic-rich and organic-poor layers, which, in turn, is traverse by the radially-arranged micro-fibrous crystals. (3) The highest organic matter content and porosity have been observed along the apical area of the Sepia prong, similarly to that interpreted for belemnite rostra. The strong convergences observed suggest that the growth of belemnites occurred similarly to that of the prong of sepiids and that the Sepia prong is the analog of the belemnite rostrum. Additionally, non-classical crystallization processes are proposed to be involved in the formation Sepia endoskeleton. PublicationDo stromatolites Need Tides to trap Oodis? insights from the Coastal-Lake carbonates of the Leza FM (Early Cretaceous, N Spain)(Université de Caen, 2012) Suárez González, Pablo; Quijada, Isabel Emma; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Mas Mayoral, José Ramón PublicationAnálisis de la evolución en la adquisición de competencias específicas y transversales en los Grados de Geología e Ingeniería Geológica(2019-06-28) García Lorenzo, Mari Luz; Abati Gómez, Jacobo; Orejana García, David; Castiñeiras García, Pedro; Crespo Feo, María Elena; Piña García, Rubén; García Romero, Emilia; Granja Bruña, José Luis; López García, José Ángel; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Arribas Mocoroa, María Eugenia; Ortega Menor, Lorena; Pérez Moreno, Elisa María; Benito Moreno, María Isabel PublicationSources of Sr and S in Aluminum-Phosphate–Sulfate Minerals in Early–Middle Triassic Sandstones (Iberian Ranges, Spain) and Paleoenvironmental Implications for the West Tethys(SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2013) Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Newton, Robert J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Luque del Villar, Francisco JavierAluminum-phosphate–sulfate (APS) minerals, formed during early diagenesis in relation to acid meteoric waters, are the main host of Sr and S in the Early–Middle Triassic continental sandstones of the Iberian Ranges (east of the Iberian Peninsula). The sources of these elements and the effects of paleoenvironmetal changes on these sources and on the formation of APS minerals during Early–Middle Triassic times, were established on the basis of Sr and S isotopic analyses. The S and Sr data (d34S V-CDT = +11 to +14% and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7099–0.7247, respectively) can be interpreted as resulting from mixing of different sources. Strontium was sourced from the dissolution of pre-existing minerals like K-feldspar and clay minerals inherited from the source areas, causing high radiogenic values. However, the isotopic signal must also be influenced by other sources, such as marine or volcanic aerosol that decreased the total 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Marine and volcanic aerosols were also sources of sulfur, but the d34S was lowered by dissolution of pre-existing sulfides, mainly pyrite. Pyrite dissolution and volcanic aerosols would also trigger the acid conditions required for the precipitation of APS minerals. APS minerals in the study area are found mainly in the Cañizar Formation (Olenekian?–Aegian), which has the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The lower abundance of APS minerals in the Eslida Formation (Aegian–Pelsonian) may indicate change in the acidity of pore water towards more alkaline conditions, while the increased 87Sr/86Sr ratios imply decreased Sr input from volcanic activity and/or marine aerosol inputs during Anisian times. Therefore, the decrease in abundance of APS minerals from the Early to Middle Triassic and the variations in the sources of Sr and S are indicative of changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during the beginning of the Triassic Period. These changes from acid to more alkaline conditions are also coincident with the first appearance of carbonate paleosols, trace fossils, and plant fossils in the upper part of the Cañizar Formation (and more in the overlying Eslida Formation) and mark the beginning of biotic recovery in this area. The presence of APS minerals in other European basins of the Western Tethys (such as the German Basin, the Paris Basin and the southeastern France and Sardinia basins) could thus also indicate that unfavorable environmental conditions caused delay in biotic recovery in those areas. In general, the presence of APS minerals may be used as an indicator of arid, acidic conditions unfavorable to biotic colonization. PublicationPalaeoenvironmental implications of aluminium phosphate-sulphate minerals in Early–Middle Triassic continental sediments, SE Iberian Range (Spain)(Elsevier, 2013) Galán Abellán, Ana Belén; Barrenechea, José F.; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Alonso Azcárate, Jacinto; Arche, Alfredo; López Gómez, José; Lago San José, MarcelianoThe presence of Sr-rich aluminium-phosphate sulphate (APS) minerals in continental sedimentary rocks from the Cañizar and Eslida Formations along the eastern part of the Iberian Range (Spain) is considered as evidence of acidic and oxidising conditions during Early–Middle Triassic times. The formation of APS minerals occurred shortly after sedimentation, in early diagenetic stages, prior to the compaction of the sediments and most probably was related to the circulation of acidic meteoric waters. Such conditions might result from a sustained, damaged environment or from multiple environmental crises, but would have delayed the recovery of life after the end-Palaeozoic mass extinction. APSminerals occur as small disseminated and idiomorphic pseudo-cubic crystals (0.5 to 6 μmlong) or as massive and polycrystalline aggregates replacing fragments of fine- rainedmetamorphic rocks (mainlymetapelites). Textural data indicate that the formation of the APS minerals predated the quartz and illite cements, and that they resulted from the destabilisation of pre-existing minerals, as evidenced by the replacement of slate fragments by APSminerals and hematite and by the close association of the disseminated APS crystals and kaolinitewith altered detrital mica plates. Electronmicroprobe analyses and X-ray diffraction study of the APSminerals indicate a rather homogeneous composition in different parts of the basin, corresponding to solid solutions among woodhouseite, svanbergite, crandallite and goyazite. The sources of strontium in the APS minerals remain unclear. Phosphorous was primarily supplied by dissolution of detrital phosphates under acidic conditions, and sulphur derives from the weathering of pyrite. PublicationLos isótopos de S en los yesos del Grupo Oncala: evidencia de influencia marina en los depósitos carbonático-evaporíticos berriasienses de la cuenca de Cameros (La Rioja-Soria)(Sociedad Geológica de España., 2016) Quijada, Isabel Emma; Suárez González, Pablo; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Mas Mayoral, José RamónDiscriminar si el origen de las salmueras en las que precipitaron numerosas sucesiones evaporíticas era marino o continental puede resultar complicado usando exclusivamente criterios sedimentológicos si no contienen fósiles diagnósticos. Éste es el caso de los depósitos carbonático-evaporíticos laminados del Gr. Oncala (Berriasiense, cuenca de Cameros oriental), formados en extensos cuerpos de agua someros. En este trabajo se busca determinar el origen de la salmuera en la que se formaron estos sedimentos mediante el análisis de las composiciones del δ34S de los yesos preservados en la unidad. Los valores de δ34S de entre +18,5‰V-CDT y +21,8‰V-CDT (media de +20,5‰V-CDT) de los yesos del Gr. Oncala coinciden con la signatura isotópica de los sulfatos precipitados a partir de agua marina de edad berriasiense de acuerdo con las curvas globales más recientes (≈ +17 - +20‰V-CDT), lo que sugiere que la principal fuente de sulfato en estos cuerpos de agua procedía de aportes de agua marina, en lugar del reciclaje de evaporitas triásicas como se había propuesto anteriormente. El reconocimiento de influencia marina en estos cuerpos de agua permite clasificarlos como salinas costeras. PublicationIchnofauna from coastal meandering channel systems (Upper Cretaceous Tremp Formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Spain): delineating the fluvial-tidal transition(The Paleontological Society., 2016) Díez Canseco, Davinia; Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Díaz Molina, Margarita; Benito Moreno, María IsabelThe Upper Cretaceous “redbeds” of the lower Tremp Formation (South-Central Pyrenees, Spain) contains an ichnofauna consisting of Taenidium barretti, Taenidium bowni, Loloichnus isp., Arenicolites isp., Planolites isp., and Palaeophycus isp. This ichnofauna occurs in deposits formed in tide-influenced meander loops and their associated overbank mudflats. Evaluation of the taphonomic controls on the Tremp ichnofauna shows that (1) two morphotypes of Taenidium barretti are controlled by the substrate consistence, (2) Arenicolites may be enlarged by erosion processes, and (3) Taenidium barretti and Planolites isp. are not the same ichnotaxa showing different types of preservation. The meniscate fill in Taenidium barretti suggests that this structure was produced by deposit feeders. The Tremp ichnofauna is grouped into two trace-fossil assemblages, a depauperate subaquatic monospecific Planolites suite and an assemblage representing the Scoyenia Ichnofacies.Trace-fossil distribution reflects paleoenvironmental changes in the meandering channels along the stratigraphic section with the Planolites suite in the lowermost part of the lower interval and the Scoyenia Ichnofacies in the middle and upper intervals. The lowermost suite may be likely formed seaward of the maximum salinity limit, under extreme brackish-water conditions, whereas the Scoyenia Ichnofacies records a freshwater assemblage that was formed landward of the maximum salinity limit, reflecting deltaic progradation. PublicationShallow burial dolomitisation of Middle–Upper Permian paleosols in an extensional tectonic context (SE Iberian Basin, Spain): Controls on temperature of precipitation and source of fluids(Elsevier, 2011) Benito Moreno, María Isabel; Horra del Barco, Raúl de la; López Gómez, José; Fernández Barrenechea, José María; Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Arche, AlfredoThis work is focused on carbonate paleosols developed in three stratigraphic sections (Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos) of theMiddle–Late Permian Alcotas Formation in the SE Iberian Basin. The Alcotas Formation, of alluvial origin, was deposited in semi-connected half-grabens developed during the early stages of the Permian–Triassic rifting stage that affected the Iberian Basin. The studied sections were located in two of these half-grabens, the Henarejos section being much closer to the basin boundary fault than the other two sections. The mineralogy and texture of the carbonate precursor of paleosols in the three studied sections are not preserved because original carbonate is replaced by coarse crystals of dolomite and/or magnesite. Dolomite crystals are typically euhedral, displaying rhombohedral shapes and reddish luminescence, although in the Henarejos section dolomite displays non-planar boundaries and frequently saddle habit. Micas are deformed and adapted to dolomite crystals, which, in turn, are affected by stylolites, suggesting that dolomite precipitated before mechanical and chemical compaction. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of dolomite fromthe three sections showdifferent values (δ13CVPDB mean values=−6.7‰,−5.5‰ and −7.5‰; δ18OVPDB mean values=−4.0‰; –5.6‰and−8.2‰, at Landete, Talayuelas and Henarejos sections, respectively). The 87Sr/86Sr ratios are similar in the three sections yielding values between 0.71391 and 0.72213. The petrographic and geochemical features of dolomite in the three studied sections suggest precipitation fromsimilar fluids and during shallow burial diagenesis. Assuming that theminimum temperature for dolomite precipitation in the Henarejos sectionwas 60 °C (as suggested by the presence of non-planar saddle habit), and that the dolomitizing fluid had similar δ18O values at the three localities, then dolomite in the Talayuelas and Landete sections precipitated at temperatures around 16 and 25 °C cooler, respectively. In addition, the δ18OVSMOW values of the water from which dolomite precipitated would have ranged between −0.3 and −2.9‰. Dolomite is partially or totally replaced by non- to dark dull luminescent magnesite in the Landete and Talayuelas sections. Magnesite crystals are affected by stylolites, indicating that it precipitated before chemical compaction. The δ13C mean values are −6.5 and −6.0‰ and the δ18OVPDB mean values are −6.7 and −7.8‰, in the Landete and Talayuelas sections, respectively. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of magnesite are similar in both sections yielding values between 0.71258 and 0.72508. This suggests that they probably precipitated from similar fluids during progressive burial and at higher temperatures than dolomites at the same sections. Assuming thatmagnesite precipitated froma fluid with similar δ18O values in both sections, then it had to precipitate at a temperature around 8 °C higher in Talayuelas than in the Landete section. Dolomitisation and magnesite precipitation probably occurred via reflux of saline to hypersaline brines from the overlying Mid-Late Triassic Muschelkalk and/or Keuper facies. The temperatures inferred for dolomite precipitation, however, are too high for shallow burial if a normal geothermal gradient is applied. Thus, it can be inferred that salinefluidswere heated as theyflowed through the syn-sedimentary extensional faults that controlledMiddle Permian to Middle Triassic sedimentation; consequently fluidswould have been at higher temperatures near the Henarejos area, which was closer to the basin boundary fault than at the Talayuelas and Landete areas, whichwere situated further away. This contention is in agreement with recent studies which demonstrate that an important thermal event took place during Late Triassic–Early Jurassic times in the Iberian Peninsula.