Person: Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Now showing 1 - 10 of 73
PublicationMain crustal seismic sources in El Salvador(Elsevier, 2018-10) Alonso Henar, Jorge; Benito, Belén; Staller, A.; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Canora Catalán, CarolinaWe present a map and a data set containing information about intra-plate seismic sources in El Salvador. These are the results of the field campaigns and data analysis carried out by the research group of Planetary Geodinamics, Active Tectonics and Related Risks from Complutense University of Madrid during the last 12 years. We include two maps, the first map contains 1405 fault traces with evidences of Quaternary activity derived form morphometric, paleoseismological and geomorphological analysis together with field data mapping carried in El Salvador. The second map is a synthesis of the 29 intra-plate seismic sources selected from the quaternary faults map. The geometry of these sources was simplified and we also include a table where some available data of the proposed sources are included, such as their name, orientation, length and slip-rate. For further interpretation and discussion of these sources see (Alonso-Henar et al., 2018). PublicationActive Triclinic Transtension in a Volcanic Arc: A Case of the El Salvador Fault Zone in Central America(MDPI, 2022-06-30) Alonso Henar, Jorge; Fernández Rodríguez, Carlos; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Canora Catalán, Carolina; Staller Vázquez, Alejandra; Díaz, Manuel; Hernández, Walter; García, Ángela Valeria; Martínez Díaz, José J.The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc and accommodates the oblique separation movement between the forearc sliver and the Chortis block (Caribbean Plate). In this work, a triclinic transtension model was applied to geological (fault-slip inversion, shape of volcanic calderas), seismic (focal mechanisms) and geodetic (GPS displacements) data to evaluate the characteristics of the last stages of the kinematic evolution of the arc. The El Salvador Fault Zone constitutes a large band of transtensional deformation whose direction varies between N90° E and N110° E. Its dip is about 70° S because it comes from the reactivation of a previous extensional stage. A protocol consisting of three successive steps was followed to compare the predictions of the model with the natural data. The results show a simple shear direction plunging between 20° and 50° W (triclinic flow) and a kinematic vorticity number that is mostly higher than 0.81 (simple-shearing-dominated flow). The direction of shortening of the coaxial component would be located according to the dip of the deformation band. It was concluded that this type of analytical model could be very useful in the kinematic study of active volcanic arcs, even though only information on small deformation increments is available. PublicationLa Base de Datos de Fallas Activas en el Cuaternario de Iberia (QAFI v.2.0)(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2012) García Mayordomo, Julián; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Jiménez Díaz, Alberto; Martín Banda, Raquel; Martín Alfageme, Santiago; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Rodríguez Peces, Martín Jesús; Pérez López, Raúl; Rodríguez Pascua, Miguel Angel; Masana, E.; Perea Manea, Hector; Martín González, Fidel; Giner Robles, Jorge; Nemserb, Eliza S.; Cabral, JoaoLa Base de Datos de Fallas Activas de Iberia (QAFI) es una iniciativa promovida por el Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME) para construir un repositorio público de información científica sobre fallas con actividad en los últimos 2,59 Ma (Cuaternario). Además, la QAFI persigue establecer una base sobre la que facilitar la transferencia de conocimiento geológico al ámbito tecnológico de la gestión del riesgo sísmico en Iberia, en particular en la identificación y caracterización de fuentes sismogénicas tipo falla. La QAFI se ha construido a partir de la información proporcionada de modo altruista por más de 40 investigadores en ciencias de la Tierra conteniendo actualmente un total de de 262 registros. En este artículo se describe la concepción y evolución de la base de datos, y su arquitectura interna. Además, se ofrece un primer análisis global de los datos que contiene, con especial interés en parámetros tan importantes como la longitud y tasa de deslizamiento de las fallas. Finalmente se discuten dos temas cruciales en cualquier base de datos: su completitud y la homogeneidad de los datos. Se concluye que QAFI v.2.0, pese a ser la fuente más actualizada de información disponible en Iberia sobre peligrosidad sísmica de fallas concretas, dista aun de ser completa, por lo que nuevas revisiones y versiones deberán seguir llevándose a cabo en el futuro. PublicationSeriesBuster: a Matlab program to extract spatio-temporal series from an earthquake database(Elsevier, 2005) Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; García Mayordomo, Julián; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Capote del Villar, Ramón PublicationInSAR-Based Mapping to Support Decision-Making after an Earthquake(MDPI AG, 2018) Bejar Pizarro, Marta; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Staller, Alejandra; Luna, Marco P.; Pérez López, Raúl; Chunga, Kervin; Lima, Aracely; Galve, Jorge PedroIt has long been recognized that earthquakes change the stress in the upper crust around the fault rupture and can influence the behaviour of neighbouring faults and volcanoes. Rapid estimates of these stress changes can provide the authorities managing the post-disaster situation with valuable data to identify and monitor potential threads and to update the estimates of seismic and volcanic hazard in a region. Here we propose a methodology to evaluate the potential influence of an earthquake on nearby faults and volcanoes and create easy-to-understand maps for decision-making support after large earthquakes. We apply this methodology to the Mw 7.8, 2016 Ecuador earthquake. Using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and continuous GPS data, we measure the coseismic ground deformation and estimate the distribution of slip over the fault rupture. We also build an alternative source model using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) solution. Then we use these models to evaluate changes of static stress on the surrounding faults and volcanoes and produce maps of potentially activated faults and volcanoes. We found, in general, good agreement between our maps and the seismic and volcanic events that occurred after the Pedernales earthquake. We discuss the potential and limitations of the methodology. PublicationAn Overview of the Damaging and Low Magnitude Mw 4.8 La Paca Earthquake on 29 January 2005: Context, Seismotectonics, and Seismic Risk Implications for Southeast Spain(Seismological Society of America, 2007) Benito, Belén; Capote del Villar, Ramón; Murphy, P.; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Tsige Beyene, Meaza; Stich, Daniel; García Mayordomo, Julián; García Rodríguez, M.J.; Jiménez, M. E.; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Canora Catalán, CarolinaThis article presents an overview of the La Paca earthquake of magnitude mbLg 4.7, which occurred on 29 January 2005, with its epicenter located near the town of Avile´s in the Murcia region in southeast Spain. Despite its low magnitude, the earthquake caused important damage in two towns of the epicentral area, La Paca and Zarcilla de Ramos. These areas recorded intensities of VI–VII (European Macroseismic Scale, 1998) and sustained estimated economic losses amounting to 10 million €. Aftershocks continued for more than 2 weeks, producing considerable alarm in the population and mobilizing emergency services from the whole region. The La Paca seismic series is the third registered in the region in the past 8 years, being preceded by the Mula (1999) and southwest Bullas (2002) seismic series. These main events had also low magnitudes (mbLg 4.8) and caused damage levels similar to the 2005 earthquake. The case is an example of a moderate seismic zone where low-magnitude and frequent earthquakes have important implications on the seismic hazard and risk of the region. Although these are not the largest expected earthquakes, they have yielded important information for improving the knowledge of the seismic activity of the area. With this aim in mind, different topics have been analyzed from a multidisciplinary perspective, including seismicity, local tectonics and surface geology, focal mechanisms, macroseismic effects, and ground motion. Results indicate a local tectonic interpretation, consistent with a strike-slip focal mechanism, the confirmation of a triggering process between the 2002 and 2005 earthquakes, a geotechnical and ground-motion characterization for the damaged sites (supporting local amplification effects and estimated peak ground acceleration values ∼ 0.1g), and an understanding of damage patterns in relation to local building trends. The results may be used as guidelines for future revisions of the Spanish Building Code (Norma de la Construcción Sismorresistente Espan˜ola [NCSE-02], 2002). The study results should contribute to risk mitigation in a region where strong-motion records from the maximum expected earthquakes are not available. This approach can be extended to other regions with similar seismic backgrounds and a lack of strong-motion records. PublicationScenarios for earthquake-generated tsunamis on a complex tectonic area of diffuse deformation and low velocity: The Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean(Elsevier B.V., 2011) Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Aniel Quiroga, Íñigo; González, Mauricio; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Carreño Herrero, EmilioThe tsunami impact on the Spanish and North African coasts of the Alboran Sea generated by several reliable seismic tsunamigenic sources in this area was modeled. The tectonic setting is complex and a study of the potential sources from geological data is basic to obtain probable source characteristics. The tectonic structures considered in this study as potentially tsunamigenic are: the Alboran Ridge associated structures, the Carboneras Fault Zone and the Yusuf Fault Zone. We characterized 12 probable tsunamigenic seismic sources in the Alboran Basin based on the results of recent oceanographical studies. The strain rate in the area is low and therefore its seismicity is moderate and cannot be used to infer characteristics of the major seismic sources. These sources have been used as input for the numerical simulation of the wave propagation, based on the solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations through a finite-difference technique. We calculated the Maximum Wave Elevations, and Tsunami Travel Times using the numerical simulations. The results are shown as maps and profiles along the Spanish and African coasts. The sources associated with the Alboran Ridge show the maximum potential to generate damaging tsunamis, with maximum wave elevations in front of the coast exceeding 1.5 m. The Carboneras and Yusuf faults are not capable of generating disastrous tsunamis on their own, although their proximity to the coast could trigger landslides and associated sea disturbances. The areas which are more exposed to the impact of tsunamis generated in the Alboran Sea are the Spanish coast between Malaga and Adra, and the African coast between Alhoceima and Melilla. PublicationPaleoseismic analysis of the San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone, El Salvador, Central America(Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra "Jaume Almera" (Barcelona), 2012) Canora Catalán, Carolina; Villamor Pérez, María Pilar; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Berryman, K.R.; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Capote del Villar, Ramón; Hernández, WalterThe El Salvador earthquake of February 13th 2001 (Mw 6.6) was associated with the tectonic rupture of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Paleoseismic studies of the El Salvador Fault Zone undertaken after this earthquake provide a basis for examining the longer history of surface rupturing earthquakes on the fault. Trenching at five sites along the San Vicente segment, a 21km-long and up to 2km-wide central section of the El Salvador Fault Zone, shows that surface fault rupture has occurred at least seven times during the past 8ka. Single-event displacements identified at each trench vary from several decimetres to at least 3.7m. Fault trace mapping, geomorphic analysis, and paleoseismic studies indicate a maximum magnitude for the El Salvador Fault Zone is c. Mw 7.6, with a recurrence interval of around 800yr. Earthquakes of Mw 6.6 or smaller, such as the February 2001 event are unlikely to be identified in the paleoseismic trenches, so our observations represent the minimum number of moderate to large earthquakes that have occurred on this part of the El Salvador Fault Zone. We observe significant variability in single-event displacement in the trenches, which we interpret as possible cascade rupture of several segments of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Combining displacements of river courses and the timing of events revealed in the trenches, we calculate a slip rate of c. 4mm/yr for El Salvador Fault Zone, identifying the fault zone as a major tectonic feature of the region, and a major source of seismic hazard and risk in El Salvador. PublicationGeological evidences of surface rupture related to a seventeenth century destructive earthquake in Betic Cordillera (SE Spain): constraining the seismic hazard of the Alhama de Murcia fault(Springer, 2019-03) Martínez Díaz, José J.; Alonso Henar, Jorge; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel; Canora Catalán, Carolina; García Mayordomo, Julián; Rodríguez Escudero, Emilio; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Ferrater, Marta; Ortuño, María; Masana, EulàliaConstraining the date of the last major event occurred in a fault is of paramount importance in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment when time-dependent models are considered. Eight of the twelve destructive earthquakes occurred in the eastern Betic Cordillera since sixteenth century, are located less than 10 km away from the Alhama de Murcia fault (AMF). Up to now, it has not been identified any geological evidence on the ground surface to associate these events with the activity of specific fault sections of the AMF. In this work we present the first geological evidence of the catastrophic 1674 event occurred at Lorca (SE Spain). The excavations carried out at La Torrecilla Creek exposed archaeological remains from the Islamic period (VIII–XIII centuries in this region) affected by 55 ± 20 cm offset by the AMF fault. This event reached intensity VIII and produced 30 fatalities at Lorca for an estimated population of 7300 inhabitants. This supports the occurrence of earthquakes with surface rupture in the historical epoch on the Alhama de Murcia fault and reinforces the results obtained in previous paleoseismological work. The theoretical scenarios of maximum magnitudes and recurrence time obtained by combining this historical event with the fault slip rate allow us to conclude that the seismic hazard associated with maximum magnitude events in this section could be high. In addition, the static Coulomb stress transferred to the Góñar–Lorca section by the 2011 (Mw 5.2) Lorca earthquake may have significantly increased the hazard. PublicationNew seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.(Copernicus Publications; European Geosciences Union, 2014) Alonso Henar, Jorge; Staller, A.; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Benito, Belén; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Canora Catalán, CarolinaEl Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of 80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate and the forearc aliver. The ESFZ is a right lateral strike-slip fault zone c. 150 km long and 20 km wide .This shear band distributes the deformation among strike-slip faults trending N90º-100ºE and secondary normal faults trending N120º- N170º. The ESFZ is relieved westward by the Jalpatagua Fault and becomes less clear eastward disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. Five sections have been proposed for the whole fault zone. These ault sections are (from west to east): ESFZ Western Section, San Vicente Section, Lempa Section, Berlin Section and San Miguel Section. Paleoseismic studies carried out in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation and paleoearthquakes up to Mw 7.6. In this study we present 45 capable seismic sources in El Salvador and their preliminary slip-rate from geological and GPS data. The GPS data detailled results are presented by Staller et al., 2014 in a complimentary communication. The calculated preliminary slip-rates range from 0.5 to 8 mm/yr for individualized faults within the ESFZ. We calculated maximum magnitudes from the mapped lengths and paleoseismic observations.We propose different earthquakes scenario including the potential combined rupture of different fault sections of the ESFZ, resulting in maximum earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.6. We used deterministic models to calculate acceleration distribution related with maximum earthquakes of the different proposed scenario. The spatial distribution of seismic accelerations are compared and calibrated using the February 13, 2001 earthquake, as control earthquake. To explore the sources of historical earthquakes we compare synthetic acceleration maps with the historical earthquakes of March 6, 1719 and June 8, 1917. control earthquake. To explore the sources of historical earthquakes we compare synthetic acceleration maps with the historical earthquakes of March 6, 1719 and June 8, 1917.