Jiménez García, Rodrigo

Profile Picture
First Name
Last Name
Jiménez García
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Salud Pública y Materno-Infantil
Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública
UCM identifierORCIDScopus Author IDWeb of Science ResearcherIDDialnet IDGoogle Scholar ID

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 81
  • Publication
    Sex Differences in the Incidence and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) in Spain from 2016 to 2019
    (MPDI, 2021-08-06) López Muñiz Ballesteros, Belén; López Herranz, Marta; López de Andrés, Ana; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Jiménez Trujillo, Isabel; Miguel Díez, Javier de
    (1) Background: To assess sex differences in the incidence, characteristics, procedures and outcomes of patients admitted with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); and to analyze variables associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM). (2) Methods: We analyzed data collected by the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database, 2016–2019. (3) Results: We identified 13,278 hospital discharges (66.4% men) of IPF (primary diagnosis 32.33%; secondary diagnosis: 67.67%). Regardless of the diagnosis position, IPF incidence was higher among men than women, increasing with age. Men had 2.74 times higher IPF incidence than women. Comorbidity was higher for men in either primary or secondary diagnosis. After matching, men had higher prevalence of pulmonary embolism and pneumonia, and women of congestive heart failure, dementia, rheumatoid disease and pulmonary hypertension. Invasive ventilation, bronchoscopy and lung transplantation were received more often by men than women. IHM was higher among men with IPF as primary diagnosis than among women and increased with age in both sexes and among those who suffered cancer, pneumonia or required mechanical ventilation. (4) Conclusions: Incidence of IPF was higher among men than women, as well as comorbidity and use of bronchoscopy, ventilation and lung transplantation. IHM was worse among men than women with IPF as primary diagnosis, increasing with age, cancer, pneumonia or mechanical ventilation use.
  • Publication
    Use of Cardiac Procedures in People with Diabetes during the COVID Pandemic in Spain: Effects on the In-Hospital Mortality
    (MDPI, 2023-01-02) López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Miguel Yanes, José María de; Miguel Díez, Javier de; Zamorano León, José Javier; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Cuadrado Corrales, Natividad
    We aimed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain on people with diabetes undergoing cardiac procedures, such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), open surgical valve replacement (OSVR), and transcatheter valve implantation (TCVI). We compared the year 2019 with the year 2020. We conducted an observational study using data from the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020. In 2020, a total of 21,067 cardiac procedures were performed on people with diabetes compared with 24,675 in the previous year. The use of CABG, PCI, OSVR and TCVI decreased from 2019 to 2020 by 13.9%, 14.8%, 21.4% and 2.9%, respectively. In 2020, patients had a significantly higher mean Charlson Comorbidity Index than in 2019 for all the cardiac procedures analyzed. In-hospital mortality (IHM) was higher (p > 0.05) for all the procedures in the year 2020. Over the entire period, female sex was a significant risk factor for IHM among those who underwent CABG, PCI and OSVR (OR 1.94, 95%CI 1.41–2.66; OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.05–1.35; and OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.38–2.32, respectively). The sensitivity analysis including two more years, 2017 and 2018, confirmed that female patients and comorbidity were risk factors for IHM in patients with diabetes regardless of whether it was during the pandemic era or before. We conclude that the frequency of cardiac procedures among people with diabetes declined in 2020. IHM did not change significantly in the COVID-19 era.
  • Publication
    Reversal of the Upward Trend of Obesity in Boys, but Not in Girls, in Spain
    (MPDI, 2021-02-11) Albaladejo Vicente, Romana; Villanueva Orbaiz, Rosa; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Santos Sancho, Juana María; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Regidor Poyatos, Enrique
    Background: To compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys and girls and to estimate socioeconomic differences associated with obesity in Spain in 1997, 2007, and 2017. (2) Methods: Data were drawn from national health interview surveys. For each year of study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was measured, and these results were compared by gender (boy/girl) and socioeconomic status (low/high education). (3) Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity rose from 1997 to 2007 but then fell in 2017 in all subgroups except in girls aged 10 to 15 years. In this group, there was a steady increase in the prevalence of both overweight (1997, 14.6%; 2007, 17.7%; 2017, 19.6%) and obesity (1.1, 3.2, and 3.7%, respectively). The decrease in prevalence of overweight in both sexes and of obesity in boys, along with the increase in prevalence of obesity in girls, was of a higher magnitude in children whose parents had a lower educational level. (4) Conclusions: The apparent turnaround in the obesity epidemic in Spain should be interpreted with caution. Children’s body weight is influenced by both gender and socioeconomic status—considerations that should be kept in mind when designing health promotion interventions
  • Publication
    Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Use and Outcomes of Cardiac Procedures in COPD Patients
    (MDPI, 2022-07-05) Miguel Díez, Javier de; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Miguel Yanes, Jose M. de; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Zamorano León, José J.; Noriega, Concepción; López de Andrés, Ana
    (1) Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use and outcomes of cardiac procedures among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Spain. (2) Methods: We used national hospital discharge data to select patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of COPD from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020. (3) Results: The number of COPD patients hospitalized in 2019 who underwent a cardiac procedure was 4483, 16.2% higher than in 2020 (n = 3757). The length of hospital stay was significantly lower in 2020 than in 2019 (9.37 vs. 10.13 days; p = 0.004), and crude in-hospital mortality (IHM) was significantly higher (5.32% vs. 4.33%; p = 0.035). Multivariable logistic regression models to assess the differences in IHM from 2019 to 2020 showed Odds Ratio (OR) values over 1, suggesting a higher risk of dying in 2020 compared to in 2019. However, the ORs were only statistically significant for “any cardiac procedure” (1.18, 95% CI 1.03–1.47). The Charlson comorbidity index increased IHM for each of the procedures analyzed. The probability of IHM was higher for women and older patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft or open valve replacement procedures. Suffering a COVID-19 infection was associated with significantly higher mortality after cardiac procedures. (4) Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic limited the access to healthcare for patients with COPD.
  • Publication
    Physical activity among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain (2014-2020): Temporal trends, sex differences, and associated factors
    (Elsevier, 2023-11-09) Llamas Saez, Carlos; Saez Vaquero, Teresa; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; López De Andrés, Ana Isabel; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Zamorano León, José Javier; Cuadrado Corrales, María Natividad; Omaña Palanco, Ricardo; Miguel Díez, Javier De; Pérez Farinós, José Napoleón
    Objectives: To evaluate trends in the prevalence of physical activity (PA) from 2014 to 2020; to identify sex differences and sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with PA in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and to compare PA between individuals with and without COPD. Methods: Cross-sectional and case-control study. Source: European Health Interview Surveys for Spain (EHISS) conducted in 2014 and 2020. We included sociodemographic and health-related covariates. We compared individuals with and without COPD after matching for age and sex. Results: The number of adults with COPD was 1086 and 910 in EHISS2014 and EHISS2020, respectively. In this population, self-reported “Medium or high frequency of PA” remained stable (42.9% in 2014 and 43.5% in 2020; p = 0.779). However, the percentage who walked on two or more days per week rose significantly over time (63.4%–69.9%; p = 0.004). Men with COPD reported more PA than women with COPD in both surveys. After matching, significantly lower levels of PA were recorded in COPD patients than in adults without COPD. Multivariable logistic regression confirmed this trend in COPD patients and showed that male sex, younger age, higher educational level, very good/good self-perceived health, and absence of comorbidities, obesity, and smoking were associated with more frequent PA. Conclusions: The temporal trend in PA among Spanish adults with COPD is favorable, although there is much room for improvement. Insufficient PA is more prevalent in these patients than in the general population. Sex differences were found, with significantly more frequent PA among males with COPD
  • Publication
    Clinical Characteristics, Management, and In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction According to Sex and the Presence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    (MPDI, 2022-02-14) Méndez Bailón, Manuel; Lorenzo Villalba, Noel; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Miguel Yanes, José María de; Miguel Díez, Javier de; Muñoz Rivas, Nuria; Andrès, Emmanuel; López de Andrés, Ana
    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for the development of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Aims: (1) To describe and compare the clinical characteristics and the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures among subjects hospitalized with HFrEF according to the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and sex; (2) to assess the effect of T2DM and sex on hospital outcomes among the patients hospitalized with HFrEF using propensity score matching (PSM); and (3) to identify which clinical variables were associated to in-hospital mortality (IHM) among the patients hospitalized with HFrEF and T2DM according to their sex. Methods: A retrospective cohort study from 2016 to 2019 using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database was conducted. The diagnosis and procedures were codified with the International Classification of Disease 10th version (ICD10). Subjects aged ≥ 40 with a primary diagnosis of HFrEF were included. We included those patients with a diagnosis of T2DM in any diagnosis position. The descriptive statistics used were total and relative frequencies (percentages), means with standard deviations, and medians with an interquartile range. To control the effect of confounding variables when T2DM patients and non-T2DM patients were compared, we matched the cohorts using PSM. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify which study variables independently affected the IHM among men and women with HF and T2DM. Also, this multivariable method was applied for sensitivity analyses to confirm the results of the PSM. Results: A total of 28,894 patients were included. T2DM was present in 39.59%. Women with T2DM more frequently had atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, anemia, dementia, depression, and hyponatremia than men with T2DM. However, men had more coronary heart disease, chronic renal disease, COPD, and obstructive sleep apnea. All the procedures were significantly more commonly used among men than women. Blood transfusion was the only procedure more frequently identified among women with T2DM. For the sensitivity analysis in patients with T2DM hospitalized with HFrEF, we confirmed the results of the PSM, finding that women had a 14% higher risk of dying in the hospital than men (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.01–1.35). Obesity seemed to have a protective effect (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73–0.98) on the in-hospital morality. Conclusions: Subjects with diabetes are admitted for HFrEF and have a greater number of comorbidities than non-diabetics. Diabetic women have a higher mortality rate than men with diabetes and all the procedures evaluated were significantly more often used among men than women.
  • Publication
    Sex Differences in Temporal Trends in Hospitalizations and In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Sarcoidosis in Spain from 2001 to 2020
    (MDPI, 2022-09-13) López Muñiz Ballesteros, Belén; Noriega, Concepción; López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Zamorano León, José Javier; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Miguel Díez, Javier de
    (1) Background: We aimed to analyze temporal trends in hospitalization and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients with sarcoidosis in Spain from 2001–2020. (2) Methods: Using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database, we included patients (aged ≥ 20 years) hospitalized with a sarcoidosis code in any diagnostic field. (3) Results: We included 44,195 hospitalizations with sarcoidosis (56.34% women). The proportion of women decreased over time, from 58.76% in 2001 and 2002 to 52.85% in 2019 and 2020 (p < 0.001). The crude rates per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 4.02% per year among women and 5.88% among men. These increments were confirmed using Poisson regression analysis, which yielded an IRR of 1.03; 95% CI 1.01–1.04 for women and 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.06 for men. During the study period, no significant sex differences in IHM were recorded. Older age, COVID-19, respiratory failure, and the need for mechanical ventilation were independent predictors of IHM in men and women hospitalized with sarcoidosis, with IHM remaining stable over time. (4) Conclusions: The number of hospital admissions among patients with sarcoidosis in Spain increased threefold from 2001 to 2020. Although the incidence rates were higher in women, the trend followed that the incidence rates between sexes became closer. IHM was similar among men and women, with no significant change over time in either sex after multivariable analysis.
  • Publication
    Trends of Non-Traumatic Lower-Extremity Amputation and Type 2 Diabetes: Spain, 2001–2019
    (MPDI, 2022-02-25) López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Miguel Díez, Javier de; Miguel Yanes, Jose M. de; Omaña Palanco, Ricardo; Carabantes Alarcón, David
    (1) Background: To examine trends in the incidence (2001–2019), clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes following major and minor non-traumatic lower-extremity amputations (LEAs) among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Spain, assessing possible sex differences. (2) Methods: Retrospective cohort study using data from the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate incidence trends, and multivariable logistic regression to estimate factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM). (3) Results: LEA was coded in 129,059 patients with T2DM (27.16% in women). Minor LEAs accounted for 59.72% of amputations, and major LEAs comprised 40.28%. The adjusted incidences of minor and major LEAs were higher in men than in women (IRR 3.51; 95%CI 3.46–3.57 and IRR 1.98; 95%CI 1.94–2.01, respectively). In women, joinpoint regression showed that age-adjusted incidence of minor LEAs remained stable over time, and for major LEAs, it decreased from 2006 to 2019. In men, incidences of minor and major LEAs decreased significantly from 2004 to 2019. In-hospital mortality (IHM) increased with age and the presence of comorbidity, such as heart failure (OR 5.11; 95%CI 4.61–5.68, for minor LEAs and OR 2.91; 95%CI 2.71–3.13 for major LEAs). Being a woman was associated with higher IHM after minor and major LEA (OR 1.3; 95%CI 1.17–1.44 and OR 1.18; 95%CI 1.11–1.26, respectively). (4) Conclusions: Our data showed major sex differences indicating decreasing and increasing LEA trends among men and women, respectively; furthermore, women presented significantly higher IHM after minor and major LEA procedures than men.
  • Publication
    The Influence of Atrial Fibrillation on In-Hospital Mortality in People with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: An Observational, Sex-Stratified Study
    (MPDI, 2022) Miguel Yanes, José María de; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Miguel Díez, Javier de; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Méndez Bailón, Manuel; Zamorano León, José J.; López de Andrés, Ana
    (1) Background: The study aimed to analyze the influence of atrial fibrillation (AF) prior to hospital admission (“prevalent”) and new-onset AF diagnosed during hospital admission (“incident”) on in-hospital mortality (IHM) in women and men who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in Spain (2016–2019). (2) Methods: We used the Spanish Register of Specialized Care-Basic Minimum Database. (3) Results: We analyzed 38,814 cases of HAP (34.6% women; 13.5% ventilator-associated). Prevalent AF was coded in 19.9% (n = 7742), and incident AF in 5.5% (n = 2136) of HAP. Crude IHM was significantly higher for prevalent AF (34.22% vs. 27.35%, p < 0.001) and for incident AF (35.81% vs. 28.31%, p < 0.001) compared to no AF. After propensity score matching, IHM among women and men with prevalent AF was higher than among women and men with no AF (among women, 32.89% vs. 30.11%, p = 0.021; among men, 35.05% vs. 32.46%, p = 0.008). Similarly, IHM among women and men with incident AF was higher than among women and men with no AF (among women, 36.23% vs. 29.90%, p = 0.013; among men, 35.62% vs. 30.47%; p = 0.003). Sex was associated with a higher IHM only in people with incident AF (for female, OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01–1.57). (4) Conclusions: Both prevalent and incident AF were associated with higher IHM in people who developed HAP. Female sex was associated with a higher IHM in incident AF.
  • Publication
    Trends in asthma hospitalizations among adults in Spain: Analysis of hospital discharge data from 2011 to 2020
    (Elsevier, 2022-10-12) Caballlero Segura, Francisco; López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez García, Rodrigo; Miguel Yanes, José María de; Hernández Barrera, Valentín; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Zamorano León, José Javier; Miguel Díez, Javier de
    Aims: To analyze trends in asthma hospitalizations in patients over 15 years of age in Spain. To identify possible changes in incidence, demographic characteristics, clinical conditions, and outcomes. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective epidemiological study using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database and included all patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of asthma from 2011 to 2020. Results: A total of 1,102,923 patients were hospitalized with a code for asthma in any diagnostic position; of these, 153,749 (13.94%) had asthma coded as the primary diagnosis (asthma exacerbation). The number of patients with an asthma exacerbation decreased over time, from 15,356 in 2011 to 8804 in 2020. In-hospital mortality (IHM) remained low (around 1.5%) and stable in this subgroup of patients. When the diagnosis of asthma appeared in any diagnostic position, hospitalizations increased for all ages and sexes. In this case, a significant change was observed for IHM, which increased from 3.27% in 2011–12 to 4.36% in 2019–20 (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for IHM in both cases were age over 65 years, need for mechanical ventilation, and associated diagnoses of pneumonia, heart disease, or atrial fibrillation. In contrast, obesity was a predictor of lower mortality. Conclusion: Our results suggest a decline in the incidence of hospitalizations for asthma exacerbations from 2011 to 2020. In contrast, the number of patients with asthma in any diagnostic position increased progressively, as did mortality, probably owing to an increase in comorbidities in a gradually ageing population.