Person: Trigo Aza, María Dolores
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Biodiversidad, Ecología y Evolución
Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
PublicationSoil functionality at the roadside: Zooming in on a microarthropod community in an anthropogenic soil(Elsevier, 2013-08-26) Magro Ruiz, Sandra; Gutiérrez López, Mónica; Casado González, Miguel Ángel; Jiménez Escobar, María Dolores; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Mola, Ignacio; Balaguer Núñez, LuisEarth movements for road construction give rise to nutrient-poor anthrosols. Early onset of soil processes in these environments has been reported on the basis of plant cover establishment. Evidences of full soil functionality, however, would reveal the emergence of a self-sustainable ecosystem on these manmade substrates. The aims of the present study involved (1) assessing soil functionality on six-year-old road embankments by means of the QBS index, based on microarthropod communities (2) elucidating soil properties responsible for the composition of soil microartrhopod communities, and (3) exploring the practical implications of soil quality for road embankment management. Road embankments were functional with QBS values comparable to those found in natural systems (>100). Soil quality in these environments depended on soil organic carbon dynamics. Among the 36 arthropod groups found, Acari and Collembola dominated the soil community. Variation in microarthropod community composition was best explained by higher abundances of Brachypilina (Oribatida, Acari) and Symphypleona (Collembola). These trends in soil community structure were intimately linked to soil organic carbon content, clay content and humidity. Given its relevance, the acknowledgment of the early functionality attained by these roadside anthrosols should lead to the revision of current protocols for roadslope monitoring and management. PublicationGeostatistical and multivariate analysis of the horizontal distribution of an earthworm community in El Molar (Madrid, Spain)(2007) Hernández Gordo, Patricia; Fernández, Rosa; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.The earthworm community in El Molar (Madrid) is studied, and its distribution patterns and relation with some soil factors are described by using geostatistic and multivariate tools. Six species were found, Hormogaster elisae, Allolobophora rosea and Allolobophora caliginosa being the three most abundant ones. These speciesexhibited a clumped distribution. The most dominant species, H. elisae, was distributed in patches of an average size of 45m in spring and more than 100m inautumn. A. rosea was aggregated in patches of an average size of 22m and A. caliginosa formed patches of an average size of 38 m. There seemed to be a positive correlation between the abundance of H. elisae and the percentage of total and coarse sands, as well as a negative correlation with clay, nitrogen, carbon and coarse loams contents, opposite to what was observed for A. rosea. PublicationPredicting soil micro-variables and the distribution of an endogeic earthworm species through a model based on large-scale variables(Elsevier, 2015-02) Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Refoyo Román, Pablo; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández García, Rosa Mª; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.Studies on spatial patterns of distributions of soil dwelling animals have usually relied on soil micro-variables or statistical analyses based on presence/absence data. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allow easy access to large-scale variables to build species distribution models. In this study, we used MaxEnt to model the distribution of the endogeic earthworm Hormogaster elisae. Significant differences were found between the predicted suitability values of localities where the species was present and those where it was absent, validating the predictive model. Most of the large-scale training variables showed significant correlation with soil micro-variables known to influence the biology of the species, proving the ability of the model to predict (to an extent) soil variables from environmental ones. The methodology could be extended to other soil fauna. PublicationThe lab In A box: A take-out practical experience for an online invertebrate biology course(Wiley, 2021-03-12) Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Sánchez Santos, Nuria; Gutiérrez López, Mónica; Cánovas, Rosario G.; Pardos Martínez, Fernando; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.Hands-on experience is critical to teaching invertebrate zoology, as students are unfamiliar with many animals and theoretical concepts are sometimes difficult to assimilate. As part of a fully online course, we decided to give students a box of take-home materials so that they could do hands-on work in their homes under the guidance of the teacher or at their own pace following the lecture scripts and presentations. The box contained whole specimens fixed in ethanol for observation and dissection, dried material such as skeletons and shells, and microscope slides. We also included a USB digital microscope to facilitate visualization of details and slides. The experience was very satisfying and proved to be not only a good alternative for mandatory online classes in times of pandemic, but also an interesting resource to supplement face-toface classes. PublicationDoes sediment composition sort kinorhynch communities?. An ecomorphological approach through geometric morphometrics(Nature Publishing Group, 2020-02-13) Cepeda Gómez, Diego; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Pardos Martínez, Fernando; Sánchez Santos, NuriaEcomorphology studies the relationship between organisms’ morphology and environment features. To better understand whether the shape of the body and the appendages involved in the movement is correlated to sediment composition in meiofaunal organisms, we study the evolved morphological adaptations to environment in selected taxa of the phylum Kinorhyncha: the allomalorhagid families Dracoderidae and Pycnophyidae, and the cyclorhagid genus Echinoderes. The selected taxa include the most diverse groups of Kinorhyncha worldwide, representing the 75.5% of the total phylum diversity. Widened, plump bodies and lateral terminal spines may be adaptive for species living in coarse, more heterogeneous sediments, as they could maintain a more powerful musculature to actively displace the sediment grains applying a greater force. Conversely, slender, vermiform bodies and lateral terminal spines would represent an adaptation of species inhabiting fne, more homogeneous sediments where there would not be much need to exert a high force to displace the sediment particles, and a more vermiform shape would even favour the burrowing of the animal through the smaller interstices. The studied kinorhynch taxa would also be adapted to the higher velocity of the sea-water and the intense erosion and transportation of heterogeneous sediments by possessing more robust bodies, avoiding getting laid of substratum under these conditions. These fndings provide evolutionary evidence that body shape in the studied kinorhynch groups is adapted to environment. PublicationEvaluating evolutionary pressures and phylogenetic signal in earthworms: a case study – the number of typhlosole lamellae in Hormogastridae (Annelida,Oligochaeta)(Oxford University Press, 2016-09) Marchán, Daniel F.; Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández, Rosa; Sosa, Irene de; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Díaz Cosín, Darío J.Rarely have phylogenetic comparative methods been used to study the correlation between phenotypic traits and environmental variables in invertebrates. With the widespread convergence and conservativeness of the morphological characters used in earthworms, these comparative methods could be useful to improve our understanding of their evolution and systematics. One of the most prominent morphological characters in the family Hormogastridae, endemic to Mediterranean areas, is their multilamellar typhlosole, traditionally thought to be an adaptation to soils poor in nutrients. We tested the correlation of body size and soil characteristics with the number of typhlosole lamellae through a phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) analysis. An ultrametric phylogenetic hypothesis was built with a 2580-bp DNA sequence from 90 populations, used in combination with three morphological and 11 soil variables. The best-supported model, based on the Akaike information criterion, was obtained by optimizing the parameters lambda (k), kappa (j), and delta (d). The phylogenetic signal was strong for the number of typhlosole lamellae and average body weight, and was lower for soil variables. Increasing body weight appeared to be the main evolutionary pressure behind the increase in the number of typhlosole lamellae, with soil texture and soil richness having a weaker but significant effect. Information on the evolutionary rate of the number of typhlosole lamellae suggested that the early evolution of this character could have strongly shaped its variability, as is found in an adaptive radiation. This work highlights the importance of implementing the phylogenetic comparative method to test evolutionary hypotheses in invertebrate taxa. PublicationEarthworm abundance response to conservation agriculture practices in organic arable farming under Mediterranean climate(Elsevier, 2018) Baldivieso Freitas, Paola; Blanco Moreno, José M.; Gutiérrez López, Mónica; Peigné, Joséphine; Pérez Ferrer, Alejandro; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Sans, Francesc XavierEarthworms are one of the most important soil macrofaunal groups, and they play a major role in agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural practices, such as reduced tillage, the use of green manures and organic fertilization, can be beneficial for earthworm populations in agricultural systems. However, under a Mediterranean climate, not much is known regarding their response to agricultural management. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of tillage type, organic fertilization, and green manures on the density and biomass of earthworms in organic arable dryland. The trial was conducted in a four-year crop rotation with a complete factorial design that combined tillage system (mouldboard ploughing vs. chisel), fertilization (composted farmyard manure vs. no fertilizer) and green manures (green manures vs. no green manures). Earthworms were assessed in each plot by the extraction of all individuals in three soil areas of 33 cm × 33 cm that were excavated to a depth of 25 cm. Only five earthworm species were found in this trial, and the earthworm community was dominated by such endogeic ecotypes as Aporrectodea roseaand Allolobophora georgii, and the anecic ecotype Aporrectodea trapezoides.Endogeic species can benefit from soil inversion because of the incorporation of organic matter, but the anecic ones can be negatively affected by it. The results show that plots with farmyard manure had higher density and biomass of earthworms. We observed that the type of tillage significantly affected earthworm populations: plots that had been ploughed with mouldboard ploughing (soil inversion) the year prior to sampling presented more juveniles. The biomass of earthworms was significantly lower in plots with green manures and chiselling. Our results indicated that the combination of chiselling and green manures were not optimal for earthworm populations, but organic fertilization played a considerably more important role and enhanced their abundances. PublicationIntegración de impactos ecológicos causados por plantas exóticas invasoras: propuesta metodológica(Asociación Española de Ecología Terrestre, 2015-01) Castro Díez, Pilar; Gutiérrez López, Monica; Medina Villar, Silvia; Pérez Corona, Esther; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Vázquez de Aldana, Beatriz R.Tanto en España como en Europa existen demasiadas plantas exóticas invasoras para poder afrontar la gestión de todas ellas, por lo que es necesario priorizar las más nocivas. Sin embargo, ello requiere disponer de medidas cuantitativas, sistemáticas y comparables de su impacto. La información disponible es desigual en cuanto a los criterios y variables para medir impactos y por tanto difícil de integrar. Proponemos el siguiente método para integrar medidas de impactos procedentes de distintos estudios: 1) Búsqueda de casos de estudio, 2) cálculo de tamaños del efecto; 3) clasificación de los casos por nivel de organización, 4) integración de los tamaños del efecto para cada especie y nivel de impacto con técnicas de meta-análisis, y 5) estima de un índice de fiabilidad (basado en el número de casos) y otro de consistencia (basado en la heterogeneidad entre casos). Aplicamos este método para estimar los impactos en España de tres árboles invasores (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila). Encontramos 50 casos para A. altissima, 39 para R. pseudoacacia y 15 para U. pumila. Los impactos en el nivel de ecosistema (fertilidad) fueron los más estudiados, mientras que los de comunidad e individuo están menos documentados. Robinia pseudoacacia tiende a incrementar la fertilidad, mientras que A. altissima no altera esta propiedad. La metodología propuesta tiene la ventaja de permitir estimar el impacto con datos de estudios diversos, pero su aplicación está limitada por la disponibilidad de casos de estudio. PublicationUnearthing the historical biogeography of Mediterranean earthworms (Annelida:Hormogastridae)(Wiley, 2015-04) Novo Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández, Rosa; Fernández Marchán, Daniel; Trigo Aza, María DoloresAim: The genetic diversity and distribution of earthworm species in the Mediterranean Basin has been influenced by their low vagility, as well as by the basin’s complex geological and climatic history. Within this context, our objective was to evaluate the evolutionary history of hormogastrid earthworms by exploring their phylogeny, reconstructing ancestral areas and identifying potential vicariance and dispersal events. Location: Western Mediterranean region, encompassing the geographical range of the family Hormogastridae (four genera, 30 species and subspecies). Methods: We sampled the easternmost area of the hormogastrid range and integrated 606 new sequences with all the molecular data available from previous studies on the westernmost area. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were amplified and sequenced, and the hormogastrid phylogeny (using Bayesian and likelihood methods) and networks were investigated. Ancestral-area reconstructions were implemented in rasp. Results: Ancestral-area reconstructions provided similar results for alternative phylogenetic hypotheses, placing the origin of Hormogastridae between southern France and the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, and highlighting north–central Sardinia as a key ancestral area for diversification of eastern Hormogastridae (Hormogaster redii and H. samnitica). Multiple vicariance and dispersal events were detected, indicating a complex evolutionary history. Sardinian populations of H. samnitica and H. redii were not monophyletic but were related to populations from other areas, suggesting that Sardinia is a more complex biogeographical region than anticipated. Our results identified a phylogenetic relationship between the southern Sardinian fauna and that of Sicily, as well as relationships between the fauna of north-eastern Sardinia and those of the Italian Peninsula and the Tuscan Archipelago. Main conclusions: Our results suggest a complex evolutionary history for hormogastrid earthworms, showing the possibility of many dispersal and vicariance events and multiple faunal interchanges between land-masses, which may reflect the biogeographical complexity of the Mediterranean Basin. PublicationBisphenol A in artificial soil: Effects on growth, reproduction and immunity in earthworms(Elsevier, 2018-01) Verdú, I.; Trigo Aza, María Dolores; Martínez Guitarte, J. L.; Novo Rodríguez, MartaThe application of biosolids in agricultural fields is increasing annually. They contain not only nutrients but also xenobiotics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA). These compounds are not regulated in the use of biosolids in agriculture, which highlights the need to assess their effects on soil life, of which earthworms are most abundant of the animal representatives. In this study the effect of BPA on life-history parameters, such as mortality, growth and reproduction, and on immunity, is evaluated for Dendrobaena veneta and Eisenia fetida. Sublethal concentrations were evaluated by a modified OECD artificial soil test. Decline in growth with increasing concentration of BPA was detected during the first two weeks and the opposite effect for the next two, although these differences were only significant at the highest concentration. Reproduction traits were only significantly different for E. fetida, for which the number of juveniles decreased at higher concentrations, thus showing different sensitivity in both species. By using a contact test, the potentially harmful effect of direct contact with BPA was shown to be much higher than in soil (resembling natural) conditions. Finally, results indicate that BPA may not affect the immune system of these animals, at least in terms of coelomocyte viability.