Person: Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Faculty / Institute
Educación-Centro Formación Profesor
Didáctica de Ciencias Experimentales, Sociales y Matemáticas
Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales
Now showing 1 - 10 of 29
PublicationLower Miocene gypsum palaeokarst in the Madrid Basin (central Spain): dissolution diagenesis, morphological relics and karst end-products(Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2002) Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo; Calvo Sorando, José Pedro; Sanz Montero, M. EstherThe Miocene sedimentary record of the Madrid Basin displays several examples of palaeokarstic surfaces sculpted within evaporite formations. One of these palaeokarstic surfaces represents the boundary between two main lithostratigraphic units, the Miocene Lower and Intermediate units of the Madrid Basin. The palaeokarst formed in lacustrine gypsum deposits of Aragonian age and corresponds to a surface palaeokarst (epikarst), further buried by terrigenous deposits of the overlying unit. Karst features are recognized up to 5.5 m beneath the gypsum surface. Exokarst and endokarst zones are distinguished by the spatial distribution of solution features, i.e. karren, dolines, pits, conduits and caves, and collapse breccias, sedimentary fills and alteration of the original gypsum across the karst profiles. The development of the gypsum palaeokarst began after drying out of a saline lake basin, as supported by recognition of root tubes, later converted to cylindrical and funnel-shaped pits, at the top of the karstic profiles. The existence of a shallow water table along with low hydraulic gradients was the main factor controlling the karst evolution, and explains the limited depth reached by both exokarst and endokarst features. Synsedimentary fill of the karst system by roughly laminated to massive clay mudstone with subordinate carbonate and clastic gypsum reflects a punctuated sedimentation regime probably related to episodic heavy rainfalls typical of arid to semi-arid climates. Duration of karstification is of the order of several thousands of years, which is consistent with previous statements that gypsum karstification can develop rapidly over geologically short time periods. PublicationMediation of endoevaporitic microbial communities in early replacement of gypsum by dolomite: a case study from Miocene lake deposits of the Madrid basin, Spain(SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 2006) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo; Calvo Sorando, José PedroBased on petrographic, mineralogical, isotope, and facies assemblage analysis, a microbial origin is established for the formation of dolomite associated with gypsum in Miocene evaporite lake deposits of the Madrid Basin, central Spain. In these deposits, dolomite is present as both intercalated carbonate beds, locally showing domal stromatolite structures between packages of selenite Christmas tree-like gypsum, and patches replacing macrocrystalline gypsum. Texture of the dolomite is characterized by crystal aggregates showing a variety of crystal sizes and morphologies, e.g., platelets, rhombs, micro-rods, and rings, whilst larger crystals are commonly spherical and/or wheat-grain shaped. Organic remains, in the form of filaments, shrubs, micro-fibrils, and strands, are also common and contain significant amounts of carbon. These textural features are also recognized in dolomite replacing gypsum, where Fe oxide and sulfide as well as celestite are ubiquitous mixed with the dolomite groundmass. The dolomite, whether primary or replacing gypsum, is poorly ordered and slightly Ca-rich, thus non stoichiometric. Stable-isotope compositions are characterized by negative values for both oxygen and carbon. Dolomite beds featuring domal stromatolites have ð18O values ranging from 22.99‰ and 23.79‰ and ð13C values ranging from 24.67‰ and 27.35‰, whilst ð13C values determined in the dolomite replacive of gypsum shows a small range of variation between 25.70‰ and 26.96‰. By contrast, ð18O values of replacive dolomite oscillate in a wider range (from 23.04‰ to 27.99‰). Formation of the dolomite was associated mainly with microbial mats, having taken place in relatively diluyed lake water. Further evaporative concentration resulted in precipitation of gypsum crystals sealing the mats and creating endoevaporitic microenvironments in which endolithic cyanobaterial activity produced extensive boring and corrosion of the gypsum crystals. Hiatuses in gypsum growth caused an intensification of the corrosion process and favored the precipitation of dolomite mediated by microbes, resulting in pervasive replacement of the sulfate. PublicationProcesos de sedimentación y biomineralización en la laguna alcalina de las Eras (Humedal Coca-Olmedo)(Sociedad Geológica de España, 2013) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Arroyo, Xabier; Cabestrero, Óscar; Calvo Sorando, José Pedro; Fernández Escalante, Enrique; Fidalgo, Concepción; García del Cura, M. Ángeles; García-Avilés, Javier; González-Martín, J. Antonio; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo; Rovira Sanroque, José VicenteLa Laguna de Las Eras es uno de los pequeños y someros cuerpos de agua, que forman el humedal de la zona Coca-Olmedo (cuenca del Duero), caracterizado por su elevada alcalinidad, lo que constituye un rasgo singular dentro de Europa. La laguna presenta una salmuera de tipo Na-Mg-ClSO4 y su superficie está colonizada por tapices microbianos, donde se desarrollan estructuras sedimentarias inducidas por los microorganismos (MISS). Se reconocen diversos minerales autigénicos asociados a los tapices: thenardita, hidromagnesita,sulfatos y fosfatos magnésicos, azufre y halita. Junto a éstos destacan, por ser carbonatos atípicos en Europa, natrón y trona. El estudio petrográfico de los precipitados revela que éstos guardan una estrecha relación con las estructuras microbianas, sugiriendo cierta influencia de los microorganismos en la precipitación mineral.Los tapices microbianos de la laguna de Las Eras constituyen buenos análogos para comprender los procesos geobiológicos y ahondar en la reconstrucción paleoambiental de los lagos alcalinos que han existido desde el Arcaico. PublicationDepósitos de magnesita en la Cuenca de Calatayud: facies y asociaciones mineralógicas(Sociedad Geológica de España., 2000) Pozo, M.; Sanz Rubio, E.; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo; Casas Sainz de Aja, J.; Calvo Sorando, José Pedro; Cañaveras, Juan CarlosSedimentary magnesite is largely present in the Miocene evaporite formations (Lower and Intermediate units) of the Calatayud Basin (NE Spain). Magnesite deposits are forming part of sedimentary sequences corresponding to hypersaline and moderate-to-high concentrated saline lakes. Both field and mineralógica! studies show that magnesite is associated with a wide range of lithofacies, but most commonly with phyllosilicates and gypsum. Trioctahedral clay minerals (Mg-smectites) were identified in mudflat environments of the hypersaline Lower Unit, probably formed by transformation of inherited phases in Mg and Si-rich saline-alkaline environments. Moderate to well ordered smectites (diocta-trioctahedral) in green clay lithofacies in absence of magnesite suggest a genetic competition forming magnesite or Mg-smectite. In contrast, the exclusive presence of illite associated with interestratified illite/smectite in sequences that correspond to moderate-to-high concentrated saline lakes could result from illitization processes of smectites in Mg-K-rich environments, under periodical dry/wet cycles. PublicationSilicate bioweathering and biomineralization in lacustrine microbialites: ancient analogues from the Miocene Duero Basin, Spain(Cambridge University Press, 2009) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan PabloThe Miocene dolomite-chert microbialites studied here offer a complete record of the geochemical cycles of silicate weathering and the subsequent formation of secondary products. The microbialites were formed in lacustrine systems during the Miocene of the Duero Basin, central Spain. Mineralogical, chemical and petrographic results provide evidence of the mediation of microbes in early weathering and by-product formation processes. Irrespective of the composition, the surfaces of the grains were subject to microbial attachment and concomitant weathering. Palaeo-weathering textures range from surface etching and pitting to extensive physical disaggregation of the minerals. Extreme silicate weathering led to the complete destruction of the silicate grains, whose prior existence is inferred from pseudomorphs exhibiting colonial textures like those recognized in the embedding matrix. Detailed petrographic and microanalytical examinations of theweathering effects in K-feldspars show that various secondary products with diverse crystallinity and chemical composition can coexist in the interior of a mineral. The coexistence of by-products is indicative of different microenvironmental conditions, likely created by microbial reactions. Thus, the presence of varied secondary products can be used as a criterion of biogenicity. Intensive alteration of P-bearing feldspars suggests that mineral weathering may have been driven by the nutrient requirements of the microbial consortium involved in the precipitation of dolomite. The rock record provides useful information on mineral weathering mediated by microbes. PublicationParticipación microbiana en la formación de magnesita dentro de un ambiente lacustre evaporítico: Mioceno de la Cuenca de Madrid(Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 2008-09) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo PublicationMagnesite formation by microbial activity: Evidence from a Miocene hypersaline lake(Elsevier, 2012) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan PabloThis paper provides an ancient analogue for biologically mediated magnesite in lacustrine hypersaline environments. Thin beds of massive to crudely laminated magnesitic marls occur interbedded with mudstone and evaporite facies deposited in a saline lake-mudflat sedimentary system during the Lower Miocene in the Madrid Basin, Central Spain. Exposure of this succession in a recently excavated tunnel and in collected cores offered a good opportunity to study magnesite precipitates that have been preserved in unaltered conditions by primary evaporitic minerals. Specifically, magnesite arranged as host matrix between and enclosed by displacive halite and glauberite crystals occurs closely associated with abundant microfossils embedded in sheets of organic matter, interpreted as the remains of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Even, many magnesite clots are seen to have resulted from the agglutination of fossilized bacterial bodies forming a biofilm. The close and pervasive association of microorganisms and magnesite is used as evidence that microbes played a fundamental role in the precipitation of this mineral. Additional traces of microorganisms and microbial activity observed in magnesite beds include the isotopic ratios in the carbonates, with the δ13C(PDB) value averaging −6.2‰, the presence of carbonaceous film-like structures and the association with patchly-distributed pyrite and celestite minerals. On the basis of the combined sedimentological, mineralogical, chemical and morphological signatures of the magnesitic deposits, it is postulated that carbonate crystals precipitated in microbial mats. Magnesite crystals together with celestite, local barite, and/or pyrite have been also observed to replace silicate and sulphate minerals. It is suggested that magnesite precipitation was biochemically coupled with the early dissolution of the associated sedimentary minerals. Microbes may have used the associated minerals as source of energy and/or of essential elements. PublicationIndicadores biológicos en evaporitas. Implicaciones en procesos de bioformación y bioalteración mineral (Mioceno, Cuenca de Madrid)(Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 2010-09) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo PublicationDolomite–silica stromatolites in Miocene lacustrine deposits from the Duero Basin, Spain: the role of organotemplates in the precipitation of dolomite(International Association of Sedimentologists, 2008) Sanz Montero, María Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo; García del Cura, María ÁngelesThis research provides an ancient analogue for biologically mediated dolomite precipitation in microbial mats and biofilms, and describes the involvement of highly structured extracellular polymeric secretion (EPS) templates in dolomite nucleation. The structure of EPS is shown to match the hexagonal– trigonal lattice geometry of dolomite, which favoured the epitaxial crystallization of dolomite on the organic substrate. This structure of EPS also matches the arrangement of silica nanospheres in opal, which further accounts for the organically-templated formation of opal enabling the nonreplacive co-existence of dolomite and silica. The study is focused on a 50 m thick dolomite succession that is exposed in central areas of the Tertiary Duero Basin and was deposited in a mudflat-saline lake sedimentary complex during the Middle to Late Miocene (9 to 15 Ma). In the intermediate intervals of the succession, poorly indurated dolomite beds pass gradually into silica beds. On the basis of sedimentological, compositional, geochemical and petrographic data, silica and dolomite beds have been interpreted as mineralized microbial mats. The silica beds formed in marginal areas of the lake in response to intense evaporative concentrations; this resulted in the rapid and early precipitation of opal. Silicification accounted for the exceptional preservation of the microbial mat structure, including biofilms, filamentous and coccoid microbes, and EPS. Extracellular polymeric secretions have a layered structure, each layer being composed of fibres which are arranged in accordance with a reticular pattern, with frequent intersection angles at 120 and 60 . Therefore, the structure of EPS matches the lattice geometry of dolomite and the arrangement of silica nanospheres in opal. Additionally, EPS binds different elements, with preference to Si and Mg. The concurrence of suitable composition and surface lattice morphologies in the EPS favoured the crystallization of dolomite on the substrate. In some cases, dolomite nucleation took place epicellularly on coccoid micro-organisms, which gave way to spheroid crystals. Organic surfaces enable the inorganic mineral precipitation by lowering the free energy barrier to nucleation. Most of the microbial mats probably developed on the lake floor, under sub-aqueous conditions, where the decomposition of organic matter took place. The subsequent formation of openly packed dolomite crystals, with inter-related Si-enriched fibrils throughout, is evidence for the pre-existence of fibrillar structures in the mats. Miocene dolomite crystals are poorly ordered and non-stoichiometric, with a slight Ca-excess (up to 5%), which is indicative of the low diagenetic potential the microbial dolomite has towards a more ordered and stoichiometric structure; this confirms that microbial imprints can be preserved in the geological record, and validates their use as biosignatures. PublicationBioinduced precipitation of barite and celestite in dolomite microbialites Examples from Miocene lacustrine sequences in the Madrid and Duero Basins, Spain(Elsevier, 2009) Sanz Montero, M. Esther; Rodríguez Aranda, Juan Pablo; García del Cura, M. ÁngelesThis paper provides an ancient analogue for biologically mediated celestite and barite formation in dolomite precipitating microbial mats developed in lacustrine environments during the Miocene. Barite and celestite occurrences were studied in three temporally and spatially separated sedimentary successions: S1 and S2 in the Madrid Basin and S3 in the Duero Basin. In S1, macrocrystalline selenite gypsum occurs as laterally continuous beds; in the two other successions (S2 and S3), calcite pseudomorphs of lenticular gypsum aggregates are hosted in dolomite beds as evidence for the former presence of this evaporite. In S1, only celestite is associated with dolomite. Celestite crystals occur as both intergrown clusters, concentrated in pockets likely created by the dissolution of intrasedimentary anhydrite precursors, and as single precipitates associated with dolomite masses that replace selenite gypsum. Celestite crystals are nucleated commonly on organic substances that are pervasively associated with them. In S2 and S3, scarce single celestite crystals are restricted to calcite pseudomorphs after gypsum, whereas barite is the sulphate precipitated in the pseudomorphs' surroundings. Barite is commonly present as patchy poikilotopic crystals which include microbial structures and is embedded in organic matter. Additionally, barite is found as a secondary precipitate within Ba-bearing feldspars. Feldspar weathering is, thus, envisaged as amajor source of barium at these sites. Petrographical, isotopic and compositional observations point out that the barite and celestite formation was not caused by abiological processes only. Rather, the patchy distribution of the sulphates, close links to organic matter with biogenic isotope signatures, and inclusion of microbial structures, such as biologically mediated dolomite, provides evidence for the involvement of microbes in the formation of the sulphates. The coprecipitation of barite and celestite with dolomite entails complex interactions between different microorganisms and reinforces the biological formation of dolomite in saline lakes.